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Theme3 spain and portugal
 

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    Theme3 spain and portugal Theme3 spain and portugal Presentation Transcript

    • The Portuguese Empire History 140 By Ryan Babers
    • History of Portugal
      • Dates back to early Middle Ages
      • Roman name- Portus Cale, and early settlement located at the mouth of the Duro River
      • 2000 B.C. Romans took the Iberian Peninsula from the Carthaginians during the 2nd Punic Wars. Renamed Portus Cale (Port of Cale)
      • The name would eventually evolve into Portugal
      • Almost all of the peninsula was annexed to the Roman Empire
      • The Carthaginians were expelled from their coastal colonies
      • Rome installed a colonial regime, and Lusitania Grew in prosperity and many of modern day Portugal’s cities were founded
      • 15th & 16th century Portugal Ascended to world power status during European Age of Discovery
      • Military decline with battle of Alcacer Wuibir in Morocco 1578 and Spain’s aborted attempt to conquer England in 1588
    • Portuguese history cont.
      • Early 5th century Germanic tribes, the Suevi & Buri invaded the Iberian peninsula and colonized Gallaecia (Modern Northern Portugal and Galicia)
      • The Buri settled in the region Terras de Boiro (Lands of the Buri)
      • In 711 A.D. the Islamic Moors (Berbers & Arabs) from North Africa invaded the peninsula and destroyed the Visigothic kingdom
      • War broke out after the Moors kicked the Goths out and they fought to reclaim land. Known as war of Reconquest
      • In 1065 Portugal gained it’s independence under rule of Garcia II due to Feudal power struggles, Portuguese and Garcian nobles rebelled
      • The country rejoined under Garcia II’s brother, Alfonso VI of Leon
      • On June 24, 1128, Portugal officially declares its national origin with the battle of Sao Mamede
      • Alfonso proclaimed himself first prince of Portugal and eventually first King of Portugal
      • In 1249 to 1250 the Algarve (Southernmost Region) was reconquered from the Moors
      • Portugal advanced in maritime, geographic, mathematical technology
    • The Portuguese Empire
      • Also known as the Portuguese Overseas Empire or Portuguese Colonial Empire
      • Was the first global empire in history
      • Longest-lived of the modern European colonial empires spanning almost 6 centuries
      • With recent gains in science and technology, Portuguese sailors started to explore the coast of Africa in 149 to find a sea route to the valuable Asian spice trade market
      • In 1500, Pedro Alvares accidentally discovers Brazil
      • A string of outposts or “padroes” were created along African, Middle Eastern, and Asian coastlines
      • Between 1580 & 1640 Portugal partnered with Spain but ruled separately
      • Portugal became subject of attacks by France, Britain, and the Netherlands due to new partnership with Spain which also began the decline for Portugal
      • During the 17th century, Portuguese trade monopoly collapsed in the Indian Ocean with losses to the Dutch in Portuguese India and Southeast Asia
      • Brazil had become Portugal’s prized possession until Brazil broke away in 1822
      • Portuguese empire was reduced to colonies on the African coastline
    • Colonial Brazil
      • In 1500 Pedro Alvares Carbal landed in Brazil and made claim under King Manuel I of Portugal
      • Portuguese extracted brazil wood from the rainforest for it’s value and red dye
      • The Treaty of Tordesillas signed in 1494 created the Tordestillas Meridian, dividing the world between the Kings of Portugal & Castile (Spain)
      • All Land discovered or to be discovered east of the meridian was to be property of Portugal, west of it Spain
      • Treaty was most likely the most decisive event in Brazilian history
      • The Treaty of Madrid likewise mapped out Brazil’s coastline
      • In 1534, King John III divided land into 15 captavies of Brazil which were given to Portuguese noblemen
      • Only Pernambuco and San Vicente prospered
      • Most captaincies failed due to the resilience of indigenous peoples, shipwrecks, and internal disputes, between the colonies
      • City of Olinda prospered from sugarcane mills which sugar was very valuable to Europe empires at the time
    • Colonial Brazil
      • Sao Vincente profited more traffic of indigenous slaves
      • A large fleet led by Tome de Sousa set sail to Brazil to establish a government in the colony
      • Tome became the first Governor-General of Brazil
      • He established the capital City, Sulvador da Bahia (Northeastern Brazil)
      • During the establishment of the government much of the inhabitants rebelled and resisted
      • In 1763, the capital was moved to Rio de Janeiro
      • Governor Tome brought over the first Jesuits who also helped in the founding of Rio de Janeiro
      • Most Jesuits were successful at converting the natives due to the understanding of their culture
      • During 1530-1700, Brazil profited from it’s sugarcane industry as well as its cotton and tobacco but declined with competition from the French and Dutch
    • The Spanish Empire
    • The History of Spain
      • Rome in the 4th century much like the Portuguese ruled most of present day Spain in the Iberian Peninsula (known as Hispania)
      • After the Roman empire had collapsed from invading Germanic tribes, the Iberian Peninsula was controlled mostly by the Visigoths
      • Some of the late Roman empire’s influence remained with the Visigothic empire
      • With the arrival of the Moors in the 8th century, they had begun to control much of the Iberian Peninsula
      • The Battle of Covadonga had signified a Muslim defeat and under King Pelagrus of Asturias a monarchy was created being one of the first stages of the Reconquista
      • The spread of Christianity had rivaled Islam rule in the area and drove out many Muslims however, they had influence the peninsula with their technology, culture, and society
      • During the reconquista, new Christian kingdoms arose
      • The Kingdom of Castile and Kingdom of Aragon had become most important kingdoms
      • The Catholic monarchs, Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon married in 1469 laying down the foundation for the Kingdom of Spain
      • In 1492 Christopher Columbus had been authorized to explore the “New World” and was the first European to do so
      • Isabella had strategize for long-term political stability by arranging special marriages for her five children
      • A vast majority of Jews and Muslims from former Islam rule and Jewish settlement were given an ultimatum to convert to Christianity or face expulsion from Spain
      • Gypsies who also inhabited the area also shared the same fate or were ordered for execution
    • Habsburg Spain
      • Hapsburg Spain is the history of Spain over 16th & 17th centuries (1506-1700) where Spain was ruled by the major branch of the Hapsburg dynasty under Charles V and Philip II of Spain
      • Spain had reached its peak under Hapsburg rule and began to decline near the end of the 17th century
      • The Spanish Habsburg had created the first de facto unified state in the Iberian Peninsula with the inclusion of Portugal
      • Through several political changes, Spain eventually was united under a single ruler, Ferdinand II of Aragon
      • Before Ferdinand II’s rise to power a confederacy was in place if kingdoms: Aragon, Castile, Leon, and Navarre
      • In 1516m Ferdinand II died which led to the ascension of the young Charles to the throne as Charles I of castile and Aragon which founded the monarchy of Spain
      • Charles had inherited all of the new world claimed by Spain
      • With territorial Habsburg acquisitions, Charles eventually would become Emperor Charles V
    • Hapsburg Spain
      • France facing being surrounded by Habsburg territories invaded Spain’s territories mostly in Italy and Navarre (2nd Franco-Spanish conflict)
      • France was easily defeated and forced to abandon Milan again
      • After the death of Charles in 1558, Philip II came to power and repelled the French once more
      • Spain relied heavily on it’s assets overseas
      • It’s most important colonial city establishment in the new world was Mexico city in 1524 which served as an administrative HQ in the region
    • The Spanish Empire
      • The Spanish empire was one of the first modern global empires and one of the largest in world history
      • Religion played a very strong role in the spread of the Spanish empire
      • The ideology that Spain could bring Christianity to the new world played a strong role in the expansion of Spain’s empire
      • Spanish sea exploration and expansion opened up trade routes across the Atlantic to the Americas and across the Pacific between East Asia and Mexico through the Philippines
      • After arrival, Spanish conquistadors had disintegrated the Aztec, Inca, and Mayan governments
      • Spain was dominating the seas and hit a cultural golden age in the 16th & 17th centuries
      • Disease had wiped out much of the natives in Spain’s new territories who were seen as potential growth to their economy
      • Spain experienced a golden age in the 17th century which was a period of arts and letter in the Spanish empire coinciding with the political decline and fall of the Habsburgs
      • A Greek artist El Greco settled in Spain and infused Spanish art with Italian renaissance styles and helped create a unique Spanish style of painting
      • Spanish literature was also in the spotlight that showcased the famous work of Miguel de Cervantes and Lope de Vega
      • Hernan Cortez had achieved Spanish conquest of the Aztec empire in 1519-521
      • The new territory would become Viceroyalty of New Spain or present day Mexico
      • The conquest of the Incas by Francisco Pizarro was of equal significance as well (Viceroyalty of Peru)
      • In the Pacific (1565), the Spanish made its first Spanish settlement in the Philippines founded by Miguel Lopez de Legazpi and the service of Manila galleons was instituted
      • The galleons shipped goods from all over Asia across the Pacific to the Mexican coast
      • Goods would then be shipped to Spanish treasure fleets for shipment to Spain
      • The Spanish post of Manila was established for trade in 1572
      • The islands of Guam, Mariana Islands, Caroline Islands, and Palau followed
    • Struggle & Survival in Colonial America: The people of the Portuguese and Spanish Colonies in America
    • (Por) Damiana da Cunha
      • (Female) , Tribal group: Caiapo
      • Origin: Goias, Brazil
      • Luis da Cunha is the godfather of Damiana
      • Damiana is the Indian heroine of Goias- granddaughter of Angrai-oxa
      • Was a teacher, missionary, mediator, frontierswoman, and expedition leader
      • Was baptized and given the Christian name, Damiana in honor of her godfather
      • In her teenage years she went to live in the new village of Maria Primera as a hostage in the governor’s household to be raised in European fashion as an ambassador of (Caiapo)
      • She may have possibly attended a domestic school in spinning cotton and weaving on wooden looms where she had received extensive training from non-white women
      • Her 1st husband from Portugal left but she remarried to a Brazilian Manuel Pereira da Cruz, a civilian, former militia corporal, and poor Mulatto peasant
      Present day Goias, Brazil
    • Damiana continued
      • Damiana lived in the context of the late colonial aldeia , the secular descendant of the old frontier mission-station of earlier times
      • Her ideals regarding the conditions of Indian life were developed there
      • She had distinguished herself as a communal leader
      • Supporter of the church and mediator between inhabitants and colonial and Brazilian state
      • Principal Indian leader of the community
      • She Died in 1831
    • (Por) Catarina de Monte Sinay
      • Female, Nun and Entrepreneur
      • Desterro Convent of Bahia Brazil
      • Became Madre Catarina de Monte Sinay (Nun)
      • Vowed to God, the Virgin, Saint Francis, and Saint Clare she would forever honor her sacred promise to live in poverty, chastity, and obedience
      • Signified a spiritual wedding; “Bride of Christ”
      • For 6 years she lived as a pupil and secular ward of the nuns
      • Bahia was the leading sugar producer but lost it’s edge to British, French, and Dutch Islands emerging as sugar producers in the Caribbean and pacific
      • Bahia was left in a state of depression
    • Catarina continued
      • The church had been so well integrated with the natural order in Bahia which was known as the Bay of All Saints and All Sinners
      • Catarina felt her relationship with God was direct and immediate because of her passion for the lord
      • She had been drawn to the faith by the procession, the colors, the rhythm of movement and sound
      • She also felt purified by performing such rituals and believed the convent life was satisfying. She had participated in elaborate rituals
      • The convent life provided her with companionship of her sister and other friends
      • Catarina felt the humility within taking much interest in her intelligence and skill at business and financial dealings
      • She had accumulated an immense amount of wealth from her father and herself which she had made profits from making sweets
      • Most of her wealth she had given away
    • (Esp.) Diego Vasicuio
      • Male, Native priest of Peru
      • Mission was to convert Indians of Peru into sincere, observant Catholics
      • He and others were influential member(s) of Indian communities, and worked through individual, informal contacts with their neighbors to hand down Gods and gospels from one generation of believers to another
      • Was taught to recite proper prayers and perform the specific ceremonies of the cult
      • Diego and other had been key elements to converting the Indians of Peru
      • He had defended the Sormina Cult from a parish priest who wanted to eradicate them
      • Diego was over 90 years at the time he had testified to the parish priest
      • He had left his home to serve in the militia or to find a praying job to meet tribute obligations
    • Diego continued
      • Due to heavy deaths in the mita mines, he had to serve in the mita more frequently than hoped
      • The working conditions had been brutal for many Indians who made up majority of the workers
      • The mid 17th century saw the cult flourishing again
    • (Esp.) Isabel Moctezuma
      • Aztec female, Mexico-New Spain
      • (Donas Isabel (Tecuichpo Ixcaxochitzin) - daughter of Moctezuma II
      • Daughter of Emperor and Cathololic queen of Spain
      • Devout Catholic and Hispanicized woman who bridged the worlds of Spanish and Indian together
      • Was a symbol of great legal and sociological importance to the Hispanization and Christianization of Mexico
      • Awarded encomienda of Tacuba by Hernan Cortes
      • Encomienda would provide her with a suitable dowry for marriage which was seem as a signifier to the evangelization of Mexico
      • Mix of races in New Spain was to be founded on principle of the legitimate grounds of holy matrimony, providing a solid matrix for a new society
      • Isabel was thought to hasten evangelization of the country
      • Had become wife of Cortes (as mistress)
    • Isabel continued
    • (Esp.) Miguel Hernandez
      • Male, free mulatto (mixed black/white ancestry)
      • Born in Mexico city
      • Lived a good, full life in the 16th century
      • Married with kids, his wife a Mexican Indian (Aztec)
      • Miguel faced racism, at the time life was difficult for people of mixed blood
      • Very average man who wasn’t spiritual or adventurous
      • Has a distinct signature, was literate, and wrote out worlds
      • Unusual for mulattos, blacks, and Indians
      • Legitimate son of Pedro & Ana Hernandez
      • 2nd generation Mexican
    • Miguel continued
      • Was a muleteer- A person who drives mules
      • Moved to the provinces for opportunities to avoid harsh racism in city
      • The town of Queretaro promoted economic growth that generated social opportunities
      • Miguel became one of the leading mulatto citizens (due to his skills and traits)
      • He had become friends with commoners and higher class citizens, whites
      • Defied stereotypes
      • Constructed own freighting business
      • Many of his friends had lived next to him
    • (Esp.) Micaeia Angela Carrillo
      • Female, Mexico-New Spain
      • Labored fields, manufactured pulque, a intoxicating drink, proded, rode horseback
      • Her daughter Maria Antonia also participated in same work
      • Prior to her death Micaeia provided her kids with property and training in a craft
      • Lived in Nuestra Senora de Asucron Amozoque, a predominantly Indian village near Puebla de los Angeles
      • Puebla was in a good location for commercial trade between the colonial capital and its principal port
    • Micaeia continued
      • Puebla was in a good location for commercial trade between the colonial capital and its principal port
      • Amozoque was comprised of Spaniards, mestizos, and malattoes, and also some local Indians
      • Dona Micaela and her family rented and owned lands within Indian Amozoque
      • Micaela had purchased land worth more than 1000 pesos
      • She married a cacique, Juan Tapia y Luna and increased her nobility in the town
      • They occupied a halfway position between Indian and Spanish society. They embraced the privileges of the Indian nobility
      • Her husband died in 1730 and had begun to rent maguey plants on other people’s land
      • The plants sap had helped Micaeia raise her kids and supported her with wealth