Big History


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Big History

  1. 1. Big History History 140 July, 24,2011 Professor Arguello by Ryan Babers
  2. 2. What is Big History?• Big History is looking at the past through all time scales• Evolution of ideologies and studies from the Cold War & Space Race
  3. 3. Coffee as an Example of Big History • What is the origin of coffee? • Origins of coffee are connected to many historic events: • Slave trade, Sugar plantations, workers, factories, smuggling, climate change • First coffee drinkers were Ethiopian • Dutch East India company • Planted beans where they thought it will grow • Coffee break created to give workers a break • Sugar important to sweetening of coffee • Sugar comes from the sugar plantations which slaves were used to work plantations
  4. 4. The Day The Universe Changed• Humans as a whole are curious• “We” like to dismantle things to see how it works• Have changed and adapted to various situations, events• As a comparison, Westerners are bothered by curiosity and questions whereas Easterners already have the answers and don’t change but rather live in the past (Like Buddhism, Islam)
  5. 5. The Journey of Man• Geneticist and Anthropologist Dr. Spencer Wells traveled to Africa to look for the origins of man• Facial features of various people around the world found in San tribe• San tribe split from rest and traveled upland into Eurasia• Information comes from blood that tells about the past, people carry chapter in their in our genes (DNA)• Lucca first man to look at blood as a time machine to the past• “Everyone is somewhat related”• Family lines are traced through the blood line/type• The tree is like the family which it has branches that resemble the generations and members of that family
  6. 6. Catastrophe!
  7. 7. Catastrophe!• Krakatoa is a massive volcano near Indonesia• About 535A.D. volcano erupted that sent ash and dust into the air causing serious damage• Led to droughts, famine, and then floods• 542 A.D. first record of the bubonic plague that infected rats leading to outbreak in humans• Keyes: “Outbreaks are related to climate change”• Climate change can alter history• Plague, rats driven toward cooler temperature, wet climate• Temps allow bacteria to flourish• Plague traced to African lakes where diseases are prominent• Ships could of brought disease to other places• Plague and constant siege by Avar barbarians brought Roman empire to knees further destabilizing the empire.
  8. 8. Guns, Germs, Steel
  9. 9. Guns, Germs, Steel• Out of Eden: • Conquest:• Local native Yali asks, “Why white people have • The Incas (modern Peru) only had the llama as so much goods but his people have little of their their domestic animal own?” • Geography which was a big part of accessing• New Guineans have ingenuity and smarts resources was mostly disadvantageous to Incas• About the have and have nots • Horses and steel were technological advantages• Hunter gathering takes a lot of effort to feed to conquistadors everyone • Swords became a standard of Spaniard• Site in Jordan over 11,000 years old found mud- conquistadors and was a sign of class & rank built homes with wheat and barley farms • Spanish missionaries tried to impose their• First farmers of the world religion on the local populations• Domestication • Spanish conquest led to the destruction of the• New Guineans been using one of the earliest Inca, Aztec, and Mayan empires due to war, farming methods approx 10,000yrs disease, and inferior technology• New Guinea crops less nutritious than other crops• Europeans had plows whereas New Guineans do not• Overexploiting crops and resources forced migrations
  10. 10. The World in 1492 & Columbuss World• 1492 Christopher Columbus embarks on his voyage that would take him to the “new world” mistakenly• Columbus is seen as a single minded, stubborn, but big thinker• Marco Polo inspired Columbus’ expedition• Columbus knew that spices instead of gold and diamonds were valued more• Amazed of far east treasures he sailed hoping to find Asia where many sought after goods were• Columbus thought the newly discovered Americas was Asia• Muslims challenged Columbus and other European empires religiously, Militarily, and Economically• Muslims respected trade and commerce which they controlled the Asian trade routes• Columbus’ arrival to the Americas had brought the destruction of it’s inhabitants
  11. 11. The World & Trade: The EuropeanVoyages and How the World Changes • Columbus brought horses to the new world • Some of his voyages took him to Trinidad and South America • Goods such as wheat, root vegetables, and corn are also imported by Columbus • Shortly after landfall Spaniard Hernan Cortez makes launches his campaign in Mexico southward • Horses and cattle brought to Americas and adopted into Native American culture • Cattle ranched for hide rather meat • Potato had become food of Peruvians • Europeans profited from slave trade, plantations which many slaves died from poor treatment • South American crops such as beans, cocoa, and peanuts become a trading export to Europeans and the rest of the world