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  • 1. Big History History 140 July, 24,2011 Professor Arguello by Ryan Babers
  • 2.
    • Big History is looking at the past through all time scales
    • Evolution of ideologies and studies from the Cold War & Space Race
    What is Big History?
  • 3. Coffee as an Example of Big History
    • What is the origin of coffee?
    • Origins of coffee are connected to many historic events:
    • Slave trade, Sugar plantations, workers, factories, smuggling, climate change
    • First coffee drinkers were Ethiopian
    • Dutch East India company
    • Planted beans where they thought it will grow
    • Coffee break created to give workers a break
    • Sugar important to sweetening of coffee
    • Sugar comes from the sugar plantations which slaves were used to work plantations
  • 4. The Day The Universe Changed
    • Humans as a whole are curious
    • “ We” like to dismantle things to see how it works
    • Have changed and adapted to various situations, events
    • As a comparison, Westerners are bothered by curiosity and questions whereas Easterners already have the answers and don’t change but rather live in the past (Like Buddhism, Islam)
  • 5. The Journey of Man
    • Geneticist and Anthropologist Dr. Spencer Wells traveled to Africa to look for the origins of man
    • Facial features of various people around the world found in San tribe
    • San tribe split from rest and traveled upland into Eurasia
    • Information comes from blood that tells about the past, people carry chapter in their in our genes (DNA)
    • Lucca first man to look at blood as a time machine to the past
    • “ Everyone is somewhat related”
    • Family lines are traced through the blood line/type
    • The tree is like the family which it has branches that resemble the generations and members of that family
  • 6. Catastrophe!
  • 7. Catastrophe!
    • Krakatoa is a massive volcano near Indonesia
    • About 535A.D. volcano erupted that sent ash and dust into the air causing serious damage
    • Led to droughts, famine, and then floods
    • 542 A.D. first record of the bubonic plague that infected rats leading to outbreak in humans
    • Keyes: “Outbreaks are related to climate change”
    • Climate change can alter history
    • Plague, rats driven toward cooler temperature, wet climate
    • Temps allow bacteria to flourish
    • Plague traced to African lakes where diseases are prominent
    • Ships could of brought disease to other places
    • Plague and constant siege by Avar barbarians brought Roman empire to knees further destabilizing the empire.
  • 8. Guns, Germs, Steel
  • 9. Guns, Germs, Steel
    • Out of Eden:
    • Local native Yali asks, “Why white people have so much goods but his people have little of their own?”
    • New Guineans have ingenuity and smarts
    • About the have and have nots
    • Hunter gathering takes a lot of effort to feed everyone
    • Site in Jordan over 11,000 years old found mud-built homes with wheat and barley farms
    • First farmers of the world
    • Domestication
    • New Guineans been using one of the earliest farming methods approx 10,000yrs
    • New Guinea crops less nutritious than other crops
    • Europeans had plows whereas New Guineans do not
    • Overexploiting crops and resources forced migrations
    • Conquest:
    • The Incas (modern Peru) only had the llama as their domestic animal
    • Geography which was a big part of accessing resources was mostly disadvantageous to Incas
    • Horses and steel were technological advantages to conquistadors
    • Swords became a standard of Spaniard conquistadors and was a sign of class & rank
    • Spanish missionaries tried to impose their religion on the local populations
    • Spanish conquest led to the destruction of the Inca, Aztec, and Mayan empires due to war, disease, and inferior technology
  • 10. The World in 1492 & Columbus's World
    • 1492 Christopher Columbus embarks on his voyage that would take him to the “new world” mistakenly
    • Columbus is seen as a single minded, stubborn, but big thinker
    • Marco Polo inspired Columbus’ expedition
    • Columbus knew that spices instead of gold and diamonds were valued more
    • Amazed of far east treasures he sailed hoping to find Asia where many sought after goods were
    • Columbus thought the newly discovered Americas was Asia
    • Muslims challenged Columbus and other European empires religiously, Militarily, and Economically
    • Muslims respected trade and commerce which they controlled the Asian trade routes
    • Columbus’ arrival to the Americas had brought the destruction of it’s inhabitants
  • 11. The World & Trade: The European Voyages and How the World Changes
    • Columbus brought horses to the new world
    • Some of his voyages took him to Trinidad and South America
    • Goods such as wheat, root vegetables, and corn are also imported by Columbus
    • Shortly after landfall Spaniard Hernan Cortez makes launches his campaign in Mexico southward
    • Horses and cattle brought to Americas and adopted into Native American culture
    • Cattle ranched for hide rather meat
    • Potato had become food of Peruvians
    • Europeans profited from slave trade, plantations which many slaves died from poor treatment
    • South American crops such as beans, cocoa, and peanuts become a trading export to Europeans and the rest of the world