Big History

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Big History

  1. 1. Big History History 140 July, 24,2011 Professor Arguello by Ryan Babers
  2. 2. <ul><li>Big History is looking at the past through all time scales </li></ul><ul><li>Evolution of ideologies and studies from the Cold War & Space Race </li></ul>What is Big History?
  3. 3. Coffee as an Example of Big History <ul><li>What is the origin of coffee? </li></ul><ul><li>Origins of coffee are connected to many historic events: </li></ul><ul><li>Slave trade, Sugar plantations, workers, factories, smuggling, climate change </li></ul><ul><li>First coffee drinkers were Ethiopian </li></ul><ul><li>Dutch East India company </li></ul><ul><li>Planted beans where they thought it will grow </li></ul><ul><li>Coffee break created to give workers a break </li></ul><ul><li>Sugar important to sweetening of coffee </li></ul><ul><li>Sugar comes from the sugar plantations which slaves were used to work plantations </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Day The Universe Changed <ul><li>Humans as a whole are curious </li></ul><ul><li>“ We” like to dismantle things to see how it works </li></ul><ul><li>Have changed and adapted to various situations, events </li></ul><ul><li>As a comparison, Westerners are bothered by curiosity and questions whereas Easterners already have the answers and don’t change but rather live in the past (Like Buddhism, Islam) </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Journey of Man <ul><li>Geneticist and Anthropologist Dr. Spencer Wells traveled to Africa to look for the origins of man </li></ul><ul><li>Facial features of various people around the world found in San tribe </li></ul><ul><li>San tribe split from rest and traveled upland into Eurasia </li></ul><ul><li>Information comes from blood that tells about the past, people carry chapter in their in our genes (DNA) </li></ul><ul><li>Lucca first man to look at blood as a time machine to the past </li></ul><ul><li>“ Everyone is somewhat related” </li></ul><ul><li>Family lines are traced through the blood line/type </li></ul><ul><li>The tree is like the family which it has branches that resemble the generations and members of that family </li></ul>
  6. 6. Catastrophe!
  7. 7. Catastrophe! <ul><li>Krakatoa is a massive volcano near Indonesia </li></ul><ul><li>About 535A.D. volcano erupted that sent ash and dust into the air causing serious damage </li></ul><ul><li>Led to droughts, famine, and then floods </li></ul><ul><li>542 A.D. first record of the bubonic plague that infected rats leading to outbreak in humans </li></ul><ul><li>Keyes: “Outbreaks are related to climate change” </li></ul><ul><li>Climate change can alter history </li></ul><ul><li>Plague, rats driven toward cooler temperature, wet climate </li></ul><ul><li>Temps allow bacteria to flourish </li></ul><ul><li>Plague traced to African lakes where diseases are prominent </li></ul><ul><li>Ships could of brought disease to other places </li></ul><ul><li>Plague and constant siege by Avar barbarians brought Roman empire to knees further destabilizing the empire. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Guns, Germs, Steel
  9. 9. Guns, Germs, Steel <ul><li>Out of Eden: </li></ul><ul><li>Local native Yali asks, “Why white people have so much goods but his people have little of their own?” </li></ul><ul><li>New Guineans have ingenuity and smarts </li></ul><ul><li>About the have and have nots </li></ul><ul><li>Hunter gathering takes a lot of effort to feed everyone </li></ul><ul><li>Site in Jordan over 11,000 years old found mud-built homes with wheat and barley farms </li></ul><ul><li>First farmers of the world </li></ul><ul><li>Domestication </li></ul><ul><li>New Guineans been using one of the earliest farming methods approx 10,000yrs </li></ul><ul><li>New Guinea crops less nutritious than other crops </li></ul><ul><li>Europeans had plows whereas New Guineans do not </li></ul><ul><li>Overexploiting crops and resources forced migrations </li></ul><ul><li>Conquest: </li></ul><ul><li>The Incas (modern Peru) only had the llama as their domestic animal </li></ul><ul><li>Geography which was a big part of accessing resources was mostly disadvantageous to Incas </li></ul><ul><li>Horses and steel were technological advantages to conquistadors </li></ul><ul><li>Swords became a standard of Spaniard conquistadors and was a sign of class & rank </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish missionaries tried to impose their religion on the local populations </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish conquest led to the destruction of the Inca, Aztec, and Mayan empires due to war, disease, and inferior technology </li></ul>
  10. 10. The World in 1492 & Columbus's World <ul><li>1492 Christopher Columbus embarks on his voyage that would take him to the “new world” mistakenly </li></ul><ul><li>Columbus is seen as a single minded, stubborn, but big thinker </li></ul><ul><li>Marco Polo inspired Columbus’ expedition </li></ul><ul><li>Columbus knew that spices instead of gold and diamonds were valued more </li></ul><ul><li>Amazed of far east treasures he sailed hoping to find Asia where many sought after goods were </li></ul><ul><li>Columbus thought the newly discovered Americas was Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Muslims challenged Columbus and other European empires religiously, Militarily, and Economically </li></ul><ul><li>Muslims respected trade and commerce which they controlled the Asian trade routes </li></ul><ul><li>Columbus’ arrival to the Americas had brought the destruction of it’s inhabitants </li></ul>
  11. 11. The World & Trade: The European Voyages and How the World Changes <ul><li>Columbus brought horses to the new world </li></ul><ul><li>Some of his voyages took him to Trinidad and South America </li></ul><ul><li>Goods such as wheat, root vegetables, and corn are also imported by Columbus </li></ul><ul><li>Shortly after landfall Spaniard Hernan Cortez makes launches his campaign in Mexico southward </li></ul><ul><li>Horses and cattle brought to Americas and adopted into Native American culture </li></ul><ul><li>Cattle ranched for hide rather meat </li></ul><ul><li>Potato had become food of Peruvians </li></ul><ul><li>Europeans profited from slave trade, plantations which many slaves died from poor treatment </li></ul><ul><li>South American crops such as beans, cocoa, and peanuts become a trading export to Europeans and the rest of the world </li></ul>

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