Managing Foreign Policy Third generation policy analysis Recognizes the complex interactions among policy statutes, stakeholders, implementers, and sociopolitical environments. Policy outcomes do not rely only on design, but also implementation. Policy implementation is technical, political , calls for consensus building, participation, conflict resolution and compromise, contingency planning, and adaptation.
Implementation of EducationalSystem Changes Please watch the brief video If unable to view in slide show mode, here is the link: http://youtu.be/lOXPehn9QCc
Since the late 1980’s policy reform in developing countries has taken place within the context of democratization. Democratic Governance can be defined by the following features High levels of transparency and accountability Provides for increased citizenship participation Permits the incorporation of views from a range of societal groups in the formulation of policies
Characteristics of PolicyChange Stimulus for policy change often comes from sources outside of government Policy change decisions are highly political Those most actively involved in policy change tend to be technocrats Reformers are frequently new to government and unfamiliar with the environment for policy implementation. In most cases, resources need to carry out policy change do not exist or are in the wrong place. Policy change requires that government organizations adapts and modify to new tasks.
The Nature of PolicyImplementation Implementing policies is different from implementing programs Policy implementation is rarely a linear, coherent process No single agency can manage the policy implementation effort Policy implementation creates winners and losers New polices generally do not come with budgets
Policy Implementation as a Set ofTasks Legitimization Constituency building Resource Accumulation Organizational design and modification Mobilizing resources and actions
What is a Stakeholder? A stakeholder is an individual or group that makes a difference or that can affect or be affected by the achievement of the organization’s objectives. Stakeholder analysis should be performed when the policy is being formulated and the when the implementation strategy is being formulated.
Policy Characteristics Analysis4 Types of Public Policy Questions to Ask Distributive: uses public resources to By asking questions, reformers can have a better produce goods and services to a subset of understanding of the policies that they are the population. Ex: land policies implementing. Regulatory: government shapes, monitors, and controls the action and What does the policy do? behaviors of private and nongovernmental What is the desired impact of the policy entities or citizens. Ex. Pollution policies or reform? banking regulations Where did the impetus for the policy come Redistributive: specifies the use of public from? resources for various purposes, and Who decided to pursue this policy and why? benefits and costs are broadly distributed. What is the nature of the policy benefits and Ex. Tax policies, social safety nets, to whom do they accrue? education policy. What is the nature of the costs of the policy Constitutive: procedural and rule making reform and who bears them? policies concerning the staffing and What is the degree and complexity of the operations of government. Ex. Civil service changes brought about by the new policy? policies, rules governing political parties, What is the duration of the policy change zoning regulations, and laws mandating process? public participation. What institutions are involved in implementing the policy? How administratively intense or technically complex is the new policy?
Political and Institutional MappingThere are many different actors within the political system whose roles change during thepolicy process. Political mapping can be used to organize information about politics byillustrating the most important actors and their relationships to one another. Actors include the government, external actors (foreign embassies, multinationalcorporations), social sectors, political parties, and pressure groups.
Policy Mapping Techniques Micro Political Mapping can clarify the distribution of support for specific issues, indicate how certain sectors will react to particular policies, and clarify the positions of different organizations within the same sector. Policy Network Maps can be used to concentrate on a particular policy idea and target the most important stakeholders. Force Field Analysis is used to illustrate support and opposition to a particular policy, especially when there is not sufficient time to develop a full micro-political map. Click on image for more information on Force Field Analysis
Brief Interview with DerickBrinkerhoff Short interview with Brinkerhoff discussing the delivery of services from government and organizations and building legitimacy.If unable to see in slide show, here’s the link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mWUY_ZnY80o
Trade-Offs In policy implementation you must consider the trade-offs and often decide how different outcomes in policy impact your clients or audience. Common trade-offs can be between money and goods and services or weighing privately borne costs against social benefits. Trade offs occur in the margin The word EXTRA is used to keep you focused on the margin. Establish Commensurability Money is often used as a measure of commensurability. It works, but there are limits(Multi-attribute problem). Break even analysis can be used so solve commensurability problems. Think of trade offs as projected outcomes rather than alternatives.
Simplify the ComparisonProcessEliminate Weaker Alternatives Compare to Base Case Eliminate any Base cases can be alternative that is clearly dominated by set up as a at least one other benchmark to Look for alternatives compare to other that would be sets of projected dominated if you weighted one criterion outcomes. less heavily than other criteria.
Deciding Even if you aren’t the main decision maker, pretend that you are and decide based on your analysis. If you’re have difficulty making a decision, there may be some areas of analysis that haven’t been completely clarified for you. “Unless you can convince your self of the plausibility of some course of action, you probably won’t be able to convince your client – and rightly so” $20 dollar Bill Test
Tell Your Story to an Audience First do a reality check Apply the Grandma Bessie Test. Can you explain the who, what, where, why, and how in a way that is easy for someone not familiar with policy can understand? Gauge your Audience This includes your client, organizational superiors, or funders. The larger political environment. – who will use your analysis? Consider what medium to use Communicate simply and clearly in written or oral form Give your Story a logical narrative flow. Keep the audience’s needs, interests, and abilities in mind.. Structure your report Unless it’s short, begin with an executive summary. Include a table of contents, headings, subheadings, tabl es, charts, and references to keep
Getting Started withImplementation Start with what you know and create a research strategy that includes certain predictable information Locating relevant sources Gaining and maintain access to sources Accumulating background information as leverage Protecting political credibility
Locating Relevant Sources Consult both documents and people. Avoid the pitfall of valuing one type over the other since policy research relies on both types of resources. People can lead to more people and documents and documents can lead to more documents and people creating the four basic branches of the tree of knowledge. People leading to people People leading to documents Documents leading to documents Documents leading to people.
Questions/Discussions Question One (Focus on Brinkerhoff &Crosby pages 24-47) Think of a program or project (group) that you had to implement and briefly describe. How did you strategically manage the tasks? If it wasn’t strategically managed, what strategies suggested by the authors would you use? What were the similarities and differences in between tasks needed for policy implementation and program/project implementation? Question Two Review the policy characteristics questions in Brinkerhoff & Crosby pages 157-159. After reading the case study (chapters 1 and 2), are all of these questions applicable to the World Bank’s policy implementation on forestry? Choose and answer three of the questions and apply them to the Papua New Guinea case study.