Two spirit- or berdache was a term created in 1990 in Winnipeg during the third annual inter-tribal Native American/First Nations gay and lesbian conference, to describe Native Americans who fulfill one of many mixed gender roles found traditionally among many Native Americans and Canadian First Nations indigenous groups.
Facilitator Notes: The key words in this definition are “Enduring” and “Attraction.”
Facilitator Notes: Gay refers to both men and women who are attracted to persons of the same sex.
Lesbian is the term used for women who are romantically and sexually attracted to other women. Note: contemporary women often use the term gay .
Pansexuality (also referred to as pans), or omnisexuality is a sexual orientation, characterized by the potential for aesthetic attraction, romantic love, or sexual desire towards people, regardless of their gender identity or biological sex.
Polysexuality refers to people who are attracted to more than one gender or sex but do not wish to identify as bisexual because it implies that there are only two binary genders or sexes.
Asexuality (also known as nonsexuality) in its broadest sense, describes lack of sexual attraction, or interest in or desire for sex. Sometimes, it is considered a lack of a sexual orientation. One commonly cited study placed the incidence rate of asexuality at 1%.
Facilitator Notes: Before I reveal the answer to answer #1 I ask participants what they have heard cause sexual orientation, shout out the reasons, even if they don’t believe it themselves.
Before I reveal the answer to #2, I ask participants t o reflect on a specific time they felt attracted to someone. I ask them to think about whether that feeling of attraction felt ll ike a choice.
Answers: It is important to realize that there are probably numerous factors that may determine sexual orientation and those factors may also be different from person to person.
The more important question is: why would it matter if it were a choice? Assuming that this would be a problem indicates a lingering belief that being LGBT would be a bad thing, a quality one should not choose.
3.) Reparative therapy seeking to change sexual orientation is not endorsed by the AMA or APA and is outlawed in NJ and CA Furthermore, there is no reason why we should be trying to change sexual orientation. Being LGBTQ is not an illness, and does not require treatment. Gay, lesbian, and bisexual people may seek psychological help to deal with the coming out process or to deal with prejudice, but most go into therapy for the same life issues that straight people seek help with.
4.) Homosexuality was removed from the DSM in the early 1970’s
Groups of 3- write on newsprint Think about Policy Overnight Same gender guests Anxiety around Tradition- Heterocentric
“No one is born a woman or a man—rather, as the saying goes “one becomes one”….
“No one is born a woman or a man—rather, as the saying goes “one becomes one”…. Not all people who might fall into this category will use this terminology to describe themselves. Avoid seeking or attaching labels to persons for whom those labels are not appropriate or comfortable. Always ASK patients how they define themselves, and respect and USE their preferred self-definitions and pronouns Patients may want or need to refer to their gender in one way in one part of a clinical setting, and differently in places.
Transgender refers to a variety of individuals, behaviors and groups involving deviation from the gender norm.
Transvestites enjoy cross dressing and looking like a convincing woman on occasions, but they basically value their masculinity and enjoy, during the rest of their life, the pursuits and interests traditionally associated with being male. Transvestites are divided between heterosexuals and gays in the same proportion as the rest of the male population, which means many are happily married with children.
The belief/insistence that trans women are not “real women” The belief/insistence that trans men are not “real” men The belief/insistence that non-binary genders are invalid The belief/insistence that transsexual people are gay people in denial and wish to have sex reassignment surgery to attempt to restore ‘heteronormativity’ The refusal to acknowledge a trans person’s true gender Refusal to use the correct name for a trans person Repeated and deliberate mis-gendering of trans people Exclusion of trans people from activities, services or conversations.
Transgender peopled are confused, if not mentally ill Transsexuals are frauds That a transgender woman is really a gay man who cannot come to terms with “his” same-sex desires
Safe Zone Ally Workshop adapted for Notre Dame College
SAFE ZONE ALLY
Bill Neater, Director of Preforming Arts
Brandi Hoffman, Graduate Hall Director
Karl, Dean of Student Affairs & Sr. Title IX Coordinator
Director of Residence Life & Student Conduct & Title IX Coordinator
Sue Lipiec, Director of the Counseling Center
NOTRE DAME COLLEGE
• Visit the Counseling Center’s Webpage
• Visit the NDC LGBTQ blog
WHAT IS SAFE ZONE
• The initial chapter was founded on the campus of Ball
State University in 1992.
• Since that time "safe programs" have been established
on college campuses throughout the country and are
known by a variety of names which include, but are not
limited to: Safe Space, Safe Harbor and Safe on
• Safe Zone is generally it is an “ally” training program
intended to provide knowledge, reflection and skills to
those on campus who want to become a visible ally to
the LGBTQ community
WHY ARE WE DOING THIS?
• In alignment with the college diversity and inclusion
• Safe Zone increasingly reflects the student populations
values and realities
• Increased rate of suicide for LGBT youth
• LGBTQ youth 23 and under are 4 times more likely to
• More specific reasons why Safe Zone is being brought
• Include the Mission Statement information here..
NOTRE DAME POLICIES
NOTRE DAME COLLEGE EMPLOYEE HANDBOOK 2011
• 1.4 Values List
• The Values List of the Notre Dame College Community is a code of ethics
and values for each member of our community. The primary goal of every
person – student, faculty and staff – is the education of students.
• To achieve this goal, we commit ourselves to these principles:
• Each student, colleague and visitor is of equal worth;
• A learning community values truth in all its forms;
• The College community honors the dignity of each person;
• A community is enhanced by the power that comes from uniqueness;
• The interdependence of all positions in a small college makes teamwork
• Quality in the basics is the goal in every area;
• Imagination and versatility enrich every venture; and
• A sense of joy characterizes the Notre Dame College culture.
NOTRE DAME POLICIES
• 2.2 Respectful Workplace
• Notre Dame College believes in a respectful
workplace. A respectful work place is one which
promotes acceptance, is committed to diversity and
requires respect for dignity and the interests of others.
While there are laws and regulations that provide
protection against discrimination, the College will go a
step farther in creating a respectful workplace. All
employees are entitled to work in an environment
which stresses acceptance, values diversity, and is free
from any form of harassment or bullying.
NOTRE DAME POLICIES
2.1 Equal Employment Opportunity Statement
The policy of the College is to maintain a workplace free
of unlawful discriminatory practices. In accordance with
Federal and state law, Notre Dame College does not
discriminate in any term or condition of employment
including: hiring, training, compensation, benefits,
promotion, transfer, demotion, layoff, discipline, or
discharge because of an individual's race, color, creed,
age, gender, sexual orientation, religion, national origin,
veteran status, physical or mental disability, genetic
information or any other basis of prohibited discrimination
except when permitted by law to allow selection of
Roman Catholics for certain designated positions.
TITLE IX STATEMENT ON
• 3.1. Notre Dame College does not discriminate on the
basis of race, color, creed, age, gender,
• sexual orientation, religion, national origin, veteran
status, physical or mental disability,
• genetic information or any other basis of prohibited
discrimination its programs and
• activities. This policy extends to employment with and
admission to the College. The
• following person has been designated to handle
inquiries regarding the nondiscrimination
WHAT IS AN ALLY
An ally is anyone, regardless of sexual orientation, whose
attitude and behavior is anti-heterosexist and who works
toward combating homophobia, heterosexism, and
transphobia both on a personal and institutional level.
THINGS YOU SHOULD KNOW AS
Four Basic Levels of Becoming an Ally:
1. Awareness: Explore how you are different from and similar to gay,
lesbian, bisexual and transgender people. Gain this awareness through
talking with gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender people, attending
workshops, and self-examination.
2. Knowledge/Education: Begin to understand policies, laws,
and practices and how they affect gay, lesbian, bisexual and
transgender people. Educate yourself on the many communities and
cultures of LGBT people.
3. Skills: This is an area, which is difficult for many people. You must
learn to communicate your awareness and knowledge to others. You
can acquire these skills by attending workshops, role playing with friends
or peers, and developing support connections.
4. Action: This is the most important and frightening step. Despite the
fears, action is the only way to affect the society as a whole.
BY DISPLAYING A SAFE ZONE
EMBLEM YOU AGREE TO:
1. Provide a safe place for LGBTQ individuals to feel
free to be themselves.
2. Be understanding and supportive of LGBTQ
individuals and anyone else who is seeking
information and assistance regarding sexual
orientation and/or gender identity/expression.
1.) PROVIDE A SAFE PLACE FOR
LGBTQ INDIVIDUALS TO FEEL
FREE TO BE THEMSELVES.
• Create an environment of inclusion by:
a) Addressing homophobic/heterosexist remarks
b) Including LGBTQ concerns, topics, whenever
c) Avoid assumption about sexual orientation and
d) Using inclusive language (partner, significant other,
e) Articulating that campus communities are enriched
by LGBTQ individuals
2.) BE UNDERSTANDING AND SUPPORTIVE OF
LGBTQ AND OTHERS SEEKING INFORMATION
AND ASSISTANCE REGARDING SEXUAL
ORIENTATION OR GENDER EXPRESSION
• This means:
a) Being available to provide resources, referrals and
b) Having a working knowledge, and be committed to
staying informed about LGBTQ concerns, history and
A SAFE ZONE MEMBER IS
• A counselor/therapist or someone necessarily trained to
deal with crisis situations
• An expert on all things “LGBTQ”
• Someone with ready-made answers
• Expected to proceed with an interaction if you feel it
compromises or violates your personal safety
•Self- Reflection and Assessment
(both personal and institutional)
• Lean into the discomfort
• Active Participation
• Speak from the “I” perspective
• Refer to handbook
• Mission statement
• Abrahamic Center
Partner up with another participant in the
room to discuss:
• The person’s name and affiliation with
One or two of the following:
• Most memorable holiday or birthday and
• What you did last weekend
• Favorite vacation or getaway spot
Introduce your partner to the group However….
The following words are not allowed to be used in your
• He /His
• She /Her
• Boy/ Man
• Girl /Woman
• COMMON TERMS
WHAT’S WITH ALL OF THE
LGBTQ: Stands for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual,
• You may also see the same acronym with the
letters added such as:
a.) I: Intersex
b.) A: Allies/Androgynous/Asexual
• Attraction, attachments, fantasies, and longings
• The individuals conception of one’s sexual
• Acts performed by individual
*American Psychological Association
Sexual Orientation: “Enduring emotional, romantic,
sexual, or affectional attraction toward others.”
(American Psychological Association)
Biological Sex: the physical anatomy and gendered
hormones one is born with, generally described as
male, female, or intersex, and often confused with
Gender Identity: One’s personal, and core sense of
self as a gendered person.
Gender Expression: How a person expresses their
gender identity (masculine, feminine, both, neither).
American Psychological Association defines
sexual orientation as the:
“Enduring emotional, romantic, sexual, or
affectional attraction toward others.”
Homosexual: Romantic, physical, emotional,
psychological attraction to the same sex.
SEXUAL ORIENTATION FAQ
1.) What Causes a Person To Have a Particular Sexual
Numerous factors may determine sexual orientation
and those factors may also differ from person to
person. Cognitive, biological and environmental
factors may all play a role.
2.) Is Sexual Orientation a Choice?
Most people - LGBT or straight - do not experience
their sexual orientation as a choice.
Adapted from “Answers to Your Questions About Sexual Orientation and Homosexuality”,
American Psychological Association
& HOMOSEXUALITY FAQ
3) Can Therapy Change Sexual Orientation?
No. Careful research has found that efforts to
change sexual orientation are not successful and
may be very harmful.
4) Is Homosexuality a Mental Illness or Emotional
No. Over 50 years of scientific research has shown
that homosexuality, itself, is not associated with
mental disorders or emotional or social problems.
• For more than 30 years, the American Psychiatric
Association, the American Psychological Association , and
other professional mental health organizations have urged
professionals to help dispel the stigma of mental illness that
some people still associate with homosexual orientation.
Adapted from “Answers to Your Questions About Sexual Orientation and Homosexuality”, American
WHAT DOES IT MEAN
TO BE BISEXUAL?
1.) A person who identifies as bisexual is
someone who is romantically, and/or
sexually attracted to persons of both
2.) Bisexual people are not necessarily
equally interested in men and women.
3.) Bisexuality is no more of a phase than
being heterosexual or homosexual is a
Adapted from Joe Woodhouse and Karina Roberts from the Bisexual
• “Actress Anna Paquin says she's
bisexual - despite being engaged
to her "True Blood" co-star
Stephen Moyer, The Sun reported
• New York Post, Page 6, 4/1/2010
Originally used as a pejorative term to refer
to gay men, lesbians, and bisexuals. The term
implied that these individuals were:
• Gender exists as a binary: everyone is either
• Gender is determined by one’s anatomy
• Males should have a masculine style of behavior
and females should have a feminine style of
• Feminine males and masculine females are
abnormal or disordered
BEYOND THE LABELS OF
Labels are culturally and historically specific.
• They have class, age, gender connotations and as
such, may not resonate with all people in the same
• TS: Two Spirited (Americas)
• Mahu (Polynesia)
We'wha, a Zuni Two-Spirit, circa 1886
Diverse Identities within the LGBTQ community
EXPERIENCES OF LGBTQ PEOPLE ARE
INFLUENCED & INTERWOVEN WITH
MULTIPLE OTHER PARTS OF THEIR IDENTITY:
• Socio-economic status
• Nation of origin
• Family structure
• Mental/Physical ability
• Immigrant Status
WHAT IS HOMOPHOBIA?
• Generally defined as
hostility towards or fear of
• Aversions to LGBTQ
persons or their lifestyle or
culture and behavior or
action based on this
• Avoiding any contact or
someone because they
are perceived to be
• Using “gay” or like-terms
• Avoiding gay/lesbian
people for fear they’ll
develop a crush on you
• Physically or emotionally
because they are LGBT
One of your peers notices your Safe Zone sticker
and does not approve. They challenge you
about why you are displaying a sticker that is
divisive and unnecessary. How do you respond?
The system of oppression of persons who are lesbian, gay, or
• The assumption that all people are heterosexual
• Prejudice and discrimination against persons who are LGB
based on the assumption that heterosexuality is the only
“normal sexual orientation and therefore preferable”
• Systematic display of homophobia in societal institutions,
laws, and policies by excluding the needs, concerns, and life
experiences of person who are LGB
• Assuming everyone you
meet is heterosexual
• Assuming everyone has or is
interested in having an
• Assuming all mothers and
fathers are heterosexual
• Assuming all unmarried
people are “single”
• Assuming all children live in
families with a male-female
couple in parental roles
• Assuming there is an
assumed male/female role
in same-sex relationships
• Using language that
presumes heterosexuality in
others, such as husband or
• Using official forms which
allow only for designation as
married or single
• Omitting any discussion of
persons who are LGBT as
part of educational
• A student comes to you and asks for your advice
regarding one of his professors. When you meet he tells
you that one of his professors makes a lot of comments
in class about what he calls “normal married couples.”
• Most of the time it isn’t a big deal, but recently the
professor was lecturing on “new and emerging
marketing demographics.” The textbook for the course
covered Gay & Lesbian adults as one of the new
demographics. The student tells you that when the
professor brought up the subject he dismissed it saying
“like many unmarried people, those people spend most
of their income on personal entertainment, such as
alcohol, leisure activities, fashion and often on illegal
drugs.” The student would like your advice for
responding to the professor
Heterosexual privilege is an advantage
given to heterosexual persons simply
because they are heterosexual.
“GENDER IS THE SOCIAL
ORGANIZATION OF DIFFERENT
KINDS OF BODIES INTO DIFFERENT
CATEGORIES OF PEOPLE.”
--SUSAN STRYKER, TRANSGENDER HISTORY
TRANSGENDER: LITERALLY "ACROSS GENDER";
SOMETIMES INTERPRETED AS "BEYOND
GENDER"; A COMMUNITY-BASED TERM THAT
DESCRIBES A WIDE VARIETY OF CROSS-GENDER
BEHAVIORS AND IDENTITIES.
THIS IS NOT A DIAGNOSTIC TERM, AND DOES NOT
IMPLY A MEDICAL OR PSYCHOLOGICAL CONDITION.
AVOID USING THIS TERM AS A NOUN: A PERSON IS NOT
"A TRANSGENDER"; THEY MAY BE A TRANSGENDER
Transvestite (sometimes considered the same as Cross-
Dresser) : person who enjoys wearing clothes identified
with the opposite gender.
Cross-dresser- Wears clothing of a gender different from
their birth sex for emotional or sexual purposes.
Drag Queen/King (female or male emulation,
performative in nature
Cisgender- having a biological sex that matches your
gender identity and expression, resulting in other people
accurately perceiving your gender.
• Individuals whose designated sex at birth does not
match their personal sex/body identity and who,
through sex reassignment surgery and hormone
treatments, may seek to change their physical
body to match their gender identity.
• Transsexuals’ sexual identification can be
heterosexual, gay, lesbian, bisexual, etc.
• Jessica Pettitt :Facing Trans: Inclusion, Advocacy, and Empowerment
Workbook, Guide, and Resource Packet” 2011
TRANSSEXUAL IDENTITIES CONTINUED
Click photo to play video
CREATING SAFE SPACES FOR
• Always use an individuals Gender Pronoun (GP)
• Try not to assume what their GP is based on their
• If you are unsure, avoid using pronouns by using “they”
• It can be ok to ask what someone’s GP is
• Avoid “sir/miss”, “young man/young woman”
WHAT IS TRANSPHOBIA?
• A reaction of fear, loathing, and discriminatory
treatment of people whose gender identity or gender
presentation (or perceived gender or gender identity)
does not match, in the socially accepted way, the sex
they were assigned at birth.
INTERSEX (FORMERLY HERMAPHRODITE)
• About 1.7% of the population can be defined as
• Intersex is a general term used for a variety of
conditions in which a person is born with a
reproductive or sexual anatomy that doesn‘t seem
to fit the typical definitions of female or male.
• Source: The Intersex Society of North America
COMING OUT ACTIVITY
• Write the names of the 3 people you talk to the most
• Write the names of 3 places that have the most
significance to you
• Write the top 3 most important aspects of your life
• Write your top 3 most favorite activities (other than
sleeping and eating)
GAY AND LESBIAN IDENTITY
(CASS IDENTITY MODEL)
• COMING OUT is a life long process of exploring one’s
sexual orientation and gender identity and sharing it
with family, friends, co-workers and the world.
• Coming out is about recognizing, accepting,
expressing and sharing ones’ sexual orientation with
oneself and others.
POTENTIAL IMPACT OF
• Grieving the loss of membership in the dominant culture
and entry into a permanent stigmatized group;
• The experience of being a minority, especially an
invisible minority and its impact on one's life;
• Lack of family support or strong role models to help
them deal with their found status and identity; and
• Potential lack of peer support and isolation
WE SHOULD NOT “PUSH”
SOMEONE TO COME OUT OF THE
OVERVIEW OF SAFE ZONE
A Safe Zone Ally
• Strives to be available, knowledgeable, helpful
and willing to support LGBT people
• Commits to confidentiality, except in specific
• Responds to bias, prejudice and discriminatory
behavior, even when a LGBT person is not
• Final Questions or comments?
• Please fill out the evaluation provided