A test assessing personality traits and conflicts, in which the subject
Carl Jung He was a Swiss psychiatrist, an influential thinker and the founder of analytical psychology. Jung is considered as the first modern psychologist to state that the human psyche is "by nature religious" and to explore it in depth.
Francis Galton • African Explorer and elected Fellow in the Royal Geographic Society • Creator of the first weather maps and establisher of the meteorological theory of anticyclones • Coined term "eugenics" and phrase "nature versus nurture" • Developed statistical concepts of correlation and regression to the mean • Discovered that fingerprints were an index of personal identity and persuaded Scotland Yard to adopt a fingerprinting system • First to utilize the survey as a method for data collection • Produced over 340 papers and books throughout his lifetime • Knighted in 1909
Word association was first developed as a research instrument by Francis Galton and was subsequently developed by Carl Jung as a clinical diagnostic tool. Galton introduced the first word-association test to psychology. He used a list of 75 stimulus words with which he read and noted his responses. Galton, who thought that there might be a link between a persons I.Q. (intelligence quotient) and word associations.
Word association is connected with the work that Carl Gustav Jung was engaged in at the Burghölzli Psychiatric Clinic of the University of Zurich in the early stages of his career (Jung, 1917/1926/1943). Under the directorship of Eugen Bleuler, the Burghölzli Psychiatric Clinic was an international center of excellence in psychiatric research at the turn of the century. Jung became director of research on the Word Association Test.
This test usually consisted of a hundred stimulus words that were read out singly to a subject who was to "answer as quickly as possible with the first word that occurs to you.” Thank you -Jamaica Manibug
Administering a word-associationtest is relatively uncomplicated.A subject is asked to respond withthe first word or idea that comes tomind.The table has three columns: thetest word, reaction time and patients– response.
Jungs first English language papers on the subject is taken from his lecture notes at ClarkUniversity in Massachusetts in September, 1909.
Jung presents his method of using 100 words. Identify abnormal patterns of response as a means to identify psychologicalcomplexes, along with what hecalls "intellectual and emotional deficiencies."
Methods1. Patients Instructions"Were now going to do a wordassociation test. This test contains100 words. After I say each word,Ill be expecting you to respond witha word. I want you to answer asquickly as possible with the firstword that occurs to your mind."
2. Recording the resultsThe table has three columns:test word, reaction time, andpatient-response.Record the number of secondsof the delayed response.
3. ReproductionThe reproduction method was invented by Jung to "fine-tune“, " the accuracy of examiner identified complexes.
Types of Reproduction DisturbanceFalse Unrelated RecallFalse Related RecallNo RecallDelay in RecallPartial RecallSpontaneously corrected False Recall
4. Interpretation5. Re-writing6. Final Thoughts
: a test of personality and mental function in which the subject is required to respond to each of a series of words with the first word that comes to mind or with a word of a specified class of words.
Generally, a list of words (stimuli) is given to subjects(either in writing or in oral form). The subjects are asked torespond with the first word that comes into their mind(responses).
Scoring are not scores in the sense we use scores on other test. ◦ (a beginner in the field may prefer to score them for his own sake, because test scores help in accumulating and systemizing experience.)
Perseveration *Repeating the same reaction on most or all stimulus words having some link between them *Reacting to stimulus word with a word appropriate to the previous stimulus word *Reacting to a stimulus word with a word appropriate to the previous reaction word
Alternatives Proper nouns Vulgar reactionMishearing of stimulus wordNot knowing the stimulus word
1. Blocking Shows it’s greatest incidence in deteriorated unclassified schizophrenics and in inhibited pre schizophrenics. 2. Object Naming • Occur occasionally in depressive psychotics and inhibited schizophrenics.3. Repetition and Partial Repetition • Occur most frequently in acute or deteriorated unclassified schizophrenics and in inhibited pre schizophrenics.
4. Definitions and Attempted Definitions Occur with a very high incidence in depressives and deteriorated unclassified schizophrenics.5. Closed Reaction Proper • Outstandingly often encountered in simple schizophrenia.6. Self - References • Occur at times chronic and deteriorated unclassified schizophrenics and depressive neurotics.
7. Perseverations Crop up in chronic schizophrenics, acute paranoid schizophrenics, and simple schizophrenics; also in over ideational pre schizophrenics and mixed neurotics.8. Clang Associations • Present in schizophrenics and pre schizophrenics; most in ideational are pre – schizophrenics and least acute in schizophrenia.
9. Phrase Completion Occurs most in chronic unclassified schizophrenia, acute paranoid schizophrenia, and over ideational pre schizophrenia.10. Images and Suspected Images • Occur most often in pre schizophrenics and obsessive – compulsive.
11. Attributes Appear at a maximum in chronic and deteriorated schizophrenics, and are also paranoid in conditions.12. Unrelated Reactions • Are commonest in deteriorated classified schizophrenics.
14. Mildly distant reactions • Occur most often in simple schizophrenics, but also in depressive psychotics.15. Multiword reactions • Have by far the highest frequency deteriorated unclassified schizophrenics followed by acute unclassified schizophrenics.
16. Emotional reactions They turn up most frequently in the test of over ideational pre schizophrenics and acute unclassified schizophrenics.17. Alternate reactions • Are not often given except by some schizophrenics.18. Vulgar responses • Are most prevalent in men of relatively little education and limited cultural background.
19. Subtotal of close reactions • Characterized by depression with some incidence of schizophrenia also.