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  • 1. Introduction  to   Phonological  Analysis   Roland  Raoul  KOUASSI  
  • 2. Readings   •  Katamba,  Francis,  Introduc)on  to  Phonology  (Longman,  1989)   Chomsky,  Noam  &  Morris  Halle.  (1968).  The  Sound  Pa4ern  of  English.   New  York:  Harper  &  Row.     •  Gussenhoven,  Carlos  &  Haike  Jacobs.  (2nd  ediKon)  (2005).  Understanding   Phonology.  London:  Arnold.     •  Handbook  of  the  Interna/onal  Phone/c  Associa/on.  (1999).  Cambridge:   Cambridge  University  Press.     •  Kenstowicz,  Michael.  (1994).  Phonology  in  genera)ve  grammar.  Oxford:   Blackwell.     •  Maddieson,  Ian.  (1984).  Pa4erns  of  sounds.  Cambridge:  Cambridge   University  Press.     •  Ogden,  David.  (2005).  Introducing  phonology.  Cambridge:  Cambridge   University  Press.     •  Roca,  Iggy  &  Wyn  Johnson.  (1999).  A  Course  in  Phonology.  Oxford:   Blackwell.    
  • 3. The  6ield  of  linguistic  science       • Sounds     • Words     • Phrases  and  sentences  Meaning     • Speakers    
  • 4. Beyond  Language  and  across   6ields   •  Link  to  mind     •  Link  to  society     •  Link  to  geography     •  Link  to  neurology     •  Link  to  forensic  science  ....    
  • 5. Phonetics       •  PhoneKcs  is  the  science  of  speech  sounds     •  The  phoneKcian  invesKgates  physical  sounds   produced  through  the  vocal  organs  of  human   beings  during  communicaKon   •  He  idenKfies  facts  such  as:  phonaKon   characterisKcs;  acousKc  phenomena;  auditory   facts   •  Thus  the  three  main  branches  of  phoneKcs:   arKculatory;  acousKc;  auditory    
  • 6. Phonology       •  InvesKgates  the  sound  system  and  the   systemaFc  use  of  these  sounds  to  encode   meaning.     •  The  phonologist  tracks  down  those  sounds  that   are  part  of  the  linguisKc  knowledge  of  the  “ideal   competent  speaker”     •  S/he  uncovers  the  sound  system  and  the   possible  sound  pa^erns,  located  in  the  human   brain,  and  which  help  create  and  discriminate   meanings.    
  • 7. THE  TASKS  OF  THE  PHONOLOGIST       •  To  idenKfy  the  characterisKcs  of  parKcular  phonological   •  •  •  •  system,     To  specify  the  types  of  differences  that  can  be  found  in   general,  and  in  characterize  mulKple  pairs  of  elements  (e.g.,   voicing  separates  p  from  b)     To  formulate  general  laws  governing  the  relaKons  of  these   correlaKons  to  one  another  within  parKcular  phonological   systems     To  account  for  historical  change  in  terms  of  the  phonological   system   To  found  phoneKc  studies  on  an  acousKc  rather  than  an   arKculatory  basis,  since  it  is  the  producKon  of  sound  that  is   the  goal  of  linguisKc  phoneKc  events  and  that  gives  them  their   social  character  
  • 8. Tasks,  cont’d   •  What  sounds  does  a  language  use  to  build  morphemes?   (INVENTORY)     •  What  are  the  allowable  combinaFons  of  sounds?   (PHONOTACTICS)     •  How  do  sounds  change  in  different  structural  contexts?   (ALTERNATIONS)     •  Which  system  underlies  all  the  phoneFc  alternaFons?   (SOUND  SYSTEM  or  PHONOLOGICAL  SYSTEM)     •  To  account  for  historical  change  in  terms  of  the  whole   phonological  system  but  not  single  sounds.     •  o  formulate  general  laws  to  account  for  these  phenomena   (THEORIZATION)    
  • 9. Phonetics  vs.  phonology   PhoneFc  string   Phonological   Orthographic   string   string   [əˈpɪɚ]   /æpiæ/   Appear     [ˈstɑ:ɾɚ]   /stærtɜ/   Starter     [kˈm̩ɛnsmn̩t]   /kɔmɛnsmɛnt/   commencement   [ˈpʰi:pɫ]   /pi:pl/   People     [ˈgɑ:tʃə]   /gɔt  ju/   Got  you   [awiʃəˈhæpn̩əs]   /ai  wiʃ  ju  hæpinis/     I  wish  you   happiness  
  • 10. A  History  of  Phonology  
  • 11. Pre-­‐structuralism     •  Shiva  Sutras,  (The  Shiva  Sutras  are  a  brief  but  highly  organized   list  of  phonemes)     •  In  ancient  India,  by  the  Sanskrit  grammarian,  Panini  (4th  cent.   BC)  in  his  text  of  Sanskrit  phonology     •  The  Shiva  Sutras  describe  a  phonemic  notaKonal  system   •  The  notaKonal  system  introduces  different  clusters  of   phonemes  significant  in  Sanskrit  morphology   •  The  Shiva  Sutras  were  part  of  Panini’s  3,959  rules  of  Sanskrit   morphology  in  the  grammar  known  as  Ashtadhyayi  (अ"ा$यायी   Aṣṭādhyāyī,  meaning  "eight  chapters      
  • 12. Pre-­‐structuralism,  cont’d   •  The  Polish  scholar  Jan  Baudouin  de  Courtenay,   (together  with  his  former  student  Mikolaj   Kruszewski)  coined  the  word  phoneme  in  1876     •  This  can  be  seen  as  the  starKng  point  of  modern   phonology   •  In  1916,  Ferdinand  de  Saussure’s  posthumous   book  is  published:  Cours  de  linguis)que  generale  
  • 13. Structural  Phonology   •  1920-­‐1940:  the  Prague  LinguisKc  Circle:  Roman   Jakobson  and  Nikolai  Trubetzkoy   •  At  the  InternaKonal  Congress  of  LinguisKcs,  held   in  1928,  the  members  of  the  Prague  LinguisKc   Circle  presented  the  famous  Proposi/on  22  or   Prague  Circle  Manifesto:  this  marked  the   beginning  of  a  new  science:  phonology       •   In  1939,  the  Principles  of  Phonology  of  Prince   Nikolai  Sergeyevich  Trubetzkoy  is  published.  It   retakes  and  enriches  the  ideas  in  the  Manifesto.     •  It  is  considered  the  foundaKon  of  the  Prague   School  of  phonology    
  • 14. Critics  of  Structural  Phonology   • On  the  phonological  representaKon   • On  the  phonemic  unit.    
  • 15. Post-­‐Structural  Phonology   •  Started  with  Roman  Jakobson:  1939-­‐1949   •  He  pointed  to  the  limited  number  of  “differenKal  qualiKes”  or   “disKncKve  features”  that  appeared  to  be  available  to   languages:  the  disKncKve  feature  theory     •  Jakobson,  Roman;  Fant,  Gunnar;  and  Halle,  Morris.  (1952).   Preliminaries  to  speech  analysis:  The  dis)nc)ve  features  and   their  correlates.  Cambridge,  MA:  MIT  Press.  1952    
  • 16. Generative  Phonology   •  In  1968  Noam  Chomsky  and  Morris  Halle  published  The  Sound   Pa4ern  of  English  (SPE),  the  basis  for  GeneraKve  Phonology     •  In  this  view,  phonological  representaKons  are  sequences  of   segments  made  up  of  disKncKve  features.     •  These  features  were  an  expansion  of  earlier  work  by  Roman   Jakobson,  Gunnar  Fant,  and  Morris  Halle     •  GeneraKve  phonology  is  a  component  of  GeneraKve  Grammar  
  • 17. A  Generative  and  Transformational   Grammar  Model     (Based  on  David  W.  Lightfoot,  1982)  
  • 18. Phrase  structure     rules                                                                      Lexicon Initial  Phrase  Marker Transformational  Rules   (Movement  Rules) Surface  Structure   Phonological   Rules Semantic   Interpretation  Rules Logical   Form Phonetic   Representation Semantic   Representation
  • 19. Autosegmental  Phonology     •  A  theoreKcal  framework  for  phonological  analysis  devised  by   John  A.  Goldsmith  in  his  PhD  dissertaKon  in  1976  at  MIT     •  In  autosegmental  phonology,  representaKons  consist  of  more   than  one  linear  sequence  of  segments.     •  Each  linear  sequence  consKtutes  a  )er;  and  each  Ker  is   autonomous  (autosegments)  and  related  to  the  other  Kers  by   associa)on  lines.     •  Autosegmental  phonology  is  therefore  a  mul)linear  or   nonlinear  theory     •  The  working  hypothesis  of  autosegmental  phonology  is  that  a   large  part  of  phonological  generalizaKon  can  be  interpreted  as   a  reconstrucKon  or  reorganizaKon  of  the  autosegments  in   representaKon    
  • 20. Parameter  
  • 21. Faari,  in  Margi  (Nigeria)  
  • 22. Some  Structural  Phonology  Tenets   •  The  phoneme:     •  It  is  the  smallest  contrasKve  unit  in  the  sound  system  of   a  language;  the  smallest  unit  that  serves  to  disKnguish   between  meanings  of  words.   •  The  Phonological  RepresentaFon:   •  In  the  analysis  of  the  phonological  facts,  structural   phonologists  proposed  a  phonological  representa)on   which  is  to  account  for  the  surface  phoneKc  string.  This   representaKon  is  linear  and  concatenate.  This   concatenaKon  was  built  with  phonemic  units.     •  The  organizaFon  of  the  sound  system:   •  Based  on  the  concept  of  Opposi)on  
  • 23. Opposition   •  A  phonic  property  can  only  be  disKncKve  in  funcKon  insofar  as   it  is  opposed  to  another  phonic  property   •  OpposiKons  of  sound  capable  of  differenKaKng  the  lexical   meaning  of  two  words  in  a  parKcular  language  are   phonological  or  phonologically  disKncKve  or  disKncKve   opposiKons  (/v/  vs  /f/)   •  In  contrast,  those  opposiKons  of  sound  that  do  not  have  this   property  are  phonologically  irrelevant  or  nondisKncKve.  (/r/   vs  []  
  • 24. Types  of  Oppositions   •  Bilateral:  the  basis  for  comparison,  that  is,  the  sum  of  the   properKes  common  to  both  opposiKon  members,  is  common   to  these  two  opposiKon  members  alone.  It  does  not  recur  in   any  other  member  of  the  same  system     •  Mul/lateral:  the  basis  for  comparison  of  a  mulKlateral   opposiKon,  on  the  other  hand,  is  not  limited  exclusively  to  the   two  respecKve  opposiKon  members.  It  also  extends  to  other   members  of  the  same  system     •  Propor/onal:  if  the  relaKon  between  its  members  is  idenKcal   with  the  relaKon  between  the  members  of  another  opposiKon   or  several  other  opposiKons  of  the  same  system.    
  • 25. Types  of  Oppositions,  cont’d   •  Isolated:  if  the  phonemic  system  does  not  have  any  other  pair   of  phonemes  whose  members  would  be  related  to  each  in  the   way  as  the  opposiKon  is     •  Priva/ve:  one  member  is  characterized  by  the  presence,  the   other  by  the  absence,  of  a  mark.  (the  marked  vs.  the   unmarked)     •  Gradual:  the  members  are  characterized  by  various  degrees   or  gradaKons  of  the  same  property     •  Equipollent:  both  members  are  logically  equivalent,  that  is,   they  are  neither  considered  as  two  degrees  of  one  property   nor  as  the  absence  or  presence  of  a  property.  Most  frequent   in  any  system    
  • 26. Types  of  Oppositions,  cont’d   •  Constant  dis/nc/ve  opposi/on:  posiKons  of  relevance:  the   capacity  of  differenKaKng  meaning  and  maintain  this  opposiKon   •  Neutralizable  opposi/on:  posiKons  of  neutralizaKon  in  some   contexts.     •  An  Archiphoneme  is  used  in  this  case.     •  Examples:     •  ɔ  and  ɔ̃  →ɔ  /  -­‐Nasals  (in  French)   •  forKs  consonant  and  lenis  consonant  →forKs  consonant  /-­‐#  (in   German,  Russian…)  Examples  in  Russian:  Zub  (tooth);  Drug  (friend);   Kod  (code);  Krov  (blood)    
  • 27. Identifying  Phonological  Units   •  The  minimal  pair  process   •  A  minimal  pair  or  phonemic  microsystem  is  a  pair  of  words   that  have  different  meanings  by  differing  in  form  at  one   and  only  one  specific  syntagma/c  or  structural  posi/on.     •  So:   •  i.  Two  words   •  ii.  One  difference  in  form   •  iii.  This  difference  occurs  at  the  same  structural  posiKon   •  iv.  This  difference  brings  about  a  difference  in  the   signified  /  meaning  /  semanKc  content    
  • 28. Examples   •  Baule:  asiɛ  vs  asiɛ̰     •  French:  banque  vs  bac   •  English:  lot  vs  let;       •  Spanish:  gasto  (cost)  vs  gusto  (taste)   •  Russian:  Dom  (house)  vs  Dym  (fume);  Son   (dream)  vs  Syn  (son)  
  • 29. Identifying  Phonological  Units,  cont’d   •  The  CommutaFon  Process   •  In  linguisKcs  commutaKon  is  the  subsKtuKon  of  a  unit  for   another  in  order  to  observe  several  consequences  or   verify  a  set  of  previously  stated  hypotheses.     •  This  operaKon  aims  at  deducing  the  disKncKveness  of  a   unit  or  a  set  of  units   •  In  phonology,  commuKng  is  subsKtuKng  one  sound  for   another  a  test  the  relevance  of  the  difference     •   Examples:   •   [tʌʧ]  [tɪʧ]  ;  [lɔːd]  vs  [læd]  
  • 30. Identifying  Phonological  Units,  cont’d   •  The  PermutaFon  Process:     •  PermutaKon  is  a  reciprocal  posiKon  change.   •  It  is  a  process  through  which  two  units   exchange  their  syntagmaKc  contexts  of   occurrence.     •  Examples:   •  [pæt]  vs  [tæp]     •  [tɛk]  vs  [kɛt]     •  [taɪm]  vs  [maɪt]     •  [təʊn]  vs  [nəʊt]    
  • 31. PHONOLOGICAL  OPERATIONS      •  AssimilaKon  Processes   •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  Vowel  ReducKon  to  Schwa   Weak  syllable  deleKon     Final  Consonant  DeleKon  (let  vs  let  go)   MonophthongizaKon  (example  of  Ebonics  ɑɪ→ɑː)   Unreleasing  of  stops.   AspiraKon     VelarizaKon     PalatalizaKon     LabializaKon  (/d/  in  day  vs  in  do)   NasalizaKon  (a  in  at  vs  in  ant)   Flapping    
  • 32. The  Syllable     •  The  syllable  is  the  basic  unit  of  speech  studied   on  both  the  phoneKc  and  phonological  levels.     •  Linguists  generally  agree  that  syllables  have  a   linear  structure.  It  is  made  of  several   consKtuents.     •  The  basic  structure  of  the  syllable  is  made  of  an   onset  and  a  rhyme.    
  • 33. σ   Onset   Rhyme  
  • 34. •  The  Rhyme  is  also  composed  of  a  Nucleus  and  a  Coda.   σ   Onset   Rhyme   Nucleus   Coda  
  • 35. Phonological  Features   •  All  features  are  privaKve  (ie.  binary).  This  means  that  a  phoneme   either  has  the  feature  eg.  [+VOICE]  or  it  doesn't  have  the  feature  eg.   [-­‐VOICE]   •  There  is  a  difference  between  PHONETIC  and  PHONOLOGICAL   FEATURES   •  DisKncKve  Features  are  Phonological  Features.   •  PhoneKcs  Features  are  surface  realisaKons  of  underlying   Phonological  Features.   •  A  phonological  feature  may  be  realised  by  more  than  one  phoneKc   feature,  eg.  [flat]  is  realised  by  labialisaKon,  velarisaKon  and   pharyngealisaKon   •  A  small  set  of  features  is  able  to  differenKate  between  the   phonemes  of  any  single  language   •  DisKncKve  features  may  be  defined  in  terms  of  arKculatory  or   acousKc  features,  but  Jakobson's  features  are  primarily  based  on   acousKc  descripKons  
  • 36.  Characteristics  of  features   •  •  •  •  Features  establish  natural  classes   Binarity   Economy   PhoneKc  interpretaKon  
  • 37. MAJOR  CLASS  FEATURES       Vowels     oral  stops     Affricates     nasal  stops   FricaKves     Liquids     semi-­‐vowels  syll  cons  son  cont  delrel      +  -­‐  +  +  0      -­‐  +  -­‐  -­‐  -­‐      -­‐  +  -­‐  -­‐  +      -­‐  +  +  -­‐  0      -­‐  +  -­‐  +  0      -­‐  +  +  +  0      -­‐  -­‐  +  +  0    
  • 38. MAIN  FEATURES   •  syllabic  /  non-­‐syllabic  [syll]:  Syllabic  sounds  consKtute  a  syllable   peak  (sonority  peak).  [+syll]  refers  to  vowels  and  to  syllabic   consonants.  [-­‐syll]  refers  to  all  non-­‐syllabic  consonants  (including   semi-­‐vowels).   •  consonantal  /  non-­‐consonantal  [cons]:  Consonantal  sounds  are   produced  with  at  least  approximant  stricture.  That  is  consonantal   sounds  involve  vocal  tract  constricKon  significantly  greater  that  that   which  occurs  for  vowels.  [+cons]  refers  to  all  consonants  except  for   semi-­‐vowels  (which  o•en  have  resonant  stricture).  [-­‐cons]  refers  to   vowels  and  semi-­‐vowels.   •  sonorant  /  obstruent  [son]:  Sonorant  sounds  are  produced  with   vocal  tract  configuraKon  that  permits  air  pressure  on  both  sides  of   any  constricKon  to  be  approximately  equal  to  the  air  pressure   outside  the  mouth.  Obstruents  possess  constricKon  (stricture)  that   is  sufficient  to  result  in  significantly  greater  air  pressure  behind  the   constricKon  than  occurs  in  front  of  the  constricKon  and  outside  the   mouth.  [+son]  refers  to  vowels  and  approximants  (glides  and  semi-­‐ vowels).  [-­‐son]  refers  to  stops,  fricaKves  and  affricates.  
  • 39. MAIN  FEATURES,  cont’d   •  coronal  /  non-­‐coronal  [cor]:  "Coronal  sounds  are  produced  by  raising  the  tongue   blade  toward  the  teeth  or  the  hard  palate;  noncoronal  sounds  are  produced   without  such  a  gesture."  (HC)  This  feature  is  intended  for  use  with  consonants   only.  [+cor]  refers  to  dentals  (not  including  labio-­‐dentals)  alveolars,  post-­‐alveolars,   palato-­‐alveolars,  palatals.  [-­‐cor]  refers  to  labials,  velars,  uvulars,  pharyngeals.   •  anterior  /  posterior  [ant]:  "Anterior  sounds  are  produced  with  a  primary   constricKon  at  or  in  front  of  the  alveolar  ridge.  Posterior  sounds  are  produced  with   a  primary  constricKon  behind  the  alveolar  ridge."  (HC)  This  feature  is  intended  to   be  applied  to  consonants.  [+ant]  refers  to  labials,  dentals  and  alveolars.  [-­‐ant]   refers  to  post-­‐alveolars,  palato-­‐alveolars,  retroflex,  palatals,  velars,  uvulars,   pharyngeals.   •  labial  /  non-­‐labial  [lab]:  Labial  sounds  involve  rounding  or  constricKon  at  the  lips.   [+lab]  refers  to  labial  and  labialized  consonants  and  to  rounded  vowels.  [-­‐lab]   refers  to  all  other  sounds.   •  distributed  /  non-­‐distributed  [distr]:  "Distributed  sounds  are  produced  with  a   constricKon  that  extends  for  a  considerable  distance  along  the  midsaggital  axis  of   the  oral  tract;  nondistributed  sounds  are  produced  with  a  constricKon  that  extends   for  only  a  short  distance  in  this  direcKon."  (HC)  [+distr]  refers  to  sounds  produced   with  the  blade  or  front  of  the  tongue,  or  bilabial  sounds.  [-­‐distr]  refers  to  sounds   produced  with  the  Kp  of  the  tongue.  This  feature  can  disKnguish  between  palatal   and  retroflex  sounds,  between  bilabial  and  labiodental  sounds,  between  lamino-­‐ dental  and  apico-­‐dental  sounds.  
  • 40. MAIN  FEATURES,  cont’d   •  high  /  non-­‐high  [high]:  "High  sounds  are  produced  by  raising  the  body   of  the  tongue  toward  the  palate;  nonhigh  sounds  are  produced  without   such  a  gesture."  (HC)  [+high]  refers  to  palatals,  velars,  palatalized   consonants,  velarized  consonants,  high  vowels,  semi-­‐vowels.  [-­‐high]   refers  to  all  other  sounds.  Note,  however,  the  discussion  above  on  how   this  feature  is  used  in  combinaKon  with  [mid]  to  describe  the  disKncKon   between  four  contrasKve  vowel  heights.   •  mid  /  non-­‐mid  [mid]:  Mid  sounds  are  produced  with  tongue  height   approximately  half  way  between  the  tongue  posiKons  appropriate  for   [+high]  and  [+low].  This  vowel  height  feature  is  only  required  when  a   language  has  four  levels  of  height  contrast  and  remains  unspecified  for   languages  with  fewer  vowel  height  contrasts.  [+mid]  refers  to  vowels   with  intermediate  vowel  height.  [-­‐mid]  refers  to  all  other  sounds.   •  low  /  non-­‐low  [low]:  "Low  sounds  are  produced  by  drawing  the  body  of   the  tongue  down  away  from  the  roof  of  the  mouth;  nonlow  sounds  are   produced  without  such  a  gesture."  [+low]  refers  to  low  vowels,   pharyngeal  consonants,  pharyngealized  consonants.  
  • 41. MAIN  FEATURES,  cont’d   •  back  /  non-­‐back  [back]:  "Back  sounds  are  produced  with  the  tongue  body   relaKvely  retracted;  nonback  or  front  sounds  are  produced  with  the  tongue  body   relaKvely  advanced."  (HC)  [+back]  refers  to  Velars,  uvulars,  pharyngeals,  velarized   consonants,  pharyngealized  consonants,  central  vowels,  central  semi-­‐vowels,  back   vowels,  back  semi-­‐vowels.  [-­‐back]  refers  to  all  other  sounds.   •  front  /  non-­‐front  [front]:  This  is  an  addiKonal  vowel  feature  added  to  assist  in  the   descripKon  of  the  vowel  systems  of  languages  such  as  Australian  English.  To   describe  the  central  vowels  of  Australian  English  its  necessary  to  define  them  as  [-­‐ back,  -­‐front].   •  conFnuant  /  stop  [cont]:  "ConKnuants  are  formed  with  a  vocal  tract  configuraKon   allowing  the  airstream  to  flow  through  the  midsaggital  region  of  the  oral  tract:   stops  are  produced  with  a  sustained  occlusion  in  this  region."  (HC)  For  some   reason  it  has  been  tradiKonal  to  include  lateral  consonants  as  stops  in  disKncKve   feature  theory.  Since  laterals  can  have  approximant,  fricaKve  or  stop  (click)   stricture  there  seems  to  be  no  jusKficaKon  in  including  all  laterals  with  the  stops,   and  in  this  course  laterals  are  not  necessarily  stops  (as  is  the  case  for  the  lateral   clicks)  but  can  also  be  conKnuants  (as  is  the  case  for  the  lateral  approximants  and   fricaKves.  [+cont]  refers  to  vowels,  approximants,  fricaKves.  [-­‐cont]  refers  to  nasal   stops,  oral  stops.  
  • 42. MAIN  FEATURES,  cont’d   •  lateral  /  central  [lat]:  "Lateral  sounds,  the  most  familiar  of  which  is   [l],  are  produced  with  the  tongue  placed  in  such  a  way  as  to  prevent   the  airstream  from  flowing  outward  through  the  center  of  the   mouth,  while  allowing  it  to  pass  over  one  or  both  sides  of  the   tongue;  central  sounds  do  not  invoke  such  a  constricKon."  (HC)   [+lat]  refers  to  lateral  approximants,  lateral  fricaKves,  lateral  clicks.   [-­‐lat]  refers  to  all  other  sounds.   •  nasal  /  oral  [nas]:  "Nasal  sounds  are  produced  by  lowering  the   velum  and  allowing  the  air  to  pass  outward  through  the  nose;  oral   sounds  are  produced  with  the  velum  raised  to  prevent  the  passage   of  air  through  the  nose."  (HC)  [+nas]  refers  to  nasal  stops,  nasalized   consonants,  nasalized  vowels.  [-­‐nas]  refers  to  all  other  sounds.   •  tense  /  lax  [tense]:  The  tradiKonal  definiKon  of  this  feature  claims   that  [+tense]  vowels  involve  a  greater  degree  of  constricKon  then  [-­‐ tense]  (lax)  vowels.  Tense  vowels  need  not  be  any  different  to  lax   vowels  in  terms  of  constricKon  
  • 43. MAIN  FEATURES,  cont’d   •  sibilant  /  non-­‐sibilant  [sib]:  Sibilants  are  those  fricaKves  with  large  amounts  of   acousKc  energy  at  high  frequencies.  [+sib]  refers  to  [s  ʃ  z  ʒ].  [-­‐sib]  refers  to  all   other  sounds.   •  spread  glo^s  /  non-­‐spread  glo^s  [spread]:  "Spread  or  aspirated  sounds  are   produced  with  the  vocal  cords  drawn  apart  producing  a  nonperiodic  (noise)   component  in  the  acousKc  signal;  nonspread  or  unaspirated  sounds  are  produced   without  this  gesture."  (HC)  [+spread]  refers  to  aspirated  consonants,  breathy   voiced  or  murmured  consonants,  voiceless  vowels,  voiceless  approximants.  [-­‐ spread]  refers  to  all  other  sounds.  It  should  be  stressed  that  during  the  occlusion   of  both  voiceless  aspirated  and  voiceless  unaspirated  (0  VOT)  stops  the  glo“s  is   open.  The  difference  is  during  the  period  following  release  where,  for  aspirated   stops,  the  glo“s  stays  open  much  longer  than  for  unaspirated  stops.   •  constricted  glo^s  /  non-­‐constricted  glo^s  [constr]:  "Constricted  or  glo^alized   sounds  are  produced  with  the  vocal  cords  drawn  together,  prevenKng  normal   vocal  cord  vibraKon;  nonconstricted  (nonglo^alized)  sounds  are  produced  without   such  a  gesture."  (HC)  [+constr]  refers  to  ejecKves,  implosives,  glo^alized  or   laryngealized  consonants,  glo^alized  or  laryngealized  vowels.  [-­‐constr]  refers  to  all   other  sounds.   •  voiced  /  voiceless  [voice]:  "Voiced  sounds  are  produced  with  a  laryngeal   configuraKon  permi“ng  periodic  vibraKon  of  the  vocal  cords;  voiceless  sounds   lack  such  periodic  vibraKon."  (HC)  [+voice]  refers  to  all  voiced  sounds.  [-­‐voice]   refers  to  all  voiceless  sounds.  
  • 44. Conclusion   •  In  this  course,  students  have  learned  the  basic  concepts  and   processes  of  phonological  analysis.  They  are  advised  to  apply   on  other  examples  in  English,  but  also  encouraged  to   invesKgate  their  first  languages.