Morpho 12 13


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Morpho 12 13

  1. 1. + Introduction to Morphology Roland Raoul Kouassi
  2. 2. + What is Morphology? n  The field of linguistics that examines the internal structure of words and processes of word formation is known as morphology
  3. 3. + Morphemes n  the morpheme is the smallest meaningful linguistic sign. n  There are of two types: n  A morpheme which can stand as a word is called a free morpheme. n  Examples: pat; read; n  By contrast, a morpheme unable to function as a free-standing word is called a bound morpheme n  Example: -er; -ing; re-;
  4. 4. + The components of a word n  The ultimate starting point for deriving a word, that is, the most basic morpheme in a word, is its root n  Example: read n  A morpheme added to the right of a root is a suffix n  Example: n  One added to the left of the root, such as re-, is a prefix n  Example: n  The general term covering suffixes and prefixes is affix
  5. 5. + n  When the affix is inserted within the root, it is called and infix, and written <infix> n  Example: picoline and pipecoline, lutidine and lupetidine; pyridine and piperidine (in Chemistry, the affix <pe> means complete hydrogenation. n  Hallebloodylujah! n  “Tell him I've gone to Singabloodypore!” Wish You Were Here by Kieran Darcy-Smith (2012) n  plurals like passers-by and mothers-in-law n  fan-***-tastic ; fandamntastic… n  A circumfix
  6. 6. + n  In Tagalog (Philippines) n  bili: root ‘buy’ n  -um-: infix n  bumili: word ‘bought’ n  A circumfix is an affix made up of two separate parts which surround and attach to a root. n  In Tuwali Ifugao (Philippines), the circumfix ka--an is a nominalizer and surrounds a root n  baddang: root ‘help’ v. n  ka--an: circumfix n  kabaddangan: word ‘helpfulness’
  7. 7. + n  the German past participle (ge- -t for regular verbs). The verb spielen, for example, has the participle gespielt. n  en- -en in enlighten n  em- -en in embolden
  8. 8. + Word Structure and Word Formation n  Inflection n  Derivation n  Compounding n  Creation
  9. 9. + Word vs Lexeme n  A lexeme is an abstract notion underlying a set of word forms. n  Example: the lexeme CAT has cat, cats has word forms n  CAT inflects for the plural by taking the suffix –s n  In an inflection, a lexeme inflects for different word forms of the same lexeme, belonging to the same syntactic category (read; reading) n  In derivation, the process results in the creation of new lexemes (read; reader)
  10. 10. + Inflection n  When a word appears in a variety of forms depending on its grammatical role in the sentence, we say that it inflects or undergoes inflection. A category such as Tense is therefore called an inflectional category. The category of Tense has two forms, past and non-past in English. n  Specific values of an inflectional category are called inflectional properties
  11. 11. + Lexical Categories n  A familiar distinction is that between nouns (N) and verbs (V) n  For instance, nouns often refer to types of concrete objects in the world (e.g. cake, engine, moon, waiter, and, we might now suppose n  while verbs typically refer to activities or states (applaud, steal, collide, bark) n  A third major word class recognised in traditional grammar is adjectives (A) n  These typically refer to properties which people or things possess and they are used to modify nouns, e.g. happy man, noisy engine
  12. 12. + n  A fourth class of word is adverbs (ADV). While an adjective modifies a noun, an adverb typically modifies a verb, adjective or another adverb, indicat- ing how, when or why something happened or the degree to which a property characterises an individual or event. n  Examples: The waiter carelessly dropped the plate; The engine is really noisy; The audience applauded the singer very enthusiastically n  prepositions (P): prepositions typically serve to relate objects, people or events in space or time (under/before), though often the relationship is more abstract n  Examples: Harriet was sitting under a tree; They’re due to arrive before noon; There was a debate about economic policy n 
  13. 13. + Functional Categories n  Nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs and prepositions are the major word classes of English, and they are the sorts of words we find in dictionaries with meanings attached to them (cf. section 12). However, not all words are straightforwardly meaningful in this way, and this observation paves the way for extending the word classes which must be recognised in grammars for languages. n  Example: Bill thinks that Tom and Dick have been visiting Harriet to ask for help with one of the assignments which have to be finished for the next morphology class n  Words such as the above, which do not denote objects, ideas, etc. are known as function words and they belong to classes known as functional categories. They are distinguished from nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs and prepositions, which are often called content words.
  14. 14. + Major Functional Categories n  determiners (D): articles, demonstratives n  auxiliary verbs (AUX): will, shall; be; have;… n  The predicative unit to n  pronoun (PRN): stands for a noun expression (he; she; they…) n  co-ordinating conjunctions (CONJ): serve to join words or phrases together to form larger phrases of the same type (or; but…) n  complementisers (C): their most important uses is to introduce complement clauses (Tom wonders [if it will rain] ; Tom arranged [ for Dick to leave early]
  15. 15. + The morphological properties of English verbs n  Verbs in English have a simple form, such as read, write, illustrate, called the base form. n  the verb agrees with its subject: In English, the agreement system has almost entirely disappeared (in some dialects it has completely withered away: he like it!) n  Verbs typically signal the time when an action or event occurs: tense. n  Verbs also signal the way an action or event occurs: aspect (perfect vs. imperfect)
  16. 16. + n  there are many verbs such as sleep and hop that refer to states or activities which are not directed towards another entity; as a consequence, such verbs cannot occur with objects and they are called intransitive verbs n  By contrast, verbs which do take objects are called transitive.
  17. 17. + Morphological Analysis n  The structures of the items in this sequence can be represented by labeled brackets. This is the labeled bracketing method. n  [N cipher] n  [V de [N cipher ] ] n  [A [V de [N cipher] ] able ] n  [A in [A [λde [N cipher ] ] able ] ] n  [N[A in [A [V de [N cipher] ] able ] ] ity]
  18. 18. + n  Alternatively, we can represent the same information using the tree diagrams "not lockable" Adj Adj UN LOCK ABLE
  19. 19. + "able to be unlocked." Adj Verb UN LOCK ABLE
  20. 20. + Selected References n  Martin Haspelmath & Andrea D. Sims, Understanding Morphology 2nd edition, London: Hodder Education, 2010 n  Mark Aronoff and Kirsten Fudeman, What is Morphology? Malden, Oxford, and Victoria: Blackwell, 2005 n  Francis Katamba, Morphology, New York: St. Martin's Press, 1993 n  Geert Booij, The Grammar of Words: An Introduction to Morphology (2nd edition), Oxford University Press, 2007 n  Rochelle Lieber, Introducing Morphology, Cambridge University Press, 2010