Water and Sanitation Sector Performance Report of Ghana, 2009 Edition

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This WASH sector report aims to assemble all sector information in one document and make it available to government, development partners, the media, the public, and all key decision-makers in the sector. The intention is to publish the status of the sector annually to help track achievements against set targets and support effective decision-making and policy formulation.

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Water and Sanitation Sector Performance Report of Ghana, 2009 Edition

  1. 1. Ministry of Water Resources, Works and Housing Water and Sanitation Sector Performance Report 2009 MWRWH
  2. 2. Ghana Water and Sanitation Sector Performance Report 2009 Page 2 Ministry of Water Resources, Works and Housing Water and Sanitation Sector Performance Report 2009
  3. 3. Ghana Water and Sanitation Sector Performance Report 2009 Page 3 Production Team Emmanuel Addai (WSMP) - Coordination, Collation, Analyses, Editing Ben Yaw Ampomah (WRC) - Water Resources Management George Boakye Yiadom (CWSA) - Rural/Small Town Water Supply and Sanitation Michael Agyemang (GWCL) - Urban Water Supply Enoch Ofosu (MWRWH) - Member Rudolf Amenga Etego (Grassroots Africa) - Member
  4. 4. Ghana Water and Sanitation Sector Performance Report 2009 Page 4 Foreword Hon. Alban Bagbin (MP) Minister for Water Resources, Works and Housing The Government of Ghana is determined to work towards a Ghana that is continuously better to live in. Through this commitment, the Government is developing systems and structures that would enable Ghanaians to experience progressively better living conditions in all sectors including the provision of clean and safe water for all by 2025. Over the years, lack of accurate data and information has hampered effective policy making as well as the taking of effective decisions in the area of water and sanitation. It has been a challenge to develop accurate statistics on water and sanitation in the country. This challenge has stemmed from not having standard definitions and indicators when dealing with our water and sanitation programs. This maiden edition of the water and sanitation performance report is designed to lead the way in setting standards for better collection of data, analysis of the data and the proper implementation of programs in the sector. Data quality and availability will lay the foundation for creating a common monitoring system that would help resolve the existing problems. The report makes it clear how the sector has underperformed due to lack of sufficient funding resulting, partly, from the fact that approved budgets have usually not been released to the relevant agencies for implementation. This fact would be well noted by the government and will inform our implementation of the “Better Ghana Agenda.” It is my conviction that future editions of this report will deliver comprehensive information that would include parameters such as functionality, gender and vulnerability, hygiene and sanitation as well as NGO participation in the delivery of water and sanitation facilities to the people of Ghana. I extend my sincere appreciation to the Water Directorate, our Development Partners, NGOs, the Media and partners from the Private Sector and individuals who have made this issue a success, for their support and I hope that we can continue to count on their support to realize universal access to potable water by the year 2025. Hon. Alban Bagbin (MP) Minister for Water Resources, Works and Housing
  5. 5. Ghana Water and Sanitation Sector Performance Report 2009 Page 5 Introduction Minta Aboagye Director (Water) - MWRWH This WASH sector report aims to assemble all sector information in one document and make it available to government, development partners, the media, the public, and all key decision-makers in the sector. The intention is to publish the status of the sector annually to help track achievements against set targets and support effective decision-making and policy formulation. The Water and Sanitation sector of Ghana has come a long way in terms of institutional arrangement and policy environment especially since the early 1990s. The development of the National Community Water and Sanitation Programme and the subsequent creation of the Community Water and Sanitation Agency, the establishment of the Water Resources Commission, the creation of a Water Directorate and an Environmental Health and Sanitation Directorate, as well as the formation of the Coalition of NGOs in Water and Sanitation, have all tremendously promoted and facilitated coordination in the sector. In addition to all these wonderful institutional arrangements, coupled with the need for better aid as directed by the Paris Declaration and Accra Agenda for Action, the Government of Ghana has collaborated effectively with her development partners to work towards a sectorwide approach, where there will be a move away from the current project-driven and less coordinated approach to working within a more coherent national plan to minimize the incidences of improper allocation of scarce resources. One major obstacle to effective sector coordination, policy-making and resource allocation is the difficulty in accessing sector information and reliable data. This has come as a result of lack of a central monitoring framework and system. As a result, various sector agencies have devised their own internal monitoring mechanisms to generate information that will best serve their respective operational needs. Their monitoring indicators, definitions and methodologies differ significantly from each other.
  6. 6. Ghana Water and Sanitation Sector Performance Report 2009 Page 6 As, for instance, it is not very difficult to obtain sub-sector information on service levels or coverage data, it has always been difficult or even impossible to obtain a harmonized set of data or information for a national level decision-making. Stakeholders in the WASH sector have therefore, in recent years, been calling for harmonized systems and definitions for effective central monitoring. The drive toward a SWAp provides a perfect answer to this important call. But for SWAp to work effectively in Ghana, there is need for a tool such as this common sector report that will provide an at-a-glance overview of the status of the sector in terms of targets and achievements, funding, resource distribution, gender and vulnerability considerations, policy and strategy development among others. Being the first edition against the background that the sector is yet to meet and agree on standardized central indicators and M&E framework, the Editorial Committee decided to put together what already exists from the various agencies to form the information base for this particular report. As expected, some of the core indicators whose status many stakeholders would love to know had virtually no records on them simply because it has not been the tradition to keep such records. For instance it was difficult for the team to assemble data on functionality of systems, gender and vulnerability, NGO contribution in terms of facility delivery, advocacy and sector funding. Information on District Assemblies’ direct investment in the WASH sector is also missing as various attempts by some institutions to research into sector investments have mostly suffered from scarcity of records at the district level. The production of this report, nonetheless, offers some hope; as subsequent editions are published and information gaps exposed, all appropriate institutions will be challenged to improve on and documentation. At the ministry level, the first major action is to fast track the development of the national level M&E Framework in order to facilitate the production of this report and sector monitoring as a whole. As an overview, this report has been grouped under five main chapters. Chapter one provides some sector background information and its history; chapter two provides information on institutional arrangements and sector coordination updates. Chapter three provides information about sector performance trends and performance in 2009. This chapter has been sub-divided into Water Resources Management updates, Rural and Small Town Water Supply, Sanitation and hygiene updates and Urban Water Supply updates. In chapter four, brief information on some key sector innovations that need attention are provided, while chapter five provides conclusions and a few suggestions for improvement. This first edition may not provide the harmonized information needs as expected, but is hoped that it will open the way for a faster drive towards harmonization in the sector. Minta. A. Aboagye Director – Water Directorate MWRWH
  7. 7. Ghana Water and Sanitation Sector Performance Report 2009 Page 7 Acknowledgements The Ministry of water Resources, Works and Housing, on behalf of the Government of Ghana, wishes to acknowledge the contribution of some institutions and individuals to the production of this first ever Ghana Water and Sanitation Sector Report. But for their effort, the dream of a sector report may still not have been realized. The government acknowledges the role of the EU Water facility and UNICEF through the provision of funds, both directly and indirectly for this project. Special mention also goes to the WASH Sector Group for mooting the idea of a sector report as a requirement under the march towards a Sectorwide Approach (SWAp). Again, the government wishes to commend the Community Water and Sanitation Agency, Ghana Water Company Limited, and the Water Resources Commission for volunteering most of the information that form the core of this report, as well as the Water and Sanitation Monitoring Platform, for coordinating the compilation of information and the production of this report. The following individuals also deserve special mention for their special contribution to this work: Alban S. Bagbin, (Minister for Water Resources, Works and Housing), Minta A. Aboagye, (Director, Water Directorate), Yaw Asante Sarkodie, (Team Leader, WSMP), Emmanuel Addai, (Communication Specialist, WSMP), Richard Adjei, (Data Analyst, WSMP), Lovia Adu-Agyeman, (Office Manager, WSMP), Enoch Ofosu, (Water Resources Specialist, Water Directorate), Attah Arhin, (Project Manager, IWSPMF-WD), Michael Agyeman, (Director of Public Relations, GWCL), Ben Ampomah, (Executive Secretary, WRC), George Boakye Yiadom, (Investment Planner, CWSA), Rudolf Amenga Etego, (Grassroots Africa), Kwabena Sarpong Manu, (MIME Consults), and Adjoa Munkua Dako, (PRO, WRC), Benedict Kubabom (Director of Planning and Investments – CWSA), Asumaning Nyarko (GWCL) and Camynta Baezie (Consultant, MWRWH).
  8. 8. Ghana Water and Sanitation Sector Performance Report 2009 Page 8 Table of Contents Foreword.......................................................................................................................................................4 Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................5 Acknowledgements.......................................................................................................................................7 Table of Contents..........................................................................................................................................8 List of Tables ...............................................................................................................................................10 List of Figures ..............................................................................................................................................11 List of Abbreviations ...................................................................................................................................12 Executive Summary.....................................................................................................................................14 1 Historical overview.................................................................................18 1.1 Decline in Operational Efficiency of GWSC.................................................................................19 1.2 Interventions by to Improve Efficiency.......................................................................................20 1.3 The Water Sector Restructuring Project.....................................................................................20 2 Institutional and policy framework ........................................................22 2.2 Sector Ministries .........................................................................................................................23 2.3 Sector Agencies and Departments..............................................................................................24 2.4 Sector coordination updates.......................................................................................................25 2.5 On-going sector learning and other projects..............................................................................27 2.6 Annual reviews and conferences................................................................................................31 3 Sector Performance ...............................................................................33 3.1 Sector performance against the MDG targets............................................................................34 3.2 Summary of performance against national targets....................................................................35 3.3 Water Resources Management ..................................................................................................37
  9. 9. Ghana Water and Sanitation Sector Performance Report 2009 Page 9 3.4 Rural Water Supply and Sanitation.............................................................................................45 3.5 Urban water supply.....................................................................................................................58 4 Recent major WASH Sector innovations.................................................64 4.2 The Ghana Water Forum ............................................................................................................65 4.3 Ghana Watsan Journalists Network (GWJN) ..............................................................................66 4.4 RCN Learning Alliances Platform.................................................................................................66 4.5 GWCL/AVRL Customer Services Call Centre ...............................................................................66 5 Conclusions and recommendations .......................................................67 Annexes .......................................................................................................72
  10. 10. Ghana Water and Sanitation Sector Performance Report 2009 Page 10 List of Tables Table 1: Ghana’s MDG status 1990 and 2008.............................................................................................34 Table 3: Investment requirements from Strategic Investment Plans.........................................................37 Table 4: Water Quality Classification.........................................................................................................39 Table 5: Results of Water Quality Monitoring and Classification of Water Bodies from 2005- 2008........39 Table 6: Investment requirement for the SIP 2008 – 2015 (Ghana Cedis)................................................48 Table 7: CWSA facility delivery status as at 2009 .......................................................................................49 Table 8: CWSA capacity building status as at 2009.....................................................................................49 Table 9: Regional coverage trends 2006 to 2009 .......................................................................................51 Table 10: GWCL/AVRL performance 2003-2009.........................................................................................61
  11. 11. Ghana Water and Sanitation Sector Performance Report 2009 Page 11 List of Figures Figure 1: Performance against 2015 targets...............................................................................................36 Figure 2: Total WASH budget against GDP .................................................................................................36 Figure 3: Licensed water users....................................................................................................................40 Figure 4: WRC Financing Trends .................................................................................................................44 Figure 5: WRC Internally Generated Funds.................................................................................................44 Figure 6: Rural water supply performance .................................................................................................46 Figure 7: Rural water coverage trends........................................................................................................47 Figure 8: Projected rural and small town water coverage by 2015............................................................47 Figure 9: Expected vs. projected coverage for rural water supply .............................................................48 Figure 10: Regional coverage - rural...........................................................................................................50 Figure 11: GoG financing trends - rural.......................................................................................................52 Figure 12: urban water supply performance..............................................................................................59 Figure 13: Urban water coverage trends....................................................................................................60 Figure 14: Regional coverage - urban .........................................................................................................60 Figure 15: GoG allocations and releases to GWCL......................................................................................63
  12. 12. Ghana Water and Sanitation Sector Performance Report 2009 Page 12 List of Abbreviations AfDB - African Development Bank AVRL - Aqua Vitens Rand Limited CEOs - Chief Executive Officers CIDA - Canadian International Development Agency CLTS - Community-led Total Sanitation CONIWAS Coalition of NGOs in Water and Sanitation CSO - Civil Society Organization CWSA - Community Water and Sanitation Agency DA - District Assembly DANIDA- Danish International Development Agency DfID - (UK) Department for International Development DPs - Development Partners EHSD - Environmental Health and Sanitation Directorate EPA - Environmental Protection Agency ESA - External Support Agency EU - European Union GDP - Gross Domestic Product GH¢ - Ghana Cedi GoG - Government of Ghana GSS - Ghana Statistical Service GTZ - German Technical Cooperation GWCL - Ghana Water Company Limited GWF - Ghana Water Forum GWJN - Ghana Watsan Journalists Network GWSC - Ghana Water and Sewerage Corporation HSD - Hydrological Services Department IWSPMF- Improvement of Water Sector Performance management Framework (Project) JMP - WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme JTC /IWRM Joint Technical Committee for Integrated Water Resources Management LA - Learning Alliance LI - legislative Instrument
  13. 13. Ghana Water and Sanitation Sector Performance Report 2009 Page 13 M&E - Monitoring and Evaluation MDG - Millennium Development Goal MLGRD - Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development MMDA - Metropolitan/Municipal/District Assembly MWRWH Ministry of Water Resources, Works and Housing NCWSP - National Community Water and Sanitation Programme NEPAD - New Partnership for Africa’s Development NESSAP - National Environmental Sanitation Strategy and Action Plan NGO - Non Governmental Organization NLLAP - National Level Learning Alliance Platform PURC - Public Utility Regulatory Commission RCN - Resource Centre Network RWSP - Rural Water and Sanitation Project SHEP - School Hygiene Education Programme SIP - Sector Investment Plan SWAp - Sectorwide Approach TPP - Tripartite Partnership UNICEF - United Nations Children’s Fund VBA - Volta Basin Authority VIP - Ventilated Improved Pit (latrine) WASH - Water, Sanitation and Hygiene WATSAN Water and Sanitation WHO - World Health Organization WQI - Water Quality Index WRC - Water Resources Commission WSDBs - Water and Sanitation Development Boards WSMP - Water and Sanitation Monitoring Platform WSRP - Water Sector Restructuring Programme WVI - World Vision International
  14. 14. Ghana Water and Sanitation Sector Performance Report 2009 Page 14 Executive Summary This is the first attempt in Ghana to produce a comprehensive Water and Sanitation Sector Performance Report. The production of this first edition, as is common with many a first attempt in many endeavours, has been quite challenging, while at the same time, it has helped to identify a couple of gaps that need to be filled as a sector to help speed up the drive toward sectorwide monitoring and subsequent reporting. As there are no harmonized sector indicators yet, this report is basically a compilation of reports from the three main sector agencies: Water Resources Commission, Community Water and Sanitation Agency and Ghana Water Company Limited. It must also be noted that the focus of this report is on local targets as set by the WRC, CWSA and GWCL and not the UN MDG targets. It is hoped that stakeholders will quickly come out with more ideas that will help shape subsequent Sector Performance Reports that will satisfy Ghana’s information needs on WASH. Performance against national targets by 2015 (Drinking water supply) The Ghana Water Company Limited, the main national utility in charge of supply of potable water to urban dwellers in Ghana, has set a target of achieving 85% coverage by 2015. As at the end of 2009, the company had achieved 59% coverage. The Community Water and Sanitation Agency has also set a target of 76% drinking water coverage for rural and small town dwellers by 2015. The Agency had achieved 58.97% as at the end of 2009. Based on this information, the overall national coverage as far as the two main sector agencies in charge of drinking water supply are concerned is estimated at 58.98% as at the end of 2009 as against a national target of 79.8%. Performance in Water Resources Management The main activities under water resources management in 2009 included: Water quality monitoring: this has been carried out in 19 locations since 2005. Most of the river systems analyzed maintained their quality status while a few recorded some decline; Water resources use and regulation: As at the end of 2009, 154 major water users had been licensed and issued permits, majority of which were for domestic water supplies; Regulation of Dams: The WRC initiated a process of developing another regulation aimed at coordinating all relevant activities related to dam design, construction, operations, maintenance, and decommissioning to ensure uniform and adequate level of safety for all dams throughout Ghana; Compliance monitoring and enforcement: A register of permit holders (major water users) was regularly updated and annually made public in the print media; River basin management: Main activities included ensuring the functionality of River Basin Boards, development of national IWRM plans, IWRM promotion and public education and transboundary water resources management and development, as well as undertaking specific climate change
  15. 15. Ghana Water and Sanitation Sector Performance Report 2009 Page 15 adaptation projects. Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Rural and small town drinking water supply coverage has consistently improved from 40% in 2000 to 58.97% in 2009. However, with a sub-sector target of 76% by 2015, coverage should have been 60% as at 2009, meaning that the sub-sector is not yet fully on track. If the current coverage trend continues, the sub-sector will achieve about 74% by 2015. Urban water supply The national target set for urban drinking water supply under the GPRS is 85% coverage by 2015. Available data however shows that Ghana is far from meeting this target. The installed capacity of all the urban water supply systems in the country is about 949,000 cubic metres per day but current water demand in urban areas is estimated at about 1,101,032 cubic metres per day. Effective urban water supply coverage is about 59%. This coverage is quite low when compared with the targets. Urban water coverage experienced a downward trend from 2003 to 2006. The trend however changed and since 2006 there has been a steady upward movement from 55% to 59% in 2009. Since 2003, water production by GWCL has increased steadily from 205.2mm3 to 231.77mm3 in 2009. Revenue generation by the Company has also improved from GH¢41.5 million to GH¢106.6 million in 2009. However, cost of production has also increased from GH¢0.096/m3 to GH¢0.39/m3 . Cost of chemicals per m3 for instance has doubled from GH¢0.02 in 2003 to GH¢0.04 in 2009. Non-revenue water as at the end of 2009 was 51.5%, having reduced from 57.1% in 2003. GoG Budget performance Since 2007, government allocations to the Water Resources Commission have consistently reduced from GH¢94,500 to GH¢60,845. It is also evident that actual releases from these allocations have been very low; 6.3% in 2007, 11.7% in 2008 and 3.2% in 2009. WRC spending from the GoG releases have always been 100%. Government releases to WRC over the three year period have been about 3% of WRC’s internally generated funds. GoG allocations for rural and small town water supply has shown an upward trend from GH¢2,179,419 in 2006 to GH¢35,026,106 in 2009. However, the gap between allocations and actual releases is rather widening; from about 25% in 2006 to about 90% in 2009. Since 2007, GoG has not been able to fully release its approved budget to GWCL. In 2007 for instance GoG released only 4.6% of the GH¢25.7 million approved, while in 2009, GoG released about 23% of the approved GH¢11.8 million. Conclusions and recommendations Monitoring and Evaluation There is currently no sectorwide Monitoring and Evaluation framework. Information in this report has been based on fragmented sub-sector definitions and standards. Developing a sectorwide M&E
  16. 16. Ghana Water and Sanitation Sector Performance Report 2009 Page 16 framework is therefore critical to the value of this report. For instance this report has no information on functionality and sustainability since an indicator on functionality or sustainability is not yet defined. There are no known sectorwide indicators on hygiene, gender and vulnerability issues among others. Lack of information on such critical components of WASH service delivery leaves a major gap in sector information and decision-making. The Ghana Statistical Service (GSS) however generates substantial amount of data on WASH, including data on sanitation, hygiene and gender. However, stakeholders in the WASH sector have yet to make effective use of this survey data since they are yet to fully accept the methodologies and the definitions used. Experts have recommended a special WASH survey to be conducted (by the GSS) with common sector definitions and indicators in order to make more effective a common M&E framework. Rural and small town water supply Provision should be made for the investment component of CWSA to be rolled over every financial year to enable smooth implementation of programmes as happens with the funds provided by donors since it is not always possible for funds to be disbursed in one financial year. Procurement Though the Procurement Act has introduced a lot of transparency in the system it must be reviewed to introduce a higher degree of flexibility to properly align it to the development exigencies of current times to avoid unnecessary delays in implementation of projects. Sanitation and hygiene indicators and data To date, no WASH sector agency collates sectorwide data on sanitation and hygiene. Therefore this report has almost no data on sanitation and hygiene. The only type of data on sanitation is generated by the Ghana Statistical Service through representative household surveys and censuses. This report could not use that data for this report since the methodologies applied in generating such survey data are different from what the agencies applied to generate data on water. NGO Contribution In spite of their much appreciated contribution to policy formulation, decision-making, funding and facility delivery, it was extremely difficult to obtain a documented evidence of NGO contribution to the WASH sector in Ghana from the umbrella body (CONIWAS). It is strongly recommended that CONIWAS compiles an annual report on the total contribution its members make to the sector in the form of funding, facility delivery, advocacy and policy formulation, strategy development, sector learning among others. Sustaining existing investments More water and Sanitation investments are needed in both rural/small towns and urban areas
  17. 17. Ghana Water and Sanitation Sector Performance Report 2009 Page 17 particularly in fast growing peri-urban areas. However, it is absolutely necessary to properly operate and maintain the systems and assure the sustainability of the investments. Unfortunately, however, it was hard to come by data on functionality for this report and it is strongly recommended that data generation by all the agencies should ensure that this all important indicator is not ignored. GoG budget allocation and releases Coverage for water and sanitation has been generally slow given the demand for improved drinking water and sanitation. A major contributory factor is government’s inability to release all approved funds to the sector over the years. There is a similar complaint from the GWCL and the WRC, and it is strongly recommended that the GoG should reverse the trend and ensure that adequate funds are released to help achieve the targets. Water and Sanitation Development and other Boards There have been major complaints from sector agencies and civil society of political interference in water management issues especially the dissolution of well established and trained water boards, agency Boards, CEOs and Managing Directors etc whenever there is a change in government. Long delays in replacing and training such Boards and Directors affect the overall performance of the WASH sector as they affect major decision-making such as release of funds and disbursement, recruitment of staff, award of contracts and collapse of installed systems. Population estimates Put together, estimates from the Ghana Water Company and the CWSA portrays Ghana’s population as at 2009 to be more than 27 million, while other reports such as those from the UN estimate it at about 23 million as at 2008. Population estimates alone can distort all statistical data and give a very wrong picture of what is supposed to be the actual situation. It will be in the interest of the WASH sector to work with a common population base. Definition of urban and rural Data disaggregation should base on common definitions of urban and rural. What happens at the moment is that some communities that are purely urban (according to the GSS definition of urban as a community with 5,000 or more inhabitants) are actually reported under rural or small town by CWSA because they fall under the CWSA operational areas as small towns. Therefore, while household user- based survey data on WASH disaggregate rural and urban according to the GSS definition, the agencies define the term according to the areas they operate (the GWCL for instance define urban as the communities served by the 82 systems they operate). It is therefore not possible to compare rural/urban disaggregated data from the agencies with those from the user survey reports from the GSS/JMP.
  18. 18. Ghana Water and Sanitation Sector Performance Report 2009 Page 18 1 Historical overview
  19. 19. Ghana Water and Sanitation Sector Performance Report 2009 Page 19 1.0 Introduction The first public water supply system in Ghana, then Gold Coast, was established in Accra just before World War I. Extensions were made exclusively to other urban areas among them the colonial capital of Cape Coast, Winneba and Kumasi in the1920s. During this period, the water supply systems were managed by the Hydraulic Division of Public Works Department. With time the responsibilities of the Hydraulic Division were widened to include the planning and development of water supply systems in other parts of the country. In 1948, the Department of Rural Water Development was established to engage in the development and management of rural water supply through the drilling of bore holes and construction of wells for rural communities. After Ghana’s independence in 1957, a Water Supply Division, with headquarters in Kumasi, was set up under the Ministry of Works and Housing with responsibilities for both urban and rural water supplies. During the dry season of 1959, there was severe water shortage in the country. Following this crisis, an agreement was signed between the Government of Ghana and the World Health Organization (WHO) for a study to be conducted into the water sector development of the country. The study focused not only on technical engineering but also on the organization of a national water and sewerage authority and the methods of financing. The study recommended the preparation of a 20-year (1960 to 1980) Master Plan for water supply and sewerage services in Accra-Tema. In line with the recommendations of WHO, the Ghana Water and Sewerage Corporation (GWSC), was established in 1965 under an Act of Parliament (Act 310) as a legal public utility entity. GWSC was responsible for: water supply and sanitation in rural as well as urban areas the conduct of research on water and sewerage as well as the making of engineering surveys and plans the construction and operation of water and sewerage works, and the setting of standards and prices and collection of revenues 1.1 Decline in Operational Efficiency of GWSC In 1957, there were 35 pipe-borne water supply systems in the country. The number of pipe-borne systems rose to 69 in 1961 and then to 194 in 1979. At this time, there were 2,500 hand pumped borehole systems in the country and by 1984, additional 3,000 boreholes had been drilled and fitted with hand pumps. However by the late 1980s and early 1990s, 33% of the water supply systems had deteriorated greatly or completely broken down due to inadequate funding to carry out maintenance
  20. 20. Ghana Water and Sanitation Sector Performance Report 2009 Page 20 and rehabilitation. A World Bank report in 1998 states that: “The water supply systems in Ghana deteriorated rapidly during the economic crises of the 1970s and early 1980s when Government’s ability to adequately operate and maintain essential services was severely constrained.” 1.2 Interventions by to Improve Efficiency To reverse the decline in water supply services, interventions in the area of sector reforms and project implementation were made in 1970, 1981 and 1988. These included interventions by the World Bank, IDA, donor countries and other external support agencies such as Austrian Government, Italian Government, Nordic Development Fund, the African Development Bank, Canadian International Development Agency, Department for International Development, KfW, GTZ, OECF, ECGD and CFD/ADF. Though some gains were derived from these interventions, their general impact on service delivery was very disappointing. Due to the failure of these interventions to achieve the needed results, several efforts were made to improve efficiency within the water supply sector in Ghana especially during the era of the Economic Recovery Programme from 1983 to 1993. During this period, loans and grants were sought from the World Bank and other donors for the initiation of rehabilitation and expansion programmes, to train personnel and to buy transport and maintenance equipment. In addition, user fees for water supply were increased and subsidies on water tariffs were gradually removed for GWSC to achieve self-financing. Although subvention for both operational and developmental programmes was withdrawn in 1986, government funding for development programmes continued. The government at that time approved a formula for annual tariff adjustments to enable the corporation generate sufficient funds to cover all annual recurrent costs as well as attain some capacity to undertake development projects. 1.3 The Water Sector Restructuring Project In 1987, a “Five-Year Rehabilitation and Development Plan” for the sector was prepared which resulted in the launching of the Water Sector Restructuring Project (WSRP). Multilateral and bilateral donors contributed $140 million to support the implementation of the WSRP. The reforms were aimed at reducing unaccounted for water, introducing rationalization through reduction of the workforce, hiring of professionals and training of the remaining staff. A strong focus in the WSRP was also to improve management and increase efficiency through organizational change in the water sector. Accordingly, a number of organizational reforms within the Ghanaian water sector were initiated in the early 1990s. As a first step, responsibilities for sanitation and small towns water supply were decentralized from Ghana Water and Sewerage Corporation to the District Assemblies in 1993. The Water Resources Commission (WRC) was founded in 1996 to be in charge of overall regulation and management of water resources utilization. In 1997, the Public Utilities Regulatory Commission (PURC) came into being with the purpose of setting tariffs and quality standards for the operation of public
  21. 21. Ghana Water and Sanitation Sector Performance Report 2009 Page 21 utilities. With the passage of Act 564 of 1998, the Community Water and Sanitation Agency (CWSA) was established to be responsible for management of rural water supply systems, hygiene education and provision of sanitary facilities. After the establishment of CWSA, 120 water supply systems serving small towns and rural communities were transferred to the District Assemblies and Communities to manage under the community-ownership and management scheme. Finally, pursuant to the Statutory Corporations (Conversion to Companies) Act 461 of 1993 as amended by LI 1648, on 1st July 1999, GWSC was converted into a 100% state owned limited liability, Ghana Water Company Limited, with the responsibility for urban water supply only. A Water Directorate was also created within the Ministry of Water Resources, Works and Housing in 2004 to oversee sector policy formulation and review, monitoring and evaluation of the activities of the agencies, and co-ordination of the activities of donors. The Environmental Health and Sanitation Department of the Ministry of Local Government and Rural Department was also upgraded into a Directorate in 2008.
  22. 22. Ghana Water and Sanitation Sector Performance Report 2009 Page 22 2 Institutional and policy framework
  23. 23. Ghana Water and Sanitation Sector Performance Report 2009 Page 23 2.1 Introduction Several institutions play various roles in Ghana’s Water and Sanitation Sector. These include Ministries, Agencies, and Local Government institutions. This chapter presents brief information on institutional arrangements and how they link with each other from policy and coordination to implementation and regulation, as well as a bit on External Support Agencies and NGOs. 2.2 Sector Ministries 2.2.1 Ministry of Water Resources, Works and housing (MWRWH) The Ministry is responsible for setting policies and strategies for the water sector in the country – including water resources management and supply of drinking water to both urban and rural communities. There are three key public sector institutions/agencies under the ministry; the Water Resources Commission (WRC), Ghana Water Company Limited (GWCL) and the Community water and Sanitation Agency (CWSA). They execute the Ministry’s programmes, policies, plans and strategies on water resources management and drinking water supply in the country. The Ministry has established a Water Directorate to oversee sector policy formulation and review, monitoring and evaluation of the activities of the agencies, and co-ordination of the activities of donors. 2.2.2 The Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development This is the Ministry responsible for the overall policy formulation and strategic guidelines, planning, coordination, collaboration, monitoring and evaluation of programs for the environmental health and sanitation sector - both liquid and solid waste. It is also responsible for the efficient administration of all local government institutions including the Metropolitan, Municipal, and District Assemblies. It should be noted that these MMDAs are also responsible for the management and coordination of water and sanitation programmes within the communities under their jurisdiction. An Environmental Health and Sanitation Division under the Ministry was upgraded into a Directorate in 2008. The EHSD is responsible for coordinating the activities of all the key sector institutions including MMDAs involved the environmental sanitation sector. The EHSD provides sector coordination and facilitation of MMDAs in implementing national-level and other ministries’ programmes on environmental sanitation 2.2.3 Ministry of Education Through the School Health Education Programme (SHEP), the Ministry is tasked to implement the hygiene promotion and the school health programme in water and sanitation in all educational institutions particularly at the basic level. 2.2.4 Ministry of Health and the Ghana Health Service The Ministry of Health and the Ghana Health Service are responsible for the management of health services in the country and providing health data, supporting health education activities, and
  24. 24. Ghana Water and Sanitation Sector Performance Report 2009 Page 24 contributing to regulation and standard-setting for health services. The health sector relies on environmental sanitation data and information to contribute to disease prevention and control. 2.3 Sector Agencies and Departments 2.3.1 The Water Resources Commission (WRC) Created in 1996 by Act 522, the WRC is responsible for the regulation and management of the utilization of water resources and the coordination of policies related to its functions. Among its major tasks are the granting of water rights and the allocation of water resources among competing users. 2.3.2 Ghana Water Company Limited (GWCL) Established by Act 310 of 1965 as the Ghana Water and Sewerage Corporation (GWSC), and converted to the Ghana Water Company Limited (GWCL) by Act 461 of 1993, it is a state-owned company responsible for producing and distributing potable water to the urban population for domestic, public and industrial purposes. 2.3.3 Community Water and Sanitation Agency (CWSA) Established by Act 564 of 1998, the CWSA is a facilitating agency under the Ministry of Water Resources, Works and Housing. Its mandate is to facilitate the provision of safe drinking water and related sanitation and hygiene services to rural communities and small towns in Ghana. 2.3.4 Metropolitan, Municipal and District Assemblies (MMDAs) Established under the Local Government Act, 462, MMDAs are responsible for the preparation of the District Water and Sanitation Plans. This responsibility, however, does not include urban water supply. MMDAs play a crucial role of ensuring that facilities provided to rural and small towns are adequately managed and maintained. They are required to ensure that Water and Sanitation Committees and Water and Sanitation Development Boards are formed and given recognition to manage rural and small town water facilities provided. MMDAs are also expected to establish a budget line for water and sanitation either through central government allocations or through internally generated funds. 2.3.5 Development partners Development partners play a very important and indispensable role in Ghana’s water and sanitation sector. These roles extend from financial assistance to technical assistance and, through participation in (and sometimes championing) sector dialogues, contribute to development of sector policies and strategies. There are many external development assistance partners working in the sector. Development partners currently contribute about 80% of total WASH sector funding1 . The partners include: African Development Bank (AfDB), Agence Française de Dévéloppement (AFD), CIDA, DANIDA, 1 Recent arguments point to the fact that a considerable proportion of donor funds to the WASH sector are indeed loans contracted by the government of Ghana. It will therefore be fair to the government if future analyses disaggregate loans from grants and show the actual GoG contribution.
  25. 25. Ghana Water and Sanitation Sector Performance Report 2009 Page 25 GTZ/KfW, DfiD, European Union, Japan International Co-operation Agency (JICA), Netherlands, UNICEF, IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre, and the World Bank. 2.3.6 NGOs Though currently difficult to estimate the exact contribution of NGOs in Ghana’s Water in terms of sector financing, there is a lot of field evidence to suggest that the significant presence of both international and local NGOs and Faith-Based Organizations (FBO) in the WASH Sector in Ghana is indeed helping to accelerate sector growth. WaterAid, World Vision International (WVI), Church of Christ, the Catholic Church, Plan International and Adventist Development and Relief Organization (ADRA), are among international NGOs sometimes playing roles of donors and implementers. The formation of the Coalition of NGOs in Water and Sanitation (CONIWAS) in 2003 has also contributed to a better sector coordination, having been collaborating with the MWRWH and its agencies, particularly CWSA. In effect this has enabled CONIWAS to bring its members to conform to sector’s procedures and guidelines, a situation which was previously missing. 2.4 Sector coordination updates 2.4.1 Sector policy updates The overall goal of the National Water Policy, which was approved in 2007 after years of consultations, is to ‘achieve sustainable development, management and use of Ghana’s water resources to improve health and livelihoods, reduce vulnerability while assuring good governance for present and future generations.’ This goal is to be achieved by addressing relevant issues under water resources management, urban water supply and community water and sanitation2 . Every action taken, from integrated water resources management, urban water supply and community water and sanitation during the year 2009 were therefore broadly influenced and informed by this broad policy objective. Some of the focus areas that received renewed attention were private sector participation in water service delivery; for the first time there were high level discussions on how to take this objective forward during the 1st Ghana Water Forum in October 2009, where sector stakeholders and corporate institutions organized a Business Roundtable to find a way forward. A final draft of the reviewed National Sanitation Policy was also submitted to Cabinet for approval and it will very likely be launched by the end of 2010. 2.4.2 Sector-wide Approach (SWAp) updates3 Efforts to move towards a sectorwide approach for water and sanitation delivery is an on-going process and dates back to 2002 when the Donor’s Conference of the Community Water and Sanitation Agency 2 National Water Policy 2007 3 Water Directorate: Deepening the understanding of the roles and responsibilities of the Ghana water Sector SWAp (March 2010)
  26. 26. Ghana Water and Sanitation Sector Performance Report 2009 Page 26 (CWSA) deliberated on the theme: ‘Towards a Sectorwide Approach for Community Water and Sanitation Delivery.’ The 2004 Donors Conference further built on this under the theme ‘Harmonizing approaches in water and sanitation delivery.’ By the end of 2008, some important milestones had been attained towards a more integrated national water and sanitation sector. These include the creation of a Water Directorate in 2004 and the development of a National Water Policy in 2007. In 2009, a Water and Sanitation Sector Group, led by the Water Directorate established a SWAp Task Force which developed a SWAp Roadmap to build momentum towards getting the SWAp in motion. The roadmap defined some critical next steps f including: Strengthening of the Water Directorate; Agreement on a Code of Conduct for all those working in the sector; Development of a comprehensive sector development plan with a budget linked to government’s annual budget processes; Agreement on possible financing options for SWAp and Development of a sustainable common sector M&E system. Series of action oriented stakeholder workshops have subsequently been planned against 2010 to help take major decisions on how to implement this roadmap. 2.4.3 Sector M&E updates At the agency level, both the CWSA and GWCL have M&E systems that help them to track progress, plan and make informed management decisions. A major challenge, however, has been with monitoring, evaluation and decision-making at the national level. This is because of differences in definitions and methodologies that the agencies employ in their monitoring processes. In the spirit of a drive toward a sectorwide approach and effective sector coordination, there is need to harmonize some of the definitions and monitoring approaches and develop sectorwide monitoring indicators and produce a sectorwide report. Monitoring and evaluation received a boost as a policy objective and as a major requirement in a sector- wide approach when, at the national level, and with support from the EU Water Facility and UNICEF, a Water and Sanitation Monitoring Platform (WSMP) was established to support the Water Directorate in 2008 to begin a process of actively disseminating available sector data and facilitating a process of harmonizing sector definitions and monitoring methodologies. The WSMP has so far been able to disseminate some of the existing and useful data and has promoted a better understanding of various data available in the sector. The Platform has also raised a number of issues needing national level attention. As a result of its achievements, the Water Directorate has decided to recognize and support the WSMP to serve, in the interim, as a national mechanism for sectorwide monitoring and evaluation, with mandate to, among other functions, facilitate the development of sectorwide monitoring indicators, establishment of a sectorwide M&E system, data flow system and also disseminate sectorwide data to inform national level decision-making.
  27. 27. Ghana Water and Sanitation Sector Performance Report 2009 Page 27 2.5 On-going sector learning and other projects There are a number of on-going projects that are intended to inform policy and strategies, particularly in relation to WASH delivery to the poor, WASH data literacy and harmonization, life cycle costs of service delivery, sustainable management of water resources and water safety and management etc. These projects are being implemented by various institutions in partnership with the MWRWH and its agencies, academic institutions, NGOs and international organizations. These are briefly discussed below: 2.5.1 Improvement of Water Sector Performance Management Framework (IWSPMF) The project aims at supporting the Water Directorate in policy formulation, planning and coordination of sector activities and programmes, while ensuring coherence in monitoring and evaluation. The Improvement of the Water Sector Performance Management Framework (IWSPMF) aims at developing the capacity of the Water Directorate in the Ministry of Water Resources, Works and Housing to implement the National Water Policy and improve the Water and Sanitation (W&S) Sector performance for achieving national and MDG targets. This is expected to be achieved by developing a consistent and objective framework for promoting increased, predictable and innovative funding for the Sector. The project is funded by the European Union with support from DFID and the Government of Ghana. Outputs in 2009 include: Capacity building of Water Directorate staff through appropriate short term training courses in Ghana and other countries, as well as the provision of various office equipment; A Water and Sanitation Sector Website was developed and launched with links to other agencies; A quarterly sector newsletter Water Focus was established with first edition already published; A multi stakeholder dialogue on improving transparency and accountability in the WASH Sector was organized; Supported the development and implementation of a roadmap for Sector Wide Approach (SWAp) and funded the organization of the 2nd SWAp workshop; Provided funding and technical support for organization of the 1st Ghana Water Forum; and Supported the organization of Water and Sanitation Sector Group meetings. 2.5.2 The Water and Sanitation Monitoring Platform (WSMP) With funding from the EU Water Facility and technical/financial Support from UNICEF, the Water and Sanitation Monitoring Platform was established in Ghana in 2008 by the Water Directorate of the Ministry of Water Resources, Works and Housing. WSMP was established as a three-year pilot project to support WASH sector monitoring through assembling of available data, repackaging and disseminating information to relevant stakeholders. The project also seeks to support and/or facilitate efforts towards harmonization of sector definitions and methodologies for data collection in order to minimize disparities. This Platform had become necessary due to wide disparities between data generated by sector Agencies and those generated by the Ghana Statistical Service and the United Nations and the need for
  28. 28. Ghana Water and Sanitation Sector Performance Report 2009 Page 28 government and stakeholders to understanding them to make informed decisions. There was also a lot of data that was not disseminated and thus not made use of. From 2008 to 2009, the WSMP contributed tremendously to sector activities by educating the WASH sector on various types of data and why there were differences between them, when and where to use which type of data etc. The Platform also raised the profile of a number of issues such as Ghana’s MDG progress on water and sanitation and the issue of shared toilet facilities and its impact on Ghana’s MDG progress on sanitation. Among other activities, the WSMP is currently supporting the Water Directorate to establish a sectorwide monitoring and evaluation framework as part of the drive towards a sector- wide approach (SWAp). The Platform is also coordinating the production of this WASH Sector Performance Report. For more information, visit www.wsmp.org. 2.5.3 Resource Centre Network (RCN) The Resource Centre Network (RCN) is an institutional partnership that seeks to promote Knowledge Management (KM) services within the WASH sector in Ghana. The network is a group of organizations and projects that generate and disseminate knowledge and act as the operational body for sector KM activities. Though RCN partners have their own sector focus and target groups, the Members commit to network their knowledge activities through the RCN Secretariat in order to avoid duplication and optimize use of resources to ensure that the knowledge requirements of the entire sector is met. A major achievement of RCN in 2009 was the introduction of the monthly National Level Learning Alliance Platform (NLLAP) and the Sector Events Calendar (both in collaboration with the Water Directorate). The platform provided regular interactive sessions with sector stakeholders to learn and share lessons, experiences, best practices and innovations on various thematic areas within WASH. The events calendar also served as a guide to setting dates of sector events, thus supporting sector coordination with regards to sector engagements. For more information, visit www.ghana.watsan.net. 2.5.4 WASHCost Project Ghana WASHCost is a five-year initiative focused on exploring and sharing an understanding of the true costs of sustainable Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) services. It is led by the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Ghana in cooperation with IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre, The Netherlands. Since 2008, WASHCost has developed new methodologies with sector stakeholders to better understand and use the costs in providing WASH services to rural and peri-urban communities in Ghana. Some of the partners include Water Directorate (WD) of the Ministry of Water Resources, Works and Housing (MWRWH), Environmental Health and Sanitation Directorate (EHSD) of the Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development (MLGRD) and Community Water and Sanitation Agency (CWSA). In 2009, WASHCost piloted new methodologies to collect life-cycle costs of sustainable WASH services in Northern, Ashanti, Volta, and Greater Accra regions. Preliminary information was collected on Capital Expenditure (CapEx), Operating and Minor Maintenance Expenditure (OpEx), Capital Maintenance
  29. 29. Ghana Water and Sanitation Sector Performance Report 2009 Page 29 Expenditure (CapManEX), Expenditure on Direct Support (ExpDS) and Expenditure on Indirect Support (ExpIDS). Service levels indicators were identified which reflect the standards of service in rural and peri- urban communities against which life-cycle costs can be measured. Some of the preliminary results have been presented on certain stakeholder platforms. 2.5.5 Tripartite Partnership Project (TPP) The Tripartite Partnership Project (TPP) is a collaborative approach involving Ghanaian and Dutch partners, with additional AWF/AfDB funds for infrastructure, that seeks to tackle the core problems of weak sector capacity for planning and delivery of WASH services in poor urban areas. This is done through the demonstration of new approaches to pro-poor WASH service delivery in three pilot areas involving three-party partnerships of NGO, Public and Private sectors. The specific objectives are: To analyze the problems and constraints to pro-poor services delivery and identify innovative approaches; To identify and test a range of different innovative management models for providing WASH services to the urban poor; To support the creation of the enabling environment (policy, regulation, etc.) necessary for these innovative models to be widely scaled-up. The main achievement for 2009 included the identification and documentation of innovative management models for water supply in Ghana, support for the establishment of structures for sector learning and networking, and the preparation of detailed field-based pilot projects with infrastructure for service delivery alongside learning aspects. For more information, please visit http://www.ghana.watsan.net/page/687 2.5.6 Sustainable Water management Improves Tomorrow’s Cities Health (SWITCH) SWITCH is implemented by a consortium of 32 organizations from various countries under the coordination of UNESCO-IHE. In Ghana it is being implemented by KNUST, the International Water Management Institute and District Assemblies. The aim is to achieve a paradigm shift in urban water management for a sustainable, healthy and safe urban water system. The principal objective of the project is that Accra will strive to develop and safeguard its renewable water resources and to use them to effectively and efficiently provide its citizen’s with appropriate drinking water and other water related services in a manner that is integrated, equitable, sustainable and cost-effective. SWITCH has for the past three years been contributing to the development of strategic directions in Urban Water Management through training, research and demonstrations on Social Inclusion in Urban Water Governance, Use of Natural Systems for storm water management and waste water treatment. SWITCH also supported the training of various sector practitioners in planning for Integrated Urban Water Management. SWITCH initiated a Learning Alliance (LA) Process for the Urban Water Sector which is in its 3rd year. The SWITCH project is using the LAs to develop strategic plans for Integrated Urban Water Management. The LA is currently in the strategy development phase and to provide
  30. 30. Ghana Water and Sanitation Sector Performance Report 2009 Page 30 evidence for decisions regarding the strategic directions, an institutional map and a Resource Infrastructure Demand Access Assessment (RIDA) have been developed. The RIDA document has been instrumental in collating information regarding the status of water management in Accra. This document has been widely circulated among key stakeholders in the Urban Water Management Sector. 2.5.7 UN-HABITAT Water for African Cities Project This is a project sponsored by the UN Habitat and the Government of Ghana. The objective is to improve health and productivity by increasing access to good drinking water and proper sanitation facilities on sustainable basis and trigger investments in the sector to meet GPRS, NEPAD, and MDG targets. The project area consists of core community of Sabon Zongo and other areas in the Accra metropolis including Weija, Bortianor and Legon. Co-operating partners are WaterAid, GWCL, Ghana Education Service, Accra Metropolitan Assembly and Water Resources Commission. 2.5.8 Pro-poor pilot projects for water interventions in low income communities To achieve its pro-poor objectives the Public Utilities Regulatory Commission (PURC) is collaborating with GWCL, AVRL, WaterAid, communities and other institutions to undertake pilot projects to serve the poor in three low-income, water-deprived communities in Accra. These pilots are expected to provide specific information for further refining of the commission’s social policies with a view to better identification and targeting of the poor in its regulatory decisions. GWCL is also collaborating with AFD through a study and infrastructural development to develop a national pre-urban policy for Ghana. The study area is in three towns under the Berekum Water Supply system namely Kato, Jemdede and Nato in the Brong Ahafo Region. Three models are going to be studied and also a learning study tour to countries with similar successfully policies visited to learn from their challenges in its implementation. Similar GWCL, AVRL and CHF are also working on a similar project which will feed into the finalization of the national pre-urban policy. 2.5.9 Sustainable Services at Scale (Triple-S) The Sustainable Services at Scale (Triple-S) is an IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre six-year multi-country learning initiative aimed at supporting governments and stakeholders in the water sector to improve rural water supply. Working collaboratively within existing structures, applying innovative planning and best practice, Triple-S encourages the shift away from one-off, stand-alone infrastructure projects towards integrated and lasting water services. In Ghana, the initiative will develop and test innovative approaches for water service delivery for national level upscale; support learning in the sector through documentation and dissemination of information on best practices of rural water service delivery; support processes for harmonization and coordination at national and district levels; facilitate processes for adoption of a service delivery approach and; support institutional strengthening and reforms for sustained water service delivery. The main implementing partner and host is the Community Water and Sanitation Agency (CWSA). Implementation of the initiative in Ghana began with the signing of a hosting agreement with the Community Water and Sanitation Agency in October 2009. A multi country study (including Ghana) into experiences with rural water service provision and aid effectiveness
  31. 31. Ghana Water and Sanitation Sector Performance Report 2009 Page 31 was commissioned in 2009. Structures for implementation, including a technical committee under the chairmanship of CWSA and a multi-stakeholder National Advisory Committee under the chairmanship of the Ministry of Water Resources Works and Housing were established in 2009. Again, a consultative process for the development of a strategic plan for implementation of the initiative was launched. These primary activities set the stage for a full scale implementation of the initiative in 2010. 2.6 Annual reviews and conferences There are a number of review processes in the WASH sector. Some of them examine policies, implementation processes, procedures and specific project/programme achievements and challenges. The MWRWH-led sector review for drinking water supply and sanitation, takes place around September or October every year to ensure that its decisions and recommendations are captured in the Government’s Annual Budget. In 2009, this review meeting (called GoG and Donors Conference) was replaced by the Ghana Water Forum Series. The Mole Conference Series: It is organized by the Coalition of NGOs in Water and Sanitation (CONIWAS), and is held mid-year. Led by NGOs, this has been held annually since 1989. The theme for the 2009 Mole Conference was “twenty years of multi-sector dialogue in Ghana, the state of water, sanitation and hygiene.” It was mainly to celebrate the 20th anniversary of the Mole Series and assess its contribution to WASH development in Ghana. Mole Series had contributed to sector dialogue, knowledge and the provision of water, sanitation and hygiene services to the people of Ghana. Among several others, Mole 2009 made the following pledges and calls in the conference communiqué: A pledge to consolidate the gains made through improved sector coordination, and to collectively work towards improving it through compliance with and respect for sector policies, regulations and standards; A pledge to support the development and implementation of appropriate policies and programmes and the enactment of requisite legislation to promote water-saving devices and practices; A call for intensified stakeholder education on the efficient selection and use of WASH sector data; A call on government and its agencies to evaluate and draw lessons from laudable private initiatives aimed at improving access to water and sanitation services to low income communities; A call for the development of a comprehensive Hygiene Education strategy by the Environmental Health and Sanitation Directorate. CWSA Annual Review: This review focuses on rural and small town water and sanitation service delivery. The theme for the 2009 Review was on Monitoring and Evaluation for Sustainable Delivery of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Promotion. There were discussions on new ideas to make monitoring and evaluation more effective within the agency as it relates to the sustainability of the facilities that it provides. The Management and staff of CWSA acknowledged the critical role they have to play in achieving the Government’s “Better Ghana Agenda” and pledged to work hard and endeavour to achieve set targets. They also promised to continue to pursue a policy of transparency and strive to build consensus through open engagement and constructive exchange of ideas.
  32. 32. Ghana Water and Sanitation Sector Performance Report 2009 Page 32 Ghana Water Forum: This is an annual event dedicated to wider water security issues, which mimics the African Water Week at the national level. The first of the GWF series was held in 2009. The Theme for the forum was “Accelerating water security for socio-economic development.” Unlike the GoG/Donor Conference, the Forum brought together a wider range of participants including the youth and children and the business community to brainstorm and/or take decisions on achieving water security in the face of climate change for Ghana. The Environmental Health and Sanitation Directorate annual review: This review is held to assess environmental sanitation in general. This is usually preceded by a Sanitation Week that highlights issues and challenges in sanitation and creates awareness for improved sanitation. The EHSD plans to convert this review to a National Environmental Sanitation Conference (NESCON) from 2010.
  33. 33. Ghana Water and Sanitation Sector Performance Report 2009 Page 33 3 Sector Performance
  34. 34. Ghana Water and Sanitation Sector Performance Report 2009 Page 34 3.0 Introduction This chapter presents progress on implementation of WASH activities from the three main sector agencies – the Water Resources Commission, the Community Water and Sanitation Agency and the Ghana Water Company Limited. It should be noted that this maiden WASH Sector Performance Report has been produced ahead of the sectorwide discussion and selection of common monitoring indicators. Therefore it was impossible to use any form of common indicators from the agencies. Indicators and definitions used to produce this report are those that are currently being used by the various agencies. 3.1 Sector performance against the MDG targets The focus of this report is on national targets set by the three main agencies based on their respective standard criteria, methodologies and definitions and not necessarily based on the methodologies for assessing progress towards the United Nations (UN) Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However, for the sake of clarity and the avoidance of confusion over coverage data in circulation through current UN reports and those that are contained in this report, we present a summary of Ghana’s performance against the MDGs before we move on to report on national targets. The MDG for water and sanitation is to “halve by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation.” The base year for monitoring MDG progress is 1990 (with occasional variations when new data is discovered). The indicators used to measure progress on this goal are: The proportion of the population that uses an improved drinking water source, urban and rural; The proportion of the population that uses and improved sanitation facility, urban and rural. We therefore present in the table below, Ghana’s status as in 1990 and her current position (as in 2008). Table 1: Ghana’s MDG status 1990 and 2008 Year % Water Coverage % Sanitation coverage Rural Urban National Rural Urban National 1990 37 84 54 4 11 7 2000 58 88 71 5 15 9 2008 74 90 82 7 18 13 Source: WHO/UNCEF Joint Monitoring Programme; Progress on Sanitation and Drinking Water 2010 update As 46% of Ghanaians did not use an improved drinking water source (Detailed JMP definitions for improved water source and improved sanitation facility have been provided in Annex 9) in 1990, and the MDG was to reduce that figure by half by 2015, one could then conclude that Ghana’s MDG target for
  35. 35. Ghana Water and Sanitation Sector Performance Report 2009 Page 35 drinking water is 77%. Therefore if as at 2008, when 82% of the population was drinking from an improved source, Ghana could be said to be clearly on track to meet its MDG target by 2015. The same could however not be said about sanitation. As Ghana should reach a target of 53.5% in 2015, only 13% of the population was using an improved sanitation facility as at 2008. This indicates that the country is off track to meeting its sanitation target by 2015. Local agencies have largely applied their own indicators, definitions and criteria for monitoring and have hardly applied the JMP4 criteria. They therefore set their own (local) MDG target of 76% for rural and small towns water supply and 85% for urban water supply. Missing conspicuously are local targets (and local data) for sanitation and hygiene. There are however, local efforts, underway, being coordinated by the WSMP, to find a way of adapting JMP coverage figures to suit local decision-making and planning. This includes refining JMP coverage figures with the time that people spend to search for water and/or the distance that people cover from their homes to the source of water. For now, this report will focus on local targets for water, sanitation and hygiene until any major decisions are taken in future. 3.2 Performance against national targets - Summary Coverage against national targets for drinking water as at 2009 Population Population Served % Coverage Rural Urban Total Rural Urban Total Rural Urban National 15,673,313 11,529,723 27,203,036 9,242,366 6,802,536 16,044,902 58.97 59 58.98 Source: CWSA and GWCL: 2009 The Ghana Water Company Limited, the main national utility in charge of supply of potable water to urban dwellers in Ghana, has set a target of achieving 85% coverage by 2015. As at the end of 2009, the company had achieved 59% coverage. The Community Water and Sanitation Agency has also set a target of 76% drinking water coverage for rural and small town dwellers by 2015. The Agency had achieved 58.97% as at the end of 2009. Based on this information, the overall national coverage as far as the two main water supply sector agencies are concerned is estimated as 58.98% (total population served as a percentage of total estimated population by CWSA and GWCL) as at the end of 2009. Using the absolute figures of the 2015 targets by both agencies, an aggregated national target for 2015 will therefore be 80% (76% of total rural population plus 85% of total urban population expressed as a percentage of total estimated national population). 4 The JMP is the UN mechanism mandated to monitor global progress on the MDG for drinking water and basic sanitation.
  36. 36. Ghana Water and Sanitation Sector Performance Report 2009 Page 36 Figure 1: Performance against 2015 targets Given the sub-national drinking water targets of 76% rural and 85% urban by 20155 , and the total estimated population of 27,203,0366 , it can be deduced that the overall national target by 2015 is 79.8% (representing 21,711,982 people out of 27,203,036 in absolute terms). The overall national performance against the national target is therefore 58.98% as against a target of 79.8%. Figure 2: Total WASH budget against GDP Sources: Annual Budget Statements 2006 to 2010 5 Ref: Strategic Investment Plans from CWSA and GWCL 6 The figure is derived from the estimated population figures provided by the GWCL and CWSA in their 2009 reports
  37. 37. Ghana Water and Sanitation Sector Performance Report 2009 Page 37 Allocations to the WASH Sector7 since 2006 have consistently fallen below 2% of annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP). It has also shown a downward trend, having dropped from 1.52% in 2006 to 0.52% in 2010. Table 3: Investment requirements from Strategic Investment Plans Rural/Small Town WSS Requirement 2008 - 2015 GWCL (Urban) Water Supply Requirement 2008 -2015 Activity Total Water & Related Sanitation ($m) Software and Project Mgt ($m) Total ($m) New Facilities ($m) Rehabilitation ($m) Expansion/ New ($bn) Cost 469 36 505 921 452 1,373 Source: GWCL and CWSA SIPs 2008 - 2015 Sector Investment Plans from both CWSA and GWCL indicate that the drinking water supply and basic sanitation sub-sector requires a total investment capital of US$1,878 billion from 2008 to 2015. This translates into U$505 million and U$1,373 billion rural and urban respectively. 3.3 Water Resources Management 3.3.1 Introduction A number of reviews were undertaken in the water sector during the late 1980s and early 1990s, but the resultant reforms remained agency specific with each sector agency managing, controlling and regulating its own activities. Subsequent reviews identified the institutional gap regarding the co- ordination and integration of the various sector policies for water use in the country. A significant step was taken by government to address the diffused state of functions and authority in water resources management to an integrated form. Accordingly, the Water Resources Commission (WRC) was established by an Act of Parliament (ACT 522 of 1996), as the national institution responsible for the management of the country’s water resources. The mandate of WRC is specifically to regulate and manage the country’s water resources and to co- ordinate government policies in relation to them. The Commission represents a forum for integration, cooperation and collaboration of different interests and is composed of the major stakeholders involved in the water sector. The main stakeholders represented on the WRC are Hydrological Services, Water Supply – both urban and rural, Irrigation Development, Water Research, Meteorological Services, Hydropower Generation, Environmental Protection, Forestry, Minerals, Traditional Chiefs, NGOs and Women interests. A Secretariat - the technical arm of WRC - is responsible for implementing the decisions of the WRC. 7 This excludes allocations to the Water Resources Commission and the Hydrological Services Department
  38. 38. Ghana Water and Sanitation Sector Performance Report 2009 Page 38 3.3.2 Water Resources Assessment and Monitoring The mechanism to enhance water resources data and information services was to review and establish service provision arrangements with the Water Research Institute (WRI/CSIR) and Hydrological Services Department (HSD). The focus is to improve hydrometric network, runoff monitoring and routine provision of stream flow data; monitoring groundwater including water quality, and assessment studies in selected basins. The collaborative arrangements were initiated with support from the European Union but could not be consummated before the end of 2009. The main practical water resources and information management activity was under the Hydro- geological Assessment Project (HAP), supported by the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), which entered into its 2nd phase in 2009. It is aimed at conducting a hydro-geological study in the Northern, Upper East, and Upper West Regions of Ghana in order to build up a scientific information and database on the groundwater potential. Substantial data and information has so far been gathered and shared with relevant institutions. Specifically, rainwater samples were successfully collected and chloride concentrations determined. Also 15 monitoring wells were successfully drilled and groundwater recording instruments successfully installed. Initial yields from the boreholes indicate that the potential for groundwater in the Northern Region is rather substantial. 3.3.3 Water quality monitoring updates Water Quality Assessments of the South-Western and Coastal River Systems have been carried out in 19 locations (16 River Stations and three Reservoir Stations) since 2005. These rivers and Reservoirs were sampled five times in a year. The water quality assessments for the Volta System will be included from 2010. The Water Quality Index (WQI), which is the general water quality indices type in which various physical, chemical and microbiological variables are aggregated to produce an overall index of water quality, describes the state of water quality of the water bodies The WQI classification (presented in Table 4) and the results for 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008 (shown in Table 5) are available with WRC. The results for 2009 were not ready for this report.
  39. 39. Ghana Water and Sanitation Sector Performance Report 2009 Page 39 Table 4: Water Quality Classification Class Range Description I >80 Good – Unpolluted and/or recovering from pollution II 50 – 80 Fairly Good III 25 – 50 Poor Quality IV < 25 Grossly Polluted Table 5: Results of Water Quality Monitoring and Classification of Water Bodies from 2005- 2008 Station 2005 Class 2006 Class 2007 Class 2008 Class Weija Lake 59.30 II 64.00 II 57.8 II 55.7 II Potroase- River Densu 68.90 II 82.80 I 81.0 I 63.9 II Mangoase- River Densu 54.80 II 64.00 II 49.0 III 54.1 II Nsawam- River Densu 32.50 III 45.00 III 43.6 III 42.3 III Mankrong J – River Ayensu 60.80 II 51.80 II 57.8 II 51.0 II Akim Oda-River Birim (Pra Basin) 57.80 II 54.80 II 59.3 II 52.5 II Akim Brenase-River Pra (mid) 60.80 II 57.80 II 59.3 II 57.3 II Daboase – River Pra 60.80 II 50.40 II 62.4 II 55.7 II Dunkwa- River Offin (Pra Basin) 56.30 II 53.30 II 56.3 II 48.0 III Lake Barekese –River Offin 62.40 II 74.00 II 70.6 II 67.4 II Akotsi-River Ochi-Nakwa 59.30 II 57.80 II 56.3 II 51.0 II Mankesim-River Ochi-Amisa 59.30 II 62.40 II 60.8 II 51.0 II Lake Brimso-River Kakum 57.80 II 56.30 II 57.8 II 55.7 II Ewusijo-River Butre 59.30 II 67.30 II 68.9 II 63.9 II Dominase- River Ankobra 67.20 II 57.80 II 59.3 II 52.5 II Prestea –River Ankobra 64.00 II 60.80 II 60.8 II 51.0 II Elubo- River Tano 59.30 II 60.80 II 64.0 II 65.6 II Sefwi-Wiawso – River Tano 57.80 II 64.00 II 57.8 II 57.3 II Dadieso-River Bia 56.30 II 43.60 III 64.0 II 57.3 II Source: Water Resources Commission Most of the river systems analyzed have maintained their quality status (class) since 2005. However, some of them showed some margin of decline in quality. For example the Weija Lake, which supplies the Western part of Accra with treated water, declined from 64 WQI in 2006 to 55.7 WQI in 2006. The
  40. 40. Ghana Water and Sanitation Sector Performance Report 2009 Page 40 Densu River at Potrease also fell from 82.8 in 2006 to 63.9 in 2008 and slipped from Class I to class II. Though the Densu River at Nsawam maintained its class III status, there was a remarkable improvement in its quality when its WQI increased from 32.5 in 2005 to 42.3 in 2008. River Offin at Dunkwa also suffered a slip from class II to class III between 2005 and 2008. 3.3.4 Water Resources Use and Regulation 3.3.4.1 Water allocation and permits administration The implementation of Water Use Regulations (L.I. 1692) and procedures for the issuance of rights to major water users by means of permits is well advanced. The water permit register at the end of 2009 shows that 154 major water users have been licensed and issued with permits. Majority of the permit holders are for domestic water supplies and mining, while only one permit has been issued for recreation, and two for power generation. Aquaculture and industry have only five and ten licensed users respectively. See figure 3: Figure 3: Licensed water users Source: Water Resources Commission 2010 A Drilling License and Groundwater Development Regulations, 2006 (LI 1827) is also being implemented to ensure:
  41. 41. Ghana Water and Sanitation Sector Performance Report 2009 Page 41 Appropriate coordination of water well drilling activities, Proper data generation and collection on groundwater, and Sustained development of groundwater resources. The Commission in November 2009 initiated the process of developing another Regulation aimed at coordinating all relevant activities related to dam design, construction, operations, maintenance, and decommissioning, to ensure uniform and adequate level of safety for all dams throughout Ghana. The Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE) is providing technical assistance for the process, which would also lead to the development of a National Dam Safety Unit (NDSU). 3.3.4.2 Compliance monitoring and enforcement In addition to licensing and regulations, periodic water user identification exercises were undertaken to ensure compliance of the regulations. Institutions such as the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), River Basin Boards and District Assemblies assisted in compliance monitoring. Furthermore, a register of permit holders (major water users) was regularly updated and made public in the print media. 3.3.5 River Basin Management and Planning 3.3.5.1 Functionality of River Basin Institutions/Boards Three River Basin Offices have been set up and are functioning as part of the decentralization process of Water Resources Management at the local level while two others are in the pipeline. The Densu River Basin undertook collaborative activities such as education, tree planting, relocation of waste disposal sites, etc. These activities have contributed to the improvement in the quality of the Densu River; The White Volta River Basin Board focused on transboundary activities and collaboration with Burkina Faso under the Project for Improving Water Governance in the Volta Basin (PAGEV). During the year, a Climate Change Adaptation Project was also initiated in the three regions in northern Ghana with the view to developing and implementing adaptive and coping strategies for water resources use and management. The project also aims at raising awareness on climate change and information to reduce livelihood vulnerability; The Ankobra River Basin were focused mainly on monitoring compliance by water use permit holders and inspected hotspot issues including pollution, spillage, etc.; and Two new basin offices, Pra and Tano, are in the process of being established. 3.3.5.2 River basin and national IWRM plans River Basin Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) Plans for the Densu, White Volta, and Ankobra River Basins have been developed to serve as ‘blueprints’ for water resources management activities in the basins. There are actions and measures to address the broad spectrum of prioritized water resources management problems specific to each of the basins, such as water availability and water quality. In 2009, preparation for similar IWRM plans for the Pra, Tano and Dayi River Basins was initiated as well as that of a national IWRM. The main action was the completion of baseline data and
  42. 42. Ghana Water and Sanitation Sector Performance Report 2009 Page 42 information for the development of the Dayi Basin IWRM Plan. Furthermore, actions such as education and awareness creation were taken as part of routine programs/activities. 3.3.5.3 IWRM promotion and public education Nationwide workshops have been ongoing at the regional and district levels for promoting IWRM and building the capacities of relevant staff at the District Assemblies. The focus is now on targeted workshops for media/information personnel, queen mothers, opinion leaders and market women/traders and traditional authorities in all the regions – the Eastern, Ashanti and Central Regions were comprehensively covered in 2009. 3.3.6 Transboundary water resources management and development a. A Ghana-Burkina Faso Joint Technical Committee on IWRM (JTC-IWRM) has been functioning since 2006, with the WRC as the focal institution for Ghana. The JTC-IWRM is to advise the Ministers in charge of water in the two countries. The key activity undertaken by the Ghana-Burkina JTC-IWRM was a workshop for selected media from the two countries on transboundary water management particularly to support public awareness regarding flooding through the contribution of spilling from the Bagre dam in Burkina Faso. b. The Volta Basin Authority (VBA) has been established for the purposes of ensuring international cooperation for the rational and sustainable management of the water resources of the Volta Basin, and for the socio-economic integration among the six riparian countries. The Convention that established the VBA formally came into force on 14th August, 2009 after five of the countries - Ghana, Togo, Mali, Burkina Faso, and Benin - had ratified and deposited the ratification instruments as legally required. The VBA Strategic Plan and Pre-Investment Plan were approved by the Council of Ministers at its 5th meeting held in Accra in December 2009. c. The PAGEV, the project for improving water governance in the Volta, is focusing on the White Volta Basin. The project is in its second phase with the Bawku Municipality, Bawku West and Garu Tempane districts benefiting. One of the key strategic approaches adopted is to strengthen the national focal institution (WRC – White Volta Basin Office), as well as engage two NGOs and two decentralized District Assembly institutions as implementing partners in the delivery of interventions under the IWRM. The interventions and accomplishments that came out during the year 2009 included the following: Partners introduced the project to new communities selected for the implementation of IWRM interventions. Committees were formed to lead communities in partnering the project implementation; HIV/AIDs education and awareness campaigns, seminars and group dynamics training were carried out for the committees and some selected women groups in all communities; Soil fertility management training for all communities were organized and nursery attendants in the new communities were trained in nursery management;
  43. 43. Ghana Water and Sanitation Sector Performance Report 2009 Page 43 Four new communities were provided with nursery materials and kits to establish nurseries towards riverbanks restoration in 2009. The communities are Nafkolga, Bazua, Googo and Kobore; and Agricultural extension services were provided to all the communities. 3.3.7 Climate Change Adaptation projects DANIDA through a small grant is supporting the Water Resources Commission to implement a 2-year (2009-2010) ‘Climate Change Adaptation Project’ through IWRM with focus on the three Regions of northern Ghana. The project was officially launched in July 2009 in Tamale bringing together local government and civil society groups, the media, NGOs, etc. Progress made at the end of the year includes the following: i. Extensive scoping of communities and fields was completed for the physical implementation of water conservation and climate response activities. ii. Sub catchments of the White Volta River Basin were mapped for the development of specific models on water abstraction and allocation. The outcomes would determine physical piloting of water storage infrastructure such as dams and reservoirs. Subsequently; iii. Physical assessment of some flood control and water storage facilities was completed with the help of the Hydrological Services Dept (HSD) in selected districts (e.g. Bongo, Savulegu-Nanton, and West Mamprusi). iv. Work in the Bongo District started in three selected communities. Activities included afforestation, construction of mechanized wells and dug-outs. v. Two issues of the climate policy newsletter “Climate Adapt” were released and distributed to over 70 institutions, the basin offices, and second cycle schools in Accra. vi. Extensive discussions were carried out on determining models for mainstreaming climate adaptation issues into local level IWRM network/committee on the PAGEV and transboundary projects. vii. Guidelines on setting up community indicators of flood and drought and early warning systems have been outlined and pending validation. 3.3.8 Major challenges with water resources management A major challenge in water resources management is with respect to the availability of professional staff, both in numbers and in time, to execute planned activities especially for the basin offices. For instance, the new Pra Basin Board would need at least three professional/technical staff. The Commission has previously made submissions to the appropriate authorities for approval for more technical/professional staff. Meanwhile, local contract personnel are utilized as an interim measure to resolve necessary issues in lieu of permanent staff. The second key challenge is the lack of or late release of funds from GoG sources for services and investment to support implementation of programs and activities.
  44. 44. Ghana Water and Sanitation Sector Performance Report 2009 Page 44 3.3.9 GoG Allocations, Releases and WRC Spending Figure 4: WRC Financing Trends Source: Water Resources Commission - 2010 Since 2007, government allocations to the Water Resources Commission have consistently reduced from GH¢94,500 to GH¢60,845. It is also evident that actual releases from these allocations have been very low; 6.3% in 2007, 11.7% in 2008 and 3.2% in 2009. WRC spending from the GoG releases have always been 100%. Government releases to WRC over the three year period have been about 3% of WRC’s internally generated funds. Figure 5: WRC Internally Generated Funds Source: Water Resources Commission - 2010 Total WRC Internally Generated Funds released and spent have always been more than 70% since 2007.
  45. 45. Ghana Water and Sanitation Sector Performance Report 2009 Page 45 3.4 Rural Water Supply and Sanitation 3.4.1 Introduction Until the early 1990s, the Ghana Water and Sewerage Corporation (GWSC) had been responsible for both urban and rural water supply since 1965. During this period, there was low coverage of rural water supply. This led to the creation of Rural Water Department within the GWSC in 1986 to give more attention to the provision of water and sanitation for rural people. Some facilities were provided but these could not be sustained due to non-payment of tariffs by beneficiary communities with little or no maintenance of the facilities. The United Nations General Assembly declared 1981 – 1990 as the International Drinking Water and Sanitation Decade. The focus was to ensure that by the end of the decade, nations would have given priority attention to the delivery of water and sanitation facilities. The Ghana Government took advantage of the declaration and initiated a review of its policies on water and sanitation provision to keep pace with the changing conditions in the country and on the international scene. In 1987 therefore, a donor conference on water and sanitation was held in Accra, at which pledges were invited from donors. In February 1991, about sixty participants from Sector Institutions and External Support Agencies (ESAs) met at Kokrobite for a Workshop to prepare the grounds for a Rural Water and Sanitation Sector Strategy. After four years of consultations, a National Community Water and Sanitation Programme (NCWSP) was launched in 1994, in line with the Government’s decentralization policy. Prior to the launch of the NCWSP in 1994, access to potable water by the rural dwellers was nominally below 30%, while sanitation was about 10%. This culminated into the establishment of the Community Water and Sanitation Division (CWSD), a semi autonomous unit under the then Ghana Water and Sewerage Corporation (GWSC) to manage rural water supply. After about four years of operation, the unit was granted complete autonomy to give greater impetus to its work. Subsequently, the Division was transformed into the Community Water and Sanitation Agency (CWSA) by an Act of Parliament, Act 564 in December 1998, with the mandate to facilitate the provision of safe drinking water and related sanitation services to rural communities and small towns in Ghana. CWSA has since been facilitating the implementation of the National Community Water and Sanitation Programme (NCWSP) using the decentralized structures at the district and community levels as prescribed in the Act. The objectives of the NCWSP are to: Ensure the sustainability of these facilities through community ownership and management, community decision-making in their design, active involvement of women at all stages in the project, private sector provision of goods and services and public sector promotion and support. Maximize health benefits by integrating water, sanitation and hygiene promotion interventions, including the establishment of hygiene promotion, and latrine construction capabilities at the community level. With the collaboration of all the stakeholders in the sector, policies and strategies have been formulated to guide the implementation and management of the NCWSP. The key elements of the national strategy
  46. 46. Ghana Water and Sanitation Sector Performance Report 2009 Page 46 are summarized as follows: Demand Responsive approach, where communities decide to select preferred services and contribute towards capital cost and full operation and maintenance cost; Decentralized planning, implementation and management of services by beneficiary communities and District Assemblies; District Assemblies to play a central role in supporting community management; Private sector provision of goods, works and services; Integration of community development and training in potable water and improved sanitation delivery; Active and full participation of women in decision making at all stages in the project implementation; Adoption of basic technology and service level options in the delivery of water and sanitation facilities; Integrated approach to hygiene promotion, water and sanitation delivery to maximize health benefits. Sustainable supply chain of goods and services, especially spare parts at affordable prices to users. Community Ownership and Management (COM) Public sector promotion/facilitation and support 3.4.2 Summary of rural and small town water supply coverage Figure 6: Rural water supply performance Source: CWSA 2009 Annual Report. As at the end of 2009, rural and small town water coverage, based on CWSA standard measurement criteria and definitions, stood at 58.97%. This was a significant rise from 57.14% in 2008. But then it leaves 41.3% of rural and small town dwellers without access to potable water, while it falls short of CWSA’s expected coverage of 60% by end of 2009.
  47. 47. Ghana Water and Sanitation Sector Performance Report 2009 Page 47 3.4.3 Rural water performance trends Figure 7: Rural water coverage trends Source: CWSA Annual reports 2008 and 2009 From 40% in 2000, the national coverage figure as at December, 2009 was 58.97%, representing about 48% increase within the nine-year period. There is an indication of a consistent rise in coverage, which is quite encouraging. 3.4.4 Projected rural and small towns’ water coverage by 2015 If the rural and small towns’ coverage trend should be maintained, Ghana can achieve about 74% of coverage by 2015 instead of the target of 76% (see figure 8). Figure 8: Projected rural and small town water coverage by 2015 Source: WSMP Ghana 2010
  48. 48. Ghana Water and Sanitation Sector Performance Report 2009 Page 48 3.4.5 Expected vs. projected coverage trends for rural water supply CWSA formulated a Strategic Investment Plan (SIP) in 2008 that seeks to achieve a target of 76% coverage for rural and small town water supply by the end of 2015. With reference to the information in figure 9 below, Ghana should have achieved 60 percent coverage as at the end of 2009 but rather actually attained 58.97%8 . There is thus a deficit of 1.03% percent and by the end of 2010 the sub sector needs to achieve 63.16% coverage. Given the current investment commitments by development partners and assuming no additional investments are made, CWSA will achieve only 53.19% by end of 2015 if the population growth trend is maintained. Counting from 2008, GoG and development partners therefore need to clear a deficit of 22.81% in order to achieve the 76% target for rural water supply. Figure 9: Expected vs. projected coverage for rural water supply Source: CWSA SIP 2008-2015 To meet the expected coverage target of 76%, the rural and small town subsector will require an average of US$63,166,785 annually from 2008 to 2015. This is further broken down as shown in Table 6: Table 6: Investment requirement for the SIP 2008 – 2015 (Ghana Cedis) 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Total 81,980,511 77,705,213 71,007,913 63,846,229 55,119,232 51,532,065 53,207,753 50,935,360 505,334,275 Source: revised CWSA SIP, 2008 – 2015. 8 This is the figure reported in the CWSA Annual Report 2009

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