Urban and small town water
supply management models in
Ghana
Enoch Ofosu
blessedenoch@gmail.com
Global studies:
Urban management models
• Utility management
• Alternative service providers (private, NGO or community):
...
Global studies: Defining small
towns
• 'Small towns are settlements that are sufficiently large and
dense to benefit from ...
Global studies: Small town
management models
Model Community
management
Water board
management
Municipal
management
Privat...
Institutional mapping of urban and
small town water supply in Ghana
• However, there is overlap on who is responsible for
...
Direct
WSDB,
with
WATSAN
WSDB
with PO
Urban Water
Board
Management models for urban and small towns in Ghana
GWCL/AVRL
man...
Management models for urban and small towns
Small townsUrban
Direct
WSDB
WSDB
with PO
Water
Board
Utility management
Inter...
GWCL/AVRL
Community
managed,
rural
Self supply
Private
management
Ghana management models – Support roles
Type of Model
Fa...
Urban models
• GWCL/AVRL management
• Intermediate service providers
– Tanker services
– Water vendors
– AVRL tanker servi...
Ownership
Management and operations AVRL
GWCL
5 year Management contract
Reports
Money flows
Management model: GWCL/AVRL m...
Management and Operations
Management contract
Reports
Money flows
Ownership, Management and
operation of selling point
Own...
Contract
Money flows
Pay as you fetch
Pay per supply
Management of selling point
Ownership of selling point
Management and...
Ownership and oversight of the
(bulk) supply system
Management and operations
of (bulk) supply system
AVRL
GWCL
Management...
Management model: Small scale independent producers
SSIP
Clients
Pay as you fetch
Ownership, Management and
operation
Small town models
• Direct WSDB management with watsan
• Direct WSDB management without watsan
• WSDB management with dele...
Ownership and regulation
Management, Sanitation and
hygiene education
Operations
MMDA
CWSA Regional
office
Watsan
Water ve...
Ownership and regulation
Management, Sanitation and
hygiene education
Operations
MMDA
CWSA Regional
office
Water vendor
Ma...
Management model: WSDB management with delegated operations
(Public-Private Partnership)
Ownership and
regulation
Manageme...
Management model: WSDB management with delegated operations in the
Three District Water Supply Scheme
Ownership and
regula...
WSDB
Ownership and regulation of
distribution
Management of distribution
Operations of distribution Operation unit
MMDA
Wa...
Urban and small town water supply management models in ghana
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Urban and small town water supply management models in ghana

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Urban and small town water supply management models in Ghana

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Urban and small town water supply management models in ghana

  1. 1. Urban and small town water supply management models in Ghana Enoch Ofosu blessedenoch@gmail.com
  2. 2. Global studies: Urban management models • Utility management • Alternative service providers (private, NGO or community): Relationship to source Independent (Independent provider) Dependent (Intermediate provider) Technology employed Grid or network Integrated production / generation with transmission / distribution Purchasing water and on-selling through mini- grid / network Point source Own source, fixed location vendor Connected to utility fixed location vendor Mobile distribution Own source, mobile vendor Purchase from utility mobile vendor
  3. 3. Global studies: Defining small towns • 'Small towns are settlements that are sufficiently large and dense to benefit from the economies of scale offered by piped systems, but too small and dispersed to be efficiently managed by a conventional urban water utility. They require formal management arrangements, a legal basis for ownership and management, and the ability to expand to meet the growing demand for water. Small towns usually have populations between 5,000 and 50,000, but can be larger or smaller‘ (David and Pilgrim 2000) • However it has been argued that: – Small town water supply can be managed by “conventional” utilities – The definition does not take into account the transition nature of small towns – The definition focuses too much on piped water supply. Different technologies could be appropriate in different parts of small towns
  4. 4. Global studies: Small town management models Model Community management Water board management Municipal management Private management Utility management Owner Community or Municipality / Local government Small private company State or regional company Corporate oversight Water use association Water board Municipal department Delegated private operator Small private company State or regional company Operations Water use association Delegated private operator Water board Delegated private operator Municipal department Delegated private operator Small private company State or regional company
  5. 5. Institutional mapping of urban and small town water supply in Ghana • However, there is overlap on who is responsible for what. Different definitions of small towns: – National Water Policy (NWP) definition of a small town:“a community that is not rural but is a small urban community, with population between 2,000 to 30,000 that has been mandated by the relevant authority(ies) to manage its own water and sanitation systems”. – CWSA Small Towns Water and Sanitation Policy definition: “communities of between 2,000 and 50,000 population who require improved water supply and related sanitation facilities”. – Ghana Statistical Service definition of urban communities: communities with populations above 5,000 • Who is institutionally responsible for the unserved?
  6. 6. Direct WSDB, with WATSAN WSDB with PO Urban Water Board Management models for urban and small towns in Ghana GWCL/AVRL management Intermediate private providers Independent private providers COM system GWCL system GWCLs ystem Private system GWCL system COM system COM system GWCL system Self supply Household system Community management Private management GWCL system, through tanker Bulk water supply Direct WSDB Direct WSDB, without WATSAN
  7. 7. Management models for urban and small towns Small townsUrban Direct WSDB WSDB with PO Water Board Utility management Intermediate private providers Independent private providers With watsan Without watsan Self supply Community managementPrivate management GWCL/ AVRL management Self supply Intermediate private providers Independent private providers Private management
  8. 8. GWCL/AVRL Community managed, rural Self supply Private management Ghana management models – Support roles Type of Model Facilitation Regulation: tariff setting Ownership Implementation GWCL GoG/GWCL GWCL/AVRL PURC Private Private Private Private Private DA DA DA CWSA Regulation: standard of service PURC DA Community managed, urban GWCL/AVRL AVRL? GWCL/AVRL GWCL/AVRL AVRL? Support
  9. 9. Urban models • GWCL/AVRL management • Intermediate service providers – Tanker services – Water vendors – AVRL tanker services • Community managed bulk supply: Urban Water Management Board • Small scale independent producers
  10. 10. Ownership Management and operations AVRL GWCL 5 year Management contract Reports Money flows Management model: GWCL/AVRL management Clients Regulation PURC
  11. 11. Management and Operations Management contract Reports Money flows Ownership, Management and operation of selling point Ownership Management of supply Operations of supply Water vendor Clients Tankertransport AVRL GWCL Management model: Intermediate service providers Clients Pay as you fetch Pay in bulk Pay in bulk
  12. 12. Contract Money flows Pay as you fetch Pay per supply Management of selling point Ownership of selling point Management and operation of supply Water vendor Clients TankerDistribution AVRL (East Accra Regional Office) Management model: AVRL tanker services Coordinator waybill Operation of selling point GWCLOwnership of supply system Pays per supply commission Waybill Service fee
  13. 13. Ownership and oversight of the (bulk) supply system Management and operations of (bulk) supply system AVRL GWCL Management contract Money flows Management model: Urban Water Management Board Water vendor Regulation and tariff setting for the bulk water supply PURC Clients Pay as you fetch Per supply O&M of selling point Water Board Oversight and Management of the selling points Tankertransport Per supply Salary waybill
  14. 14. Management model: Small scale independent producers SSIP Clients Pay as you fetch Ownership, Management and operation
  15. 15. Small town models • Direct WSDB management with watsan • Direct WSDB management without watsan • WSDB management with delegated operations (Public-Private Partnership) • WSDB management with delegated operations in the Three District Water Supply Scheme • Direct WSDB management with bulk supply
  16. 16. Ownership and regulation Management, Sanitation and hygiene education Operations MMDA CWSA Regional office Watsan Water vendors Management model: Direct WSDB management with watsan 20% commission Facilitation Daily submission of revenues Monthly transfer of revenues Standpost clients Clients with HH connection Pay as you fetch Monthly water bills Reports Money flows (S)Elects representatives WSDB Operating staff •Operations account •Capital account (at least 20% of monthly net revenue) •Sanitation account: (at least 10% of monthly net revenue)
  17. 17. Ownership and regulation Management, Sanitation and hygiene education Operations MMDA CWSA Regional office Water vendor Management model: Direct WSDB management without watsan 20% commission EVORAP Project staff Facilitation Standpost clients Clients with HH connection Pay as you fetch Monthly water bills WSDB Operating staff Reports Money flows •Regular account •Replacement account
  18. 18. Management model: WSDB management with delegated operations (Public-Private Partnership) Ownership and regulation Management sanitation and hygiene education Operations Private operator O&M account: 75% of revenues WSDB MMDA CWSA Regional office Watsan Water vendor (keeps 20% of income) 15% to replacement and rehabilitation account 10% to sanitation and hygiene account Facilitation Standpost clients Clients with HH connection Pay as you fetch Monthly water bills 5 year O&M contract agreement Reports Money flows (S)Elects representatives
  19. 19. Management model: WSDB management with delegated operations in the Three District Water Supply Scheme Ownership and regulation Management sanitation and hygiene education Operations Private operator O&M account: 70% of revenues WSDB 3 DAs CWSA Regional office Watsan 2% to sanitation account 3% to replacement account 2% to WSDB allowances Facilitation Standpost clients Clients with HH connection Pay as you fetch Monthly water bills 5 year O&M contract agreement Reports Money flows (S)Elects representatives 3% to O&M (from bulk water meter) 20% commission Water vendor Collected money
  20. 20. WSDB Ownership and regulation of distribution Management of distribution Operations of distribution Operation unit MMDA Watsans Water vendor (keeps 20% of revenues) Bulk water bill Management model: Direct WSDB management with bulk supply GWCL AVRL Water Council Ownership, management and operations of bulk water supply Standpost clients Pay as you fetch Clients with HH connections Monthly water billsMOU Reports Money flows (S)Elects representatives
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