Emergency Response and CholeraEmergency Response and Cholera
in Ghanain Ghana
West Africa Regional Workshop on HWTSWest Af...
Developing CountriesDeveloping Countries -- Causes ofCauses of
DeathDeath
CommunicableCommunicable
DiseaseDisease
Major Ca...
WHO Cholera 2012 Report
Sno Country Cases Deaths CFR
1 Somalia 77636 742 3.17
2 Cameroon 22433 783 3.49
3 Democratic Repub...
Ghana Cholera Report 2012
Total cases for 2012= 9548, Deaths=100, CFR=1%
Main Causes of
cholera
Risk factors
Insufficient/Unsafe water supply (quality
and quantity).
Unsafe Excreta Disposal
Poor hygiene practises (incl...
7
FRAMEWORK FOR EFFECTIVE
MANAGEMENT OF OUTBREAKS
Preparedness
Response
Efficient surveillance
system
Prevention
Preparedness
Pre-positioning of oral dehydration
salts and other medical supplies;
Pre-positioning of water treatment supp...
NADMO (Coordination)
Health (Database Management);
WASH;
Education;
Social sector;
Communication;
OVERALL COORDINATION (De...
Intervention EffectIntervention Effect
 ↑↑ Water QualityWater Quality
 ↑↑ Water QuantityWater Quantity
 Hand WashingHan...
Surface water
Water source Risk of faecal
contamination
Rivers High to very high
Lake High to very high
Rainfall Low to hi...
Groundwater
Water source Risk of faecal
contamination
Protected spring Nil or very low
Closed dug well Low
Open dug Well M...
Improved access to
safe water sources;
Knowledge in how to make
water safe for consumption;
Health education that encourag...
Baseline data collection;
Frank reporting;
Analysis of data to guide interventions
accordingly to lead to timely preventio...
THE ROLE OF HWTS
16
EXCRETA
WATER FLIES HANDS
MOUTH
FOOD
BARRIER
BARRIERBARRIER
HWTS MEASURES USED
• Household water purification tablets (e.g.
Aquatabs)
• Household level filtration (e.g. Ceramic
Filte...
OUTCOMES AND LESSONS
LEARNT
• Effective redress of cholera situation the situation in ER
and BAR (unsafe water)
• Anecdota...
THANK YOU
19
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Presentation at the international household water tretment workshop in africa ghana

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Presentation at the West African Household Water Tretment and Safe Storage workshop in Accra- Ghana- La Palm Beach Hotel, Accra-Ghana 6-8 May, 2013

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Presentation at the international household water tretment workshop in africa ghana

  1. 1. Emergency Response and CholeraEmergency Response and Cholera in Ghanain Ghana West Africa Regional Workshop on HWTSWest Africa Regional Workshop on HWTS La Palm Beach Hotel, Accra-GhanaLa Palm Beach Hotel, Accra-Ghana 6-8 May, 20136-8 May, 2013 Presentation by:Presentation by: Enoch OfosuEnoch Ofosu WASH in Emergencies Coordinator,WASH in Emergencies Coordinator, GhanaGhana blessedenoch@gmail.comblessedenoch@gmail.com
  2. 2. Developing CountriesDeveloping Countries -- Causes ofCauses of DeathDeath CommunicableCommunicable DiseaseDisease Major Cause ofMajor Cause of Death inDeath in DisasterDisaster Directly RelatedDirectly Related to Poor Waterto Poor Water and Sanitationand Sanitation Source: WHO 2010 CauseCause DeathsDeaths HIV / AIDSHIV / AIDS 2,678,0002,678,000 Respiratory InfectionsRespiratory Infections 2,643,0002,643,000 Heart DiseaseHeart Disease 2,484,0002,484,000 Diarrhoeal DiseaseDiarrhoeal Disease 1,793,0001,793,000 Cerebrovascular DiseaseCerebrovascular Disease 1,381,0001,381,000 Childhood DiseasesChildhood Diseases 1,217,0001,217,000 MalariaMalaria 1,103,0001,103,000 TuberculosisTuberculosis 1,021,0001,021,000 Pulmonary DiseasePulmonary Disease 748,000748,000 MeaslesMeasles 674,000674,000
  3. 3. WHO Cholera 2012 Report Sno Country Cases Deaths CFR 1 Somalia 77636 742 3.17 2 Cameroon 22433 783 3.49 3 Democratic Republic of Congo 21700 584 2.69 4 Chad 17267 458 2.65 5 Ghana 10628 105 0.99 6 Niger 2324 60 0.58 7 Mali 2220 95 4.28 8 Angola 1810 110 6.08 9 Mozambique 1279 5 0.39 10 Cote d'vore 1261 24 1.9 11 Zimbabwe 1220 2 0.16 12 Liberia 1146 0 0 13 Burundi 1072 1 0.09 14 Other Countries 26682 1214 Total 188678 4183 2.22 This is 2011 data
  4. 4. Ghana Cholera Report 2012 Total cases for 2012= 9548, Deaths=100, CFR=1%
  5. 5. Main Causes of cholera
  6. 6. Risk factors Insufficient/Unsafe water supply (quality and quantity). Unsafe Excreta Disposal Poor hygiene practises (including hand
  7. 7. 7
  8. 8. FRAMEWORK FOR EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT OF OUTBREAKS Preparedness Response Efficient surveillance system Prevention
  9. 9. Preparedness Pre-positioning of oral dehydration salts and other medical supplies; Pre-positioning of water treatment supplies; Training of personnel; Preparation of national and sub – national plans of action. FRAMEWORK FOR EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT OF OUTBREAKS (Contd.)
  10. 10. NADMO (Coordination) Health (Database Management); WASH; Education; Social sector; Communication; OVERALL COORDINATION (Declared Emergency)
  11. 11. Intervention EffectIntervention Effect  ↑↑ Water QualityWater Quality  ↑↑ Water QuantityWater Quantity  Hand WashingHand Washing  Latrines – SafeLatrines – Safe Excreta DisposalExcreta Disposal  All MeasuresAll Measures EXCRETA WATER FLIES HANDS MOUTH FOOD BARRIER BARRIERBARRIER BASIS OF WASH OVERALL WASHBASIS OF WASH OVERALL WASH INTERVENTIONSINTERVENTIONS
  12. 12. Surface water Water source Risk of faecal contamination Rivers High to very high Lake High to very high Rainfall Low to high Transmission potential through potableTransmission potential through potable waterwater
  13. 13. Groundwater Water source Risk of faecal contamination Protected spring Nil or very low Closed dug well Low Open dug Well Medium to high Borehole Nil or very low
  14. 14. Improved access to safe water sources; Knowledge in how to make water safe for consumption; Health education that encourages improved food safety and personal hygiene. FOCUS OF WATER SAFETY INTERVENTIONS
  15. 15. Baseline data collection; Frank reporting; Analysis of data to guide interventions accordingly to lead to timely prevention and preparedness activities. APPROACH
  16. 16. THE ROLE OF HWTS 16 EXCRETA WATER FLIES HANDS MOUTH FOOD BARRIER BARRIERBARRIER
  17. 17. HWTS MEASURES USED • Household water purification tablets (e.g. Aquatabs) • Household level filtration (e.g. Ceramic Filters) • Disinfection of Household Wells • Behaviour Change Communication / promotional activities on HWTS • Boiling – mainly as result of promotional activities 17
  18. 18. OUTCOMES AND LESSONS LEARNT • Effective redress of cholera situation the situation in ER and BAR (unsafe water) • Anecdotal evidence to reduction in other diarrhea related disease • Increased awareness and knowledge in water hygiene (general hygiene) • Effective entry point for HWTS programme interventions ( as well as CLTS and HWWS) • Enhanced capacity of implementers in promotion of HWTS and use of methods/ technologies 18
  19. 19. THANK YOU 19
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