A Universe Less Ordinary
Searching for Extra Dimensions in the Background

                      Bernard Leong
     Theore...
Disclaimers: I shall not answer ...




                                      2
Disclaimers: I shall not answer ...

        If God created the world,
            who created God?




                  ...
Disclaimers: I shall not answer ...

        If God created the world,
            who created God?




                or...
What I am going to talk about...




                   Credit to Huifen & Chew Lin for this XKCD art

                   ...
What I am going to talk about...

Why are we searching for
extra dimensions?




                           Credit to Huif...
What I am going to talk about...

Why are we searching for
extra dimensions?

What is the story of Our
Universe so far?


...
What I am going to talk about...

Why are we searching for
extra dimensions?

What is the story of Our
Universe so far?

H...
4
Strong
vs Electromagnetic
       102




                     4
Strong
vs Electromagnetic
       102

     Strong
    vs Weak
       105




                     4
Strong
vs Electromagnetic
       102

     Strong
    vs Weak
       105

     Strong
    vs Gravity
      1039




      ...
Strong
vs Electromagnetic
       102

     Strong
    vs Weak
       105

     Strong
    vs Gravity
      1039

Why is gr...
Coupling Strength




                                                        ?
                    Strong Nuclear Force

...
Coupling Strength




                                                        ?
                    Strong Nuclear Force

...
Coupling Strength




                                                        ?
                    Strong Nuclear Force

...
Coupling Strength




                                                        ?
                    Strong Nuclear Force

...
Coupling Strength




                                                        ?
                    Strong Nuclear Force

...
Coupling Strength




                                                        ?
                    Strong Nuclear Force

...
Small & Large Extra Dimensions




                                 6
Small & Large Extra Dimensions




Kaluza Klein Theory (1920s)




                                        6
Small & Large Extra Dimensions




Kaluza Klein Theory (1920s)




                              Arkani-Hamed, Dvali & Dim...
Small & Large Extra Dimensions




Kaluza Klein Theory (1920s)




                              Arkani-Hamed, Dvali & Dim...
General Relativity in a nutshell




“Matter teaches Space how to bend &
 Space teaches matter how to move.”
           - ...
8
Source: WMAP
               9
10
Temperature for
                       the fluctuations:
                           0.0005K




Source: WMAP & Planck Satel...
12
Cosmic     The first peak
Microwave    measures the
Background    curvature of
  Power      the universe:
 Spectrum    Our ...
14
15
16
Extra dimensions act as a brake and slow down the
effect of gravity on polarization. If no polarization
signal is observed...
18
A few years
  later ...




          18
A few years
  later ...




          18
A few years
  later ...




Phys.Rev. D66 (2002) 104010

                              18
“The subject is a very much difficult and intricate one than at first, one is inclined to think and I
feel that I have not s...
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A universe-less-ordinary

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Modern ideas in theoretical physics revolve around the concept of extra-dimensions and the attempt to unify the four fundamental forces of nature with string theories. Our Universe has been a great & extraordinary laboratory where we formulate hypotheses to disprove these ideas. Can we find extra dimensions via the cosmic microwave background radiation left over from the first three minutes in our Universe? How do we test such an idea using modern satellite technologies like Planck and WMAP? The story started from a doctorate thesis & ends with a satellite that has been recently launched into space.

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A universe-less-ordinary

  1. 1. A Universe Less Ordinary Searching for Extra Dimensions in the Background Bernard Leong Theoretical Physicist “for hire” in Hackerspace SG @bleongcw / bleongcw (at) gmail.com 1
  2. 2. Disclaimers: I shall not answer ... 2
  3. 3. Disclaimers: I shall not answer ... If God created the world, who created God? 2
  4. 4. Disclaimers: I shall not answer ... If God created the world, who created God? or when Stephen says something about God.... 2
  5. 5. What I am going to talk about... Credit to Huifen & Chew Lin for this XKCD art 3
  6. 6. What I am going to talk about... Why are we searching for extra dimensions? Credit to Huifen & Chew Lin for this XKCD art 3
  7. 7. What I am going to talk about... Why are we searching for extra dimensions? What is the story of Our Universe so far? Credit to Huifen & Chew Lin for this XKCD art 3
  8. 8. What I am going to talk about... Why are we searching for extra dimensions? What is the story of Our Universe so far? How do we find extra dimensions in the cosmic microwave background? Credit to Huifen & Chew Lin for this XKCD art 3
  9. 9. 4
  10. 10. Strong vs Electromagnetic 102 4
  11. 11. Strong vs Electromagnetic 102 Strong vs Weak 105 4
  12. 12. Strong vs Electromagnetic 102 Strong vs Weak 105 Strong vs Gravity 1039 4
  13. 13. Strong vs Electromagnetic 102 Strong vs Weak 105 Strong vs Gravity 1039 Why is gravity so “weak”? 4
  14. 14. Coupling Strength ? Strong Nuclear Force Weak Nuclear Force Gravity Electromagnetism 10 3 10 16 10 18 Energy (GeV) 5
  15. 15. Coupling Strength ? Strong Nuclear Force Weak Nuclear Force Gravity Electromagnetism 10 3 10 16 10 18 Energy (GeV) 5
  16. 16. Coupling Strength ? Strong Nuclear Force Weak Nuclear Force Gravity Electromagnetism 10 3 10 16 10 18 Energy (GeV) 5
  17. 17. Coupling Strength ? Strong Nuclear Force Weak Nuclear Force Gravity Electromagnetism 10 3 10 16 10 18 Energy (GeV) 5
  18. 18. Coupling Strength ? Strong Nuclear Force Weak Nuclear Force String or M- Theory Gravity Electromagnetism 10 3 10 16 10 18 Energy (GeV) 5
  19. 19. Coupling Strength ? Strong Nuclear Force Weak Nuclear Force String or M- Theory Gravity Electromagnetism or Loop Quantum Gravity 10 3 10 16 10 18 Energy (GeV) 5
  20. 20. Small & Large Extra Dimensions 6
  21. 21. Small & Large Extra Dimensions Kaluza Klein Theory (1920s) 6
  22. 22. Small & Large Extra Dimensions Kaluza Klein Theory (1920s) Arkani-Hamed, Dvali & Dimopolous (ADD) Randall-Sundrum (RS) 6
  23. 23. Small & Large Extra Dimensions Kaluza Klein Theory (1920s) Arkani-Hamed, Dvali & Dimopolous (ADD) Randall-Sundrum (RS) 6
  24. 24. General Relativity in a nutshell “Matter teaches Space how to bend & Space teaches matter how to move.” - J. A. Wheeler “Relativistische Zeitdiiatation eines künstlichen Satelliten”, Friedwardt Winterberg, Astronautica Acta (1955) 7
  25. 25. 8
  26. 26. Source: WMAP 9
  27. 27. 10
  28. 28. Temperature for the fluctuations: 0.0005K Source: WMAP & Planck Satellite Images 11
  29. 29. 12
  30. 30. Cosmic The first peak Microwave measures the Background curvature of Power the universe: Spectrum Our Universe is flat Gravitational Waves interacting with CMB 13
  31. 31. 14
  32. 32. 15
  33. 33. 16
  34. 34. Extra dimensions act as a brake and slow down the effect of gravity on polarization. If no polarization signal is observed, one possibility is that the extra dimension is inhibiting the gravitational wave. 17
  35. 35. 18
  36. 36. A few years later ... 18
  37. 37. A few years later ... 18
  38. 38. A few years later ... Phys.Rev. D66 (2002) 104010 18
  39. 39. “The subject is a very much difficult and intricate one than at first, one is inclined to think and I feel that I have not succeeded in catching the keynote. When that is found, the various results here given will no doubt appear in their real connection with one another, perhaps even as immediate consequences of a thoroughly adequate conception of the question.” - Tait 19
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