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Planning the training session
Planning the training session
Planning the training session
Planning the training session
Planning the training session
Planning the training session
Planning the training session
Planning the training session
Planning the training session
Planning the training session
Planning the training session
Planning the training session
Planning the training session
Planning the training session
Planning the training session
Planning the training session
Planning the training session
Planning the training session
Planning the training session
Planning the training session
Planning the training session
Planning the training session
Planning the training session
Planning the training session
Planning the training session
Planning the training session
Planning the training session
Planning the training session
Planning the training session
Planning the training session
Planning the training session
Planning the training session
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Planning the training session

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  • 1. Planning the Training Session Planning (15) National Liaisons’ Workshop ITOCA / BLDS
  • 2. Planning <ul><li>“ A goal without a plan is just a wish”. </li></ul><ul><li>Antoine de Saint-Exupery (1900 - 1944) </li></ul>
  • 3. Planning Objectives <ul><li>By the end of this session, you will: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand how to plan a training session </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Know what elements should be included in a training plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Know the difference between a learning objective & learning outcome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Build measurement into your training plan </li></ul></ul>
  • 4. Building a Training Program <ul><li>Assess </li></ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul><ul><li>Develop </li></ul><ul><li>Implement </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate </li></ul>
  • 5. Pre-Assessment <ul><li>What do you need to know? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who are you training? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The existing knowledge of training participants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify the gaps in what they know and what they need to know </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How the training will help them accomplish their work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The type of training or job-related training they have already experienced </li></ul></ul>
  • 6. Pre-assessment methods <ul><li>Needs assessment analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. Pre-assessment questionnaire </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Discuss in pairs, 3 minutes – what other ways could you collect data? </li></ul>
  • 7. Training Program - Design <ul><li>Primary questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What do I want learners to be able to do as a result of this training program? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learning Objectives / Outcomes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What methods will I use to assist them to reach this level of performance and knowledge? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. activities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What resources will be used to deliver this training program? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How will this training be structured overall? </li></ul></ul>
  • 8. Training Session - Structure <ul><li>Starter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Normally 1-3 minutes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Learning Objectives / Outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Main Activity </li></ul><ul><li>Plenary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessment for Learning (Measurement) </li></ul></ul>
  • 9. Learning Outcomes <ul><li>Learning outcomes are the framework of a training plan </li></ul><ul><li>Identify what students will be able to do as a result of participating in the training programme </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For example: ‘ Students in this workshop will be able to:..and demonstrate the following behaviours…’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Explicit, concise, precise defined statements </li></ul><ul><li>Clearly identify the expected behaviour outcome(s) </li></ul>
  • 10. Guidelines for Developing LOs <ul><li>Learning outcomes should include the following components: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Results/outcome oriented </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measurable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focused on only major job-related tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral statements (e.g., not just knowing or understanding something but demonstrating that they know it and understand it) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific and precise about what they are to be able to do </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clearly stated, no clutter </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ As a result of participating in this workshop, learners </li></ul><ul><li>will be able to explain to students in a clear </li></ul><ul><li>manner how to use the </li></ul><ul><li>Harvard Referencing Standard to cite journal references” </li></ul>
  • 11. Types of Learning Outcomes <ul><li>Three major domains of learning: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attitudinal Learning : Outcomes that aim to change or enhance a learner’s attitude or motivation about a subject. Changing a learner’s attitude about the quality of information found in Wikipedia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive Learning : Outcomes that aim to contribute to a learner’s body of knowledge about a topic. Providing statistics that show an increase in the targeted use of HINARI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skill Learning : Outcomes that aim to help a learner perform a job-related, behavioral task. Training a learner to talk easily about the similarities and differences between databases </li></ul></ul>
  • 12. Group Activity: SMART Objectives <ul><li>In pairs, review a lesson plan that you have already delivered (10 minutes) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are they SMART objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Specific </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Measurable </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Achievable </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Realistic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Time-bound </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How could you make them SMARTer? </li></ul></ul>
  • 13. Selecting Learning Experiences <ul><li>Determine what learning activities (strategies) are most effective and practical in the training context </li></ul><ul><li>Consider activities that cover a range of learning styles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interactive Lecturette: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Class Discussion: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small Group Exercises: 4-6 people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two & Three-person Exercises </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Case Studies </li></ul></ul>
  • 14. Example Learning Experiences <ul><ul><li>Interactive Lecturette: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Class Discussion: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small Group Exercises: 4-6 people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two & Three-person Exercises </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Case Studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Role-playing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simulations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Games </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surveys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quizzes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Short Writing Exercises </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hands-on Work in Field </li></ul></ul>
  • 15. Selecting Training Resources <ul><li>Several kinds of training resources need to be identified: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Content Experts: Available/willing to assist in development of training? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trainer(s): Available? Relevant experience? Cost? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Materials: Books, pens, manuals, equipment, name cards, food, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time: How long? Training delivered across several months or concentrated in a few days? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-part training? When are learners available? </li></ul></ul>
  • 16. Developing training materials <ul><li>Developing Materials </li></ul><ul><li>Training materials should be: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy to understand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economically produced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relevant to one or more learning outcomes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contribute as a secondary source of information and not act as the primary source </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complement the learning experiences in which learners are engaging </li></ul></ul>
  • 17. Developing training materials <ul><ul><li>Include as much practical, direct job-based information as possible. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe process-oriented tasks in a step-by step format, free of extraneous detail. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Include illustrative examples that support text-based information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimal - students will use them primarily as a reference. </li></ul></ul>
  • 18. Implement <ul><li>Primary questions to answer when delivering training: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the trainer prepared to facilitate the learning experiences in an engaging manner? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have the appropriate training materials been developed? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have questions been developed to challenge learners and debrief the learning experience? </li></ul></ul>
  • 19. Engaging Learners <ul><li>Ten Steps to being positively engaging: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask learners what they want to learn from the training, and then list them. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Probe learners with questions frequently; interactivity should be an primary characteristic of the training. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage application of material by providing examples, posing job-based problems, and asking learners to consider how they might apply what they are learning. </li></ul></ul>
  • 20. Engaging Learners (2) <ul><ul><li>Quiz and give feedback in a nonthreatening way. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Start with questions instead of with providing information (talking ‘at’ students) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pose alternative, thought-provoking questions and scenarios to get students to critique and question and get beyond the obvious. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Start with what learners know to empower them and identify what to build on. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use both visual and aural (hearing) modes of learning. </li></ul></ul>
  • 21. Engaging Learner (3) <ul><ul><li>Use organizing techniques (e.g., ‘Okay, we’ve just addressed...now that let’s move to...)that help learners keep track of where they are and what they’ve learned. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use humor and stories to enhance content and maintain learner motivation. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Deming, B., Ten Steps to being Positively Engaging, Training and Development, </li></ul><ul><li>January 2001, pp. 18-19. </li></ul>
  • 22. Questioning <ul><li>Questions compel students to consider the information they are learning. They serve several learning purposes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explaining: Asks students to explain their responses or poses a question that asks for elaboration. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem solving: Poses problems for students to answer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Debriefing: After a class exercise or field study event, allows students to consider what they have experienced. </li></ul></ul>
  • 23. Questioning (2) <ul><li>Predicting: Presents job-related, realistic hypothetical situations for students to consider. </li></ul><ul><li>Hyman, R., ‘Discussing Strategies and Tactics,’ Questions, Questioning Techniques, </li></ul><ul><li>and Effective Teaching (ed. W. Wilen), 1987, Washington, DC: national Education Association </li></ul><ul><li>pp. 138-139 </li></ul>
  • 24. Feedback <ul><li>Provide feedback on the learning experiences in which you just participated. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Was the learning experience engaging? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Was it appropriately interactive? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Was there a balance of instructor and student provided information? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Were questions posed that challenged students? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Did it help students meet the stated outcome? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Was it completed in a timely manner? </li></ul></ul>
  • 25. Evaluation <ul><li>Primary questions to answer when evaluating training: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How can you assess if the learning outcomes are being addressed adequately during the development and delivery of training? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How can you evaluate the effectiveness of a training program immediately after the delivery of training? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How can you evaluate whether the learning from the training is being applied in a work setting after students complete a training program? </li></ul></ul>
  • 26. When to evaluate? <ul><li>Evaluation of training can be separated into two primary categories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formative: Occurs while the training is being designed, developed, and delivered. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Summative: Usually completed immediately after training is conducted to evaluate the extent to which learners enjoyed and believed they received valuable learning. Can also be conducted over the course of weeks or months after training. </li></ul></ul>
  • 27. Evaluation Methods: Formative <ul><li>There are several ways to evaluate the effectiveness of training during design, development, and delivery. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Needs Assessment Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content Expert Evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beta Test of Training / Pilot Testing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre and Post Training Questionnaire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trainer Assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student Questionnaire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Class Interview </li></ul></ul>
  • 28. Evaluation Methods: Summative <ul><li>There are several ways to evaluate the effectiveness of training after a training has been conducted. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In-class Questionnaires </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Post Training Questionnaires </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Post Training Debrief </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interviews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Journals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observations </li></ul></ul>
  • 29. Questions to Consider <ul><li>When considering formative and summative evaluation methods for your own training program: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What kinds of evaluation are likely to be easiest to implement? Most difficult? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What kind of evaluation are learners most likely to respond to? Least likely? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What logistical issues do the various forms of evaluation pose for trainers and learners? </li></ul></ul>
  • 30. Developing a Lesson Plan <ul><li>A session or lesson plan is a map that outlines the design of your training programme </li></ul><ul><li>In your group, identify the elements of a lesson plan, (20 mins) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What components of a lesson plan MUST be present? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brainstorm and present your lesson plan template to the group </li></ul></ul>
  • 31. <ul><li>[look at lesson plan template and go over elements] </li></ul>
  • 32. Planning Exercise – 20 minutes <ul><li>Begin to develop a lesson plan for the presentation assignment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Write a statement for this learning outcome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider timings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measurement techniques (AfL) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is missing? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How could it be improved? </li></ul></ul>

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