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Constructivism an educational theory
Constructivism an educational theory
Constructivism an educational theory
Constructivism an educational theory
Constructivism an educational theory
Constructivism an educational theory
Constructivism an educational theory
Constructivism an educational theory
Constructivism an educational theory
Constructivism an educational theory
Constructivism an educational theory
Constructivism an educational theory
Constructivism an educational theory
Constructivism an educational theory
Constructivism an educational theory
Constructivism an educational theory
Constructivism an educational theory
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Constructivism an educational theory

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  • 1. ‘ Constructivism’ The educator as Facilitator Educational Theory (1) National Liaisons Workshop ITOCA / BLDS
  • 2. Constructivism - Objectives <ul><li>By the end of this session, you will: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Know what constructivism is? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand why it is important to trainers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand how to apply its approach to your work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Begin to understand the theory behind the student-centred approach </li></ul></ul>
  • 3. Constructivism <ul><li>“ Tell me and I forget, show me and I remember, involve me and I understand” </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese Proverb </li></ul>
  • 4. What is Constructivism? <ul><li>Teaching &amp; training theory based on research about how individuals learn </li></ul><ul><li>Based on the idea: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals construct knowledge (personal construct theory – Kelly 1955) through: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding past experiences </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reflecting on past experiences </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adding a greater degree of detail to existing knowledge [1] </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>fill in knowledge gaps &amp; go beyond information given (Bruner) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Combining new knowledge into personal understanding of reality [2] </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>MacKeracher (2004) Making sense of adult learning, 2 nd edn. Toronto: University of Toronto Press </li></ul>
  • 5. What is constructivism? <ul><li>Modern Constructivists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lev Vigotsky </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social Construction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>emphasized the effects of one’s environment (family, friends, culture &amp; background) have on learning </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jerome Bruner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Constructivism &amp; Cognitivism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bruner’s 5 E’s </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kolb “Learning Cycle or Experiential learning cycle” </li></ul></ul>
  • 6. Kolb et al <ul><li>Experiences play a central role in learning process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Life, work, education or play </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ideas are formed and re-formed continuously through learning experience </li></ul><ul><li>Bring our own ideas and preconceptions to learning process </li></ul><ul><li>Learning is an iterative process </li></ul><ul><li>Kolb, Rubin and Osland (1991) Organizational Behaviour: an experiential approach, 5 th edn. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall </li></ul>
  • 7. Why it is important to trainers? <ul><li>Trainer’s role: Act as a facilitator &amp; resource person </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals learn best through: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exploration or enquiry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Active’ rather than ‘passive’ learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ student-centred’, participative approaches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Co-) Constructing meaning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increased sense of ‘autonomy’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent learners </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Useful in a variety of settings </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Classroom, lecture halls etc. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 8. Modern Constructivist <ul><li>Jerome Bruner most recent contributor </li></ul><ul><li>Bruner’s five E’s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Engage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explore </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elaborate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate </li></ul></ul>               Jerome Bruner
  • 9. Engage <ul><li>Engage students and get them interested in learning </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss in pairs: how would you motivate learners? 5 minutes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does the student identify his/her own learning needs &amp; then pursue them? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning pace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student’s ideas / questions welcomed? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negotiate learning needs? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student construct knowledge? Progress trial &amp; error? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opportunities for reflection? </li></ul></ul>
  • 10. Explore <ul><li>Get directly involved in learning approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Active learning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Work in ‘teams’ or ‘pairs’ </li></ul><ul><li>Act as a facilitator (or resource person) </li></ul><ul><li>Use enquiry (or discovery) to drive learning process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enquiry-based learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Learning driven by a process of enquiry..” </li></ul></ul>
  • 11. Explain <ul><li>Explanations come from: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students learning together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consider uses of ICT </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trainer introduces concepts and vocabulary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trainer determines levels of understanding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clarifies concepts if misconceptions exist </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning approaches (assist AfL) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Students’ set own research topics / essay </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dealing with problem-solving assignments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creating own questions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brainstorming </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 12. Elaborate <ul><li>Students expand on concepts learned </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fill in gaps </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Apply understanding to own environment &amp; real world problems </li></ul><ul><li>Make connections </li></ul><ul><li>Connections lead to further inquiry &amp; new understandings </li></ul>
  • 13. Evaluate <ul><li>Can occur at all points of the instructional process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formative (used by students to measure learning progress (reflective) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rubrics (Peer Assessment) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher observations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Student interviews </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Summative (formal assessment event that contributes to the award of a grade and/or mark) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Used to guide further training plans </li></ul>
  • 14. To summarize: Constructivist theory is.. <ul><li>Learning is active </li></ul><ul><li>Student-centred &amp; enquiry-based </li></ul><ul><li>Act as a facilitator, not a record player </li></ul><ul><li>Learning is achieved through exploration </li></ul><ul><li>Learning happens if it is interesting! </li></ul><ul><li>Use 5 E’s to put students at centre of learning </li></ul><ul><li>Appeals to past experiences (reflective) </li></ul><ul><li>Makes learning cyclical or incremental </li></ul>
  • 15. Problem-solving IL scenario <ul><li>“ You have a friend who is interested in setting using a social networking tool to promote their research (e.g. Facebook). They are worried about the dangers, including: plagiarism, ethical and privacy issues. What advice would you give them? Should they use a social networking tool to promote their research?” </li></ul>
  • 16. Task #10 – Problem-solving task <ul><li>In your groups: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop a 5 minute PowerPoint presentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You must: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consider the pros / cons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compare tools and suggest alternatives (if applicable) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identify why task is a pertinent Information Literacy skills problem </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>20 minutes preparation time </li></ul></ul>
  • 17. Post task feedback <ul><li>Using constructivist approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How could we have improved task? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group Discussion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use different scenarios (variety increases motivation) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Student define scenario </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Others? </li></ul></ul></ul>

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