Especially necessary in databases where the “all fields” option covers full text;Swetswise (& often others) do not
INASP Cascading Workshop: Search Engines and Effective Searching Boolean operators can provide a powerful way of entering your search as they allow you to specify how the search terms are combined. To do this you need to use Boolean logic or logical operators, AND, OR, and NOT or their equivalents on the system you are using. It is important to find out how the particular resources you are using uses these commands: some use symbols such as AND + - * etc. There is almost always a ‘help’ section which will explain how that particular resources works. Although different symbols may be used to represent the Boolean commands or operators — what the operators do is the same. Some web based system will use such phrases as ‘ include all of the words’ (Boolean AND) or ‘ include at least one of these words’ (Boolean OR) e.g. education OR schools girls OR gender OR women
INASP Cascading Workshop: Search Engines and Effective Searching Query: I would like information about education or literacy. In this search, we will retrieve records in which AT LEAST ONE of the search terms is present. We are searching on the terms education and also literacy since documents containing either of these words might be relevant. This is illustrated by: the shaded circle with the word education representing all the records that contain the word “education" the shaded circle with the word literacy representing all the records that contain the word “literacy" the shaded overlap area representing all the records that contain both “education" and “literacy" OR logic is most commonly used to search for synonymous terms or concepts. Some search tools use the words ‘ include at least one of these words’ to indicate an ‘OR’ search.
INASP Cascading Workshop: Search Engines and Effective Searching Query: I'm interested in the relationship between education and literacy. In this search, we retrieve records in which BOTH of the search terms are present This is illustrated by the shaded area overlapping the two circles representing all the records that contain both the word “education" and the word “literacy" Notice how we do not retrieve any records with only “education" or only “literacy" The more terms or concepts we combine in a search with AND logic, the fewer records we will retrieve. Search tools may use ‘include all of the words’ or + or a number of other symbols to carry out an ‘AND’ search.
INASP Cascading Workshop: Search Engines and Effective Searching Query: I want to see information about education, but not secondary education In this search, we retrieve records in which ONLY ONE of the terms is present This is illustrated by the shaded area with the word ‘ education’ representing all the records containing the word ‘education’ No records are retrieved in which the word “secondary" appears, even if the word “education" appears there too NOT logic excludes records from your search results. Be careful when you use NOT: the term you do want may be present in an important way in documents that also contain the word you wish to avoid. For example, the an excluded article might say ‘In this paper I will be discussing the impact of funding cuts on education, and will consider the tertiary rather than secondary sector…’ Search tools may use — or ‘ exclude these words’ to carry out a ‘NOT search
Point out that AND contracts search, OR expands it Show differences – e.g. Water AND sanitation (two separate boxes) water OR sanitation
Alter nutrition in SwetsWise searchbox to nutrition* Compare different number of results for each option With SwetsWise: “In the above searches the default all fields has been used . Because this does not include searching the full text (as some all fields searches do) the results are fairly focussed. Although an article keyword search – which is an option here - would generally focus even more, in this case it cannot be relied upon, as not all articles have keywords assigned (it can also be problematic if there is no facility to browse and check what the keywords are).”
Try child nutrition as two words and “child nutrition” as a phrase. What are the advantages and disadvantages Try children nutrition india, then child* nutrition* india* Try child nutrition as two words and “child nutrition” as a phrase. What are the advantages and disadvantages BLDS catalogue Advanced search allows for Title phrase but not much else.
With SwetsWise you can only download all results. But some systems – such as our catalogue - allow you to mark and save selected records (and in a few minutes we’ll show you the University of Sussex library’s Metalib system that does the same)
You need to choose a Subject Area before searching Google style automatic “anding” Phrase searching using quote marks or ? As wildcards Details link for seeing more of record (and for emailing etc single records) – whereas clicking on title, View Online or Find it at US will display the actual article The University Library has more than one journal provider.
Human Capital and FDI Inflows to Developing Countries (or just FDI inflows) (If you are logged into a Google account, any changes you make will be saved.) Library links: in IDS. Set to BLDS – it will retrieve SwetsWise articles we subscribe to (using an IDS machine). Set to Sussex; will invoke Find It at Sussex screen. Both – will return both, but seems to prioritise BLDS (but FindIT is under More). Not using an IDS machine – seems to prioritise Sussex (and access to SwetsWise articles via BLDS is erratic) Note Bibliography Manager on Settings screen. This will affect what appears in the Cite link under your results Note “free” PDF links. Are these links that have moved into the public arena, or are they dependant on subscriptions available to your IP address? Note Refine options on left. If All else fails, try “All versions” IF can’t link you to the article, it will provide what bibl inf it can so that e.g. you can look up printed version Email alerts (you don’t need a Gmail account) Advanced search
Searching electronic resources effectively BLDS, November 2012
Searching electronic resources effectively BLDS, November 2012
What we will coverGeneric search skills– Useful in any database;– We will cover the following examples for article searching: • SwetsWise (through BLDS E-Library: http://blds.ids.ac.uk/, then E-Library, then E-journals, then Searching for E-journal articles), and • MetaLib (University of Sussex E-Library)Session Objectives– By the end of this session, you will be able to: • Identify a number of useful sources • Construct a search strategy • Use a range of techniques to refine results
Some Common Search IssuesYou may find problems with:– Plural and singular forms of a word– Spelling variations of a word– Different forms of the same word– Different words meaning the same thing (synonyms)The phrase you searched for doesn’t appearYou may get too many resultsYou may get too few results
Search strategy......to address these issues and improve / refine searchresults, using:– Field Searching or Limits– Grouping Terms (Boolean Operators)– Word Stems (Truncation)– Phrase SearchingUsing SwetsWise to demonstrate
Field Searching or ‘Limits’Many databases allow you to restrict your searches by “field”or “limits”http://bldscat.ids.ac.uk/cgi-bin/koha/opac-search.pl– e.g. Title, Subject key words/phrases, Author.Could solve problems of getting too many results
Boolean OperatorsStand up, if you:– Are wearing anything blueStay standing , if you– Are wearing anything blue AND are wearing earringsStand if you– Are wearing anything blue OR are wearing earrings– Are wearing anything blue but are NOT wearing earrings
Boolean searchingAllows you to specify how the search terms are combinedUses commands (operators / connectors) such as AND, OR, NOTDifferent search tools may use different symbols (e.g. ‘+’ for‘AND’, ‘-’ for ‘NOT’)Search tools may use AND as a default setting (e.g. Google)
education literacyQuery: I would like information about education or literacy
education literacy Query: Im interested in therelationship between education and literacy
education secondaryQuery: I want to see information about education, but I want to avoid seeing anything about secondary
Search strategies and techniques: Combining termsThe two boxes in Advanced Search on the BLDS catalogue andSwetsWise can be linked by any of these operators – but ANDis the defaultSeveral databases (such as SwetsWise, but notBLDS catalogue) also allow you to use operators within boxes,e.g.– Box 1: water OR sanitation AND– Box 2: agricultureOr– Box 1: (women OR gender) AND (water OR sanitation) AND– Box 2: agriculture
Searching by Word StemIs there a short way of searching for variants of a word whichstart the same way ?– Nutrition, nutritional– Technology, technologies, technologicalYou could use the OR function, but there’s a much easier solution…
Searching by Word StemTruncation– Usually *, e.g. nutrition*, technolog*– Sometimes other symbols (e.g. $, ?)Wildcard– Usually ?, wom?nMany databases, including SwetsWise, allow thisCould solve problems to do with plurals/singulars, spellingvariations, and variations of a root word
Phrase SearchingWord searching and phrase searching. If you type in morethan one term:– Some systems interpret this as a phrase– Some systems give a phrase search option– Others interpret this as an “AND” a search for items containing both terms, not necessarily as a phrase (e.g. Google, SwetsWise, Metalib), although they will often Rank by relevanceWith SwetsWise, if you want to search for a phrase, enclosethe words in quotation marks, e.g. “South Africa” or “primaryeducation”.Could solve problems of the phrase you searched for notappearing
Displaying and capturingDisplaying– Usually a choice of levels of fullness– Sometimes full text, sometimes just bibliographic detailsMarking. Used to select records for:– Printing– Saving– Emailing
Individual / Pair Activity: 10 mins• Using any topic you wish – Conduct searches using range of search techniques (i.e. search strategy) – Use SwetsWise to find relevant material / resources – Make observations & be prepared to feedback your thoughts to the group, at the end of the session • Relevant results? • Number of results?
Some Possible Search TopicsGlobalisation and genderFood security and biodiversityMigration (but excluding everything on forced migration)Do trade agreements affect levels of debt?Does participation encourage social change?Decentralisation and local government in Ghana
Search strategies and techniques: Summary of search tips• Boolean connectors (AND, OR, NOT) to connect terms within your search.• Quotation marks to specify a phrase or an exact match,- e.g. "action research", “human rights”.• Asterix (*) for truncation – e.g. school* to find schools or schooling.• Question mark (?) as a ‘wildcard’ – e.g. democrati?ation to find democratisation or democratization (note – this one is not as common as other rules above)
University of Sussex Library Resources (1)http://www.sussex.ac.uk/library/Choose Electronic Library– Library Search (referred to as Quicksearch on Electronic Library screen): search several online resources at once– Once at Library Search, choose a subject area– Enter your search– You can refine your results using the Facets on the left of the screen– Email records, etc
University of Sussex Library Resources (2)Simple SearchAdvanced Search– Extra options (field selection, data limitation, etc)My Favourites– Select/Mark records to go to My Favourites– They can then be emailed, etc
University of Sussex Library Resources (3)From Electronic Library page: Online Journals Online Resources – Both for searching individual databases and making your own selection) – Not all will provide the full-text – Some scholarly resources are available freely online eg ERIC (education), Pubmed (health & medicine) – Check Library resources for research... leaflet as 1st step
University of Sussex Library Resources (4)Subject Guides and Support(http://www.sussex.ac.uk/library/guides)InfoSuss(http://www.sussex.ac.uk/library/infosuss/index.shtml)InfoPlus (http://www.sussex.ac.uk/library/infoplus/)
Google Scholar (1)http://scholar.google.co.uk/Both peer-reviewed and un-reviewed articles, pre-prints,institutional repositories, references to books, citationsBibliography manager options (Settings Screen)Use Library Links (from Settings Screen) to highlight links viaBLDS and SussexA comparison between two academic databases and GoogleScholar showed them about equal for relevant retrievalNote “Cited by” and “Related articles”
Google Scholar (2)BUT No source list No information on how results are ranked It is claimed there are huge gaps Citation search is not using such a large pool of articles as Web of Science Some say author search unreliable, search on year of publication unreliable
Individual / Pair Activity: 10 mins• Using any topic you wish – Conduct searches using range of search techniques (i.e. search strategy) – Use LibrarySearch at the University of Sussex Library (link to QuickSearch from http://www.sussex.ac.uk/library/electronic) or Google Scholar (http://scholar.google.co.uk/) to find relevant material / resources – Make observations & be prepared to feedback your thoughts to the group, at the end of the session • Relevant results? • Number of results?
Summary of search tipsBoolean connectors (AND, OR, NOT) to connect terms within yoursearch.Quotation marks to specify a phrase or an exact match,- e.g."action research", “human rights”.Asterix (*) for truncation – e.g. school* to find schools orschooling.Question mark (?) as a ‘wildcard’ – e.g. democrati?ation to finddemocratisation or democratization (note – this one is not ascommon as other rules above)Brackets for grouping (determining the order in which terms will becombined).
How to reference e-journals and websitesYou should provide enough detail others to locate thedocument – such as, author name, title of article, journal title,year, volume number, pages.Which style of referencing should I use? There are two groupsof referencing styles ‘Author-date’ referencing style and‘Numeric’ styles. Here we use the first.Whatever style you use, just remember to keep it consistent.The University of Sussex recommends using the Harvard style. Useful resources: Location: RESEARCH METHODS [FIRST FLOOR] Shelved at:PEARS, Richard. Cite them right.infosuss http://www.sussex.ac.uk/library/infosuss/