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Politics in 1800's dk

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  • 1. Politics shaping the American Identity By Desiree Klemenz
  • 2. The Federalist Party Beliefs/wants: Important Federalists• Gov. ruled by the “best people” • George Washington• Powerful central gov. • Alexander Hamilton• Loose interpretation of Constitution • John Jay• Gov. helping businesses • John Adams• Tariff• National debt not states debts• Powerful central bank• Restricted free speech & press• Strong navy
  • 3. George Washington• Contributions as Pres.:• kept America out of war (Jay’s treaty & neutrality Proc.)• Expanded the nation West• Created first political cabinet• Created Judiciary Act of 1789• J.A. created: supreme court, federal district, circuit court & office of attorney general• Two term presidency
  • 4. John Jay• Agreements of his treaty:• British leaves U.S. SOIL• British pay damages for captured American ships• American’s pay British pre-Rev. War debts• Signed convention of 1800 with France• (treaty with France, they pay claims from American Shippers)
  • 5. Alexander Hamilton• Made Gov. assume all state’s debts ( new state debt= 21.5 million)+ pay back all bonds( in full, with interest)• Gave fed District of Potomac to Virginia (for a vote)• Created:• Bank of U.S. ( keep money circulating, print money in time of need)• Tariff (tax on imports)• Excise tax (tax on few U.S goods)this created whiskey rebellion
  • 6. John Adams• Contributions:• Kept up Washington’s peace mission• Created: the Navy, Marine corps, & 3 ship navy grew• Sedition act= limited freedom of press+ speech• Alien act= harder to become citizen• Passed judiciary act of 1801 this let him appointMany fed. judges before he leftoffice
  • 7. Overall changes to American Identity• Less diversity• More fighting/more soldiers (Jay’s treaty + neutrality Proc. Angered the French)• Results of Hamilton’s actions:• Strong gov. with huge debt.• New taxes + tariff (becoming more like Britain)• More people in jail for opinion’s or can’t pay taxes• Rich get richer• former slaves forced back into slavery• money prints stop
  • 8. Republicans aka Democratic- Republicans Beliefs/wants Fathers of Republicanism• Gov. ruled by many informed citizens • Thomas Jefferson• Weak gov. better state rights • James Madison• Strict interpretation of constitution• Farming based economy• Very small navy• No national debt
  • 9. Thomas Jefferson• Created party in 1790• Wrote Dec. of ind.• Hamilton’s rival• Believed fed. were crossing constitution• Convinced stated to reclaim rights• “ I hold it that little rebellion now and then is a good thing…. The tree of Liberty must be refreshed from time to time with blood of patriots and tyrants( zinn,pg95)
  • 10. Thomas Jefferson as Pres.• Let victims of sedition act out of jail• Naturalization law of 1802= live in U.S. for 5 years to become citizen, instead of 14• Got rid of excise tax , cost gov. a million$ a year in revenue• Federalism declared defiance of people’s wishes• New congress elected• Judiciary Act of 1789 declared unconstitutional• Embargo Act= stopped all foreign trade (replaced in1809)• Non-Intercourse Act= can trade with anyone except France + Britain• Louisiana purchase = more land
  • 11. Louisiana Purchase
  • 12. James Madison• Wrote bill of rights: gave fed. More supporters• Helped Jefferson create party and bring back states rights• Involved in famous court case• Brought back embargo against Britain when he was pres. , caused war of 1812• During pres. He also took westFlorida from Spain
  • 13. Marbury vs. Madison• Adams appointed many judges at last min• Jefferson told Madison not to deliver their commission• Madison didn’t and William Marbury sued• Court ruling:• Judiciary Act of 1789 declared unconstitutional• it gave supreme court a power that it was deniedin the constitution(the act of giving commissionbefore you can be a judge)• It’s funny how the act was declared illegal yet everything that was set up under it is not.
  • 14. Overall changes to American Identity• More diversity in citizens• Less people in jail• Less rebellion and taxes• National debt increasing• Alliances dissolved• Little money coming in (non at one point- more people are poor and more classes are seeing some hardship)• Adams stunt created Judicial review• Two party system gave them their democracy
  • 15. Sources• The American Pageant by D. Kennedy, L. Cohen, T. Bailey• People’s History of the United States by Howard Zinn• Southern Planter Handout• Marbury vs. Madison (law class handout- case study)• http://www.virginia.edu/pjm/biography1.htm