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Anatomy 105<br />Unit 3<br />
Nervous System<br />Receives info & responds to it.<br />Central Nervous System- brain & spinal chord<br />Peripheral Nerv...
Sensory Neurons<br />Afferent- signal goes from sense organ to brain<br />Sensory Receptors<br />Photoreceptors- senses li...
Chemoreceptors- potassium ions come from damaged cells, which causes bradykinins to be released (stimulates pain receptors...
Neurons- functional unit of the nervous system.<br />Cell body with nucleus.<br />Dendrites- bring info to cell body<br />...
Hydrocephalus- cerebrospinal fluid builds up in the head “water in the brain”<br />Spinal Chord & caudaequina- lots of ner...
Human Brain<br />Encephalon<br />Average weight: 3 pounds<br />Hemispheres: left & right halves<br />Longitudal Fissure- b...
Left brain- analytic thought, logic, language, science and math<br />Right brain- holistic thought, intuition, creativity,...
Brain Stem<br />Medulla- controls organs<br />Pons- controls breathing<br />Midbrain- reticular formation; survival & prim...
Terms<br />EEG- electroencephalogram, registers brain waves<br />Multiple Sclerosis- no known cause, disease of the nerves...
5 Senses<br />Hearing- not very dominant in humans. Damaged by 50 years old.<br />	1) Pinna- outer ear lobe<br />	2)Tympan...
Taste- bitter, sour, salty, sweet<br />	1)umami- “delicious” glutamate, MSG, artichoke, mushrooms<br />	2)popillae- techni...
Sight<br />Snellen Eye Chart Test<br />Cornea- clear outer layer<br />Aqueous humor- liquid behind cornea; gives shape<br ...
Sight continued<br />Rods- for light (photoreceptor)<br />Cones- for color (photoreceptor)<br />Cataracts- foggy lens<br /...
Endocrine System<br />Works very closely with the nervous system.<br />Exocrine Glands- secretions exit the body; have duc...
Hormones<br />Proteins, controlled by negative feedback<br />Hypothalamus- main part of brain that starts everything<br />...
Pituitary Gland Only!!!!<br />Adenohypothesis<br />Somatotropin- growth hormone (HGH). Hyper secretion of Somatotropin res...
Pituitary Gland Only!!!! Continued…<br />Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)- stimulates Adrenal Glands to mature and relea...
2. Pineal Body or Pineal Gland<br />Size of a grain of sand.<br />Produces Melatonin- regulates sleep cycles.<br />Regulat...
3. Thyroid  Gland<br />Calcitonin- lowers calcium levels<br />Thyroxine- controls metabolism<br />Hyperthyroidism- too muc...
4. Parathyroid Glands<br />Usually 4 and they’re imbedded in the back of the thyroid.<br />Parathormone- raises calcium le...
5. Pancreas<br />Exocrine- produces pancreatic juices. (Digest foods) Travel through pancreatic duct.<br />Endocrine- prod...
Diabetes<br />A major and growing health problem in the US.<br />Can’t produce or use glucose properly.<br />Leading cause...
6. Thymus Gland<br />Thymosine- helps body fight off disease.<br />Stimulates immune system.<br />Shrinks as you get older...
7. Ovaries<br />Estrogen- secondary sexual characteristics, important for menstrual cycle and pregnancy; produced by ovari...
8. Testes<br />Testosterone- makes more hair on body, lower voice, and more muscles. Important during spermatogenesis.<br />
9. Adrenal Glands (Suprarenals)<br />Located above the kidneys.<br />Adrenal cortex- outside layer.<br />Glucocorticoids- ...
Miscellaneous Hormones Produced<br />Kidneys- erythropoietin: stimulates red blood cells<br />	-renin: keeps blood pressur...
Dirty Dozen Places to Pick Up Germs<br />Public Bathrooms<br />Restaurants<br />Your Workplace<br />Airplanes<br />Hotels/...
10 Most Important Drugs<br />Penicillin<br />Insulin<br />Smallpox Vaccine/ Polio Vaccine<br />Ether<br />Morphine<br />As...
Other Important Drugs<br />L-dopa: Parkinson’s Disease<br />Steroids: Hydrocortisone and other legal ones.<br />Viagra<br ...
I. Barriers<br />Skin- your first line of defense. Top layer is dead cells; it is a dry environment. We slough off these d...
II. Nonspecific<br />Internal defenses attack a wide variety of microbes.<br />Phagocytosis- most important ones doing thi...
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  1. 1. Anatomy 105<br />Unit 3<br />
  2. 2. Nervous System<br />Receives info & responds to it.<br />Central Nervous System- brain & spinal chord<br />Peripheral Nervous System- nerves coming from brain & spinal chord.<br />Cranial Nerves- 12 pairs<br />Spinal Nerves- 31 pairs (named after vertibrae)<br />
  3. 3. Sensory Neurons<br />Afferent- signal goes from sense organ to brain<br />Sensory Receptors<br />Photoreceptors- senses light<br />Thermoreceptors- responds to temperature<br />Chemoreceptors- senses pain, odors, tastes<br />Mechanoreceptors- Pacinian- pressure<br />Merkel’s Disks- touch<br />Meissner’s- touch<br />
  4. 4. Chemoreceptors- potassium ions come from damaged cells, which causes bradykinins to be released (stimulates pain receptors)<br />Somatic Nervous System- controls voluntary movement<br />Autonomic Nervous System- controls involuntary movement, has 2 parts:<br />Sympathetic<br />Parasympathetic<br />Acts as a check & balance system.<br />
  5. 5. Neurons- functional unit of the nervous system.<br />Cell body with nucleus.<br />Dendrites- bring info to cell body<br />Axon- takes message away from cell body<br />Myelin Sheath- makes it go faster (impulses)<br />Neurilemma Sheath- helps in healing<br />Sodium/Potassium Pump- electrical signals<br />Resting Neurons- outside is rich in sodium & poor in Potassium<br />
  6. 6. Hydrocephalus- cerebrospinal fluid builds up in the head “water in the brain”<br />Spinal Chord & caudaequina- lots of nerves come off at the base of the spine; looks like a horse’s tail<br />Spina bifida- spinal chord doesn’t fully develop as a fetus<br />
  7. 7. Human Brain<br />Encephalon<br />Average weight: 3 pounds<br />Hemispheres: left & right halves<br />Longitudal Fissure- big groove that halves the brain<br />Cerebrum- largest part of brain<br />Cerebellum- tiny brain. Small part, controls balance and muscle coordination.<br />Medulla Oblongata- brain stem, controls internal organs.<br />Corpus Callosum- thick bundle of nerves that cannects the two halves of the brain<br />
  8. 8. Left brain- analytic thought, logic, language, science and math<br />Right brain- holistic thought, intuition, creativity, art & music<br />Thalamus- registers pain<br />Hypothalamus- tries to maintain homeostasis (temperature, thirst, appetite, sex drive, pituitary gland)<br />Amygdala- “primitive brain” raw emotions, rage, fear, pleasures, basic instincts<br />Hippocampus- long term memory<br />
  9. 9. Brain Stem<br />Medulla- controls organs<br />Pons- controls breathing<br />Midbrain- reticular formation; survival & primitive emotions<br />
  10. 10. Terms<br />EEG- electroencephalogram, registers brain waves<br />Multiple Sclerosis- no known cause, disease of the nerves & affects muscles, developed in 30’s & 40’s.<br />Stroke- blood clot in the brain<br />Migraines- terrible headaches<br />Encephalitis- inflammation of the brain; caused by mosquito bites, virus<br />Ganglion- a bunch of nerves at a junction<br />Phobias- irrational fears, some are warnings<br />Schizophrenia- split from reality<br />Multiple Personalities- lots of people in one<br />Sleep- insomnia, narcolepsy, dreams<br />IQ/Gifted- gifted characteristics: well rounded, well read<br />
  11. 11. 5 Senses<br />Hearing- not very dominant in humans. Damaged by 50 years old.<br /> 1) Pinna- outer ear lobe<br /> 2)Tympanium-ear drum, vibrates<br /> 3)Hammer, Anvil, Stirrup- vibrates because of #2<br /> 4)Cochlea- (blue) seachell; has many microscopic hairs, organ for hearing<br /> 5)Auditory Nerve- noise is processed<br />
  12. 12. Taste- bitter, sour, salty, sweet<br /> 1)umami- “delicious” glutamate, MSG, artichoke, mushrooms<br /> 2)popillae- technical term for taste buds<br />Touch- Pacinian corpuscle- pressure<br />Merkel’s Disks- touch<br />Meissner Corpuscle- touch<br />Smell- olfaction, olfactory sense of smell wears out<br />
  13. 13. Sight<br />Snellen Eye Chart Test<br />Cornea- clear outer layer<br />Aqueous humor- liquid behind cornea; gives shape<br />Pupil-hole which light goes through<br />Iris- muscle around pupil/ pigmented (makes pupil dilate)<br />Lens- focuses<br />Vitreous Liquid- filled with dark liquid to absorb light<br />Fovea- place on retina where image should fall<br />
  14. 14. Sight continued<br />Rods- for light (photoreceptor)<br />Cones- for color (photoreceptor)<br />Cataracts- foggy lens<br />Glaucoma- tunnel vision<br />Myopia- nearsighted<br />Hyperopia- farsighted<br />Astigmatism- vision fades<br />
  15. 15. Endocrine System<br />Works very closely with the nervous system.<br />Exocrine Glands- secretions exit the body; have ducts (tubes) to carry the secretion, Ex: mammary glands, sweat & oil glands, etc.<br />Endocrine Glands- produce hormones; have no ducts and travel through the bloodstream<br />
  16. 16. Hormones<br />Proteins, controlled by negative feedback<br />Hypothalamus- main part of brain that starts everything<br />Pituitary Gland- aka Hypothesis or Master Gland<br />Stimulated by hypothalamus<br />Aka Hypothesis or Master Gland<br />Sellatercica- bony cup-like structure that protects it<br />Anterior section- Adenohypothesis (glandular)<br />Posterior section- Neurohypothesis (nervous tissue)<br />
  17. 17. Pituitary Gland Only!!!!<br />Adenohypothesis<br />Somatotropin- growth hormone (HGH). Hyper secretion of Somatotropin results in Giantism. Hypo secretion of HGH results in Dwarfism.<br />Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone- produces melanin<br />Prolactin- produced during pregnancy to stimulate the mammary glands to produce milk.<br />Endorphins- natural pain killers<br />Thyroid Stimulating Hormone- stimulates thyroid to mature and release its hormones.<br />
  18. 18. Pituitary Gland Only!!!! Continued…<br />Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)- stimulates Adrenal Glands to mature and release hormones.<br />Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)- stimulates the follicle to cause the egg to mature<br />Lutenizing Hormone (LH) (ICSH)- In females, LH causes ovulation to occur. In males, Interstitial Cell Stimulating Hormone causes cells in testicles to produce sperm. Also aids in spermatogenesis.<br />Neurohypophysis<br />Oxytocin- causes labor & causes the milk to be released<br />Vasopressin (ADH)- Antidiuretic Hormone causes your body to retain water.<br />
  19. 19. 2. Pineal Body or Pineal Gland<br />Size of a grain of sand.<br />Produces Melatonin- regulates sleep cycles.<br />Regulates photoperiodic functions- seasonal or circadian cycle.<br />May regulate onset of puberty.<br />
  20. 20. 3. Thyroid Gland<br />Calcitonin- lowers calcium levels<br />Thyroxine- controls metabolism<br />Hyperthyroidism- too much Thyroxine is produced. Makes you hyper, irritable, usually thin.<br />Hypothyroidism- hyposecretion of Thyroxine. Tired, sluggish, sleep a lot, gain weight.<br />Cretinism- a retarded midget, tested at birth. Will start baby on Thyroxine if they don’t have any.<br />Goiter- when the thyroid swells. Caused by lack of iodine.<br />
  21. 21. 4. Parathyroid Glands<br />Usually 4 and they’re imbedded in the back of the thyroid.<br />Parathormone- raises calcium levels in blood.<br />
  22. 22. 5. Pancreas<br />Exocrine- produces pancreatic juices. (Digest foods) Travel through pancreatic duct.<br />Endocrine- produces 2 hormones that regulate blood glucose levels.<br />Insulin- reduces blood sugar levels.<br />Glucagon- increases blood sugar levels.<br />
  23. 23. Diabetes<br />A major and growing health problem in the US.<br />Can’t produce or use glucose properly.<br />Leading cause of blindness, kidney disease, and amputations.<br />Brain cells live from glucose and low levels are bad! Can lead to seizures, coma, or death.<br />Most diabetics die from cardiovascular disease.<br />Type 1: mostly in kids and adolescents<br />Type 2: usually as an adult<br />Symptoms: frequent urination, always hungry, sudden weight loss, always thirsty.<br />
  24. 24. 6. Thymus Gland<br />Thymosine- helps body fight off disease.<br />Stimulates immune system.<br />Shrinks as you get older.<br />
  25. 25. 7. Ovaries<br />Estrogen- secondary sexual characteristics, important for menstrual cycle and pregnancy; produced by ovaries.<br />Progesterone- egg ruptures out of the follicle and causes uterine to be built up. Produced by the corpus luteum.<br />
  26. 26. 8. Testes<br />Testosterone- makes more hair on body, lower voice, and more muscles. Important during spermatogenesis.<br />
  27. 27. 9. Adrenal Glands (Suprarenals)<br />Located above the kidneys.<br />Adrenal cortex- outside layer.<br />Glucocorticoids- produced in times of stress; anti-inflammitory. Ex: Cortisol<br />Mineral Corticoids- regulates soduim levels (Na/K pump)<br />Sex Hormones- testosterone, some estrogens, steroids (from cholesterol)<br />Adrenal Medulla- middle layer<br />Produces adrenaline- fight or flight<br />Epinephrine- produced in response to stress.<br />
  28. 28. Miscellaneous Hormones Produced<br />Kidneys- erythropoietin: stimulates red blood cells<br /> -renin: keeps blood pressure in check (raises it)<br />Digestive Tract- Gastrin: causes HCL to be produced<br />Placenta- chorionic gonadotropin: helps baby growth, is detected in a pregnancy test<br />Prostaglandins- produced my cells throughout the body<br />
  29. 29. Dirty Dozen Places to Pick Up Germs<br />Public Bathrooms<br />Restaurants<br />Your Workplace<br />Airplanes<br />Hotels/ Motels<br />Swimming Pools<br />Movie Theaters<br />Day Care Centers<br />Schools<br />Your Home<br />Your Doctor’s Office<br />Hospitals<br />
  30. 30. 10 Most Important Drugs<br />Penicillin<br />Insulin<br />Smallpox Vaccine/ Polio Vaccine<br />Ether<br />Morphine<br />Aspirin<br />Salvarsan<br />Psychiatric Medications<br />Birth Control<br />Heart Medications<br />
  31. 31. Other Important Drugs<br />L-dopa: Parkinson’s Disease<br />Steroids: Hydrocortisone and other legal ones.<br />Viagra<br />Cyclosporine: for transplant patients<br />HIV Drugs<br />
  32. 32. I. Barriers<br />Skin- your first line of defense. Top layer is dead cells; it is a dry environment. We slough off these dead cells. Secretions from sweat and oil glands get rid of outer layer.<br />Mucus Membranes- traps germs. Lysosomesretard bacterial growth.<br />Stomach- acidic pH. HCl kills bacteria.<br />
  33. 33. II. Nonspecific<br />Internal defenses attack a wide variety of microbes.<br />Phagocytosis- most important ones doing this are macrophages.<br />Natural Killer Cells- most are white blood cells; attack cells that have been invaded. Ex: cancer<br />Inflammation- fluids rush to area, pus is also present (white blood cells & bacterium that they kill)<br />Damaged cells release chemicals called histamines.<br />Histamines cause blood & fluids to race towards wound.<br />Would becomes swollen, red, & warm.<br />Attracts macrophages to site & pus forms.<br />
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