Developmental disabilities

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EDU 221, Chapter 5, 2014sp, CCC

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Developmental disabilities

  1. 1. DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES: CAUSES AND CLASSIFICATIONS Chapter 5 – The exceptional Child – Inclusion in early childhood education; allen, K. eileen and Cowdery, Glynnis E.; 2012
  2. 2. Causes of Developmental Disabilities • Congenital – a problem present at birth • Nature and nurture – work together to “determine developmental outcomes” • Check out the prenatal developmental chart on p. 101 in your text! • Biological insult – may or may not cause a developmental problem • Genetic disorders – are present at birth, but are not necessarily hereditary • Most single-gene disorders – both parents are healthy carriers of an abnormal gene. Each pregnancy has a 25% potential outcome of the child having the disorder
  3. 3. Syndromes • Down Syndrome – Trisomy 21; probably the most well-known cause of intellectual disabilities • Common characteristics described on p. 103 • Many children with Down syndrome also have health issues such as heart defects • Fragile X syndrome- like Down syndrome, a chromosomal abnormality. • The most common inherited cause of intellectual disabilities in the U.S. • More likely to impact boys more severely
  4. 4. Metabolic and Gene Disorders • PKU – phenylketonuria • Every newborn in the U.S. is screened with a simple blood test following birth • Dietary changes can prevent irreversible brain damage • Tay Sachs – most likely to occur in people of Eastern European Jewish descent • Cystic Fibrosis – fatal physical disorder that does not interfere with mental development; children are now living into adulthood with this disease • Sickle-cell anemia – serious health disorder that primarily affects AfricanAmerican • Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy – fatal muscular disease that occurs in males
  5. 5. Prenatal Infections and Intoxicants • Many are listed in your text on p. 105 • Better prenatal care has improved outcomes in recent years, but pregnancy is not without its risks • FAE and FAS – the #1 preventable cause of intellectual disabilities • Poor nutrition – sadly, this is still an issue with pregnant women, particularly teenage mothers.
  6. 6. Other Complications • Birth – CP (cerebral palsy) may result from lack of oxygen during birth • Post-natal diseases and illnesses • Lead poisoning – still a huge problem, particularly in high poverty areas • Poverty – increased risk factors including • • • • • Nutritional deficiency Lack of good healthcare and education Homelessness Single parent families Lack of quality childcare – may even be detrimental to child’s development
  7. 7. Classifications of Developmental Disabilities • SLD – specific learning disabilities – categorized by normal or above normal IQ, but discrepancies in ability to read, write, or do math as compared to IQ • Speech and language problems – may or may not accompany other developmental disorders • Intellectual disabilities (mental retardation) – MR is now considered a more offensive term • Emotional disorders (ED or BED) – behavior or emotional responses are not age or developmentally typical and interfere with normal functioning in education, social, or vocational settings
  8. 8. Classifications of Developmental Disabilities (cont.) • Multiple disabilities – more than one disability • Hearing loss – “deafness” or “hard of hearing” • Orthopedic impairments – may include congenital impairments such as absence of a limb or paralysis; impairments caused by diseases such as polio; neurological or spinal cord damage causing problems such as paralysis as in spina bifida; impairments caused by injury or other causes • Health impairments – heart, cancers, chronic diseases (asthma, diabetes, CF), etc.
  9. 9. Classifications of Developmental Disabilities (cont.) • Visual impairments – blind; partially sighted • Deaf/blind – multisensory disorder • Autism – a developmental disorder of the brain that is behaviorally defined along a spectrum. Some cognitive delay is present in about ¾ of the children with autism • TBI – Traumatic brain injury
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