From Affective Interaction to Emotion-Oriented Systems

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  • We discussed in previous lectures about other psychology related aspects such as memory, cognition, perception and how they influence our user’s decisions and also our interaction, interface design
  • Thalamus - switchboard of informationHypothalamus – endocrine system - cryHippocampus – short term memory – limbic systemCerebral cortex - information processing takes placeBrainstem – nerve connections of the motor and sensory systems from the main part of the brain to the rest of the body pass through the brain stemAmygdala -processing and memory of emotional reactions – limbic systemCentral grey - plays a role in the descending modulation of pain and in defensive behaviour.Limbic system - emotion, behavior, motivation, long term memory, and olfaction
  • limbic system – the “seat of emotion” – evaluatesthe need/goal relevance of its inputsthalamus + limbic system mainly deal withprimitive (basic) emotionse.g., startle-based fear, anger, sadness, joy, disgust
  • From Affective Interaction to Emotion-Oriented Systems

    1. 1. Human-Computer InteractionFrom Affective Interactions to Emotion-Oriented Systems
    2. 2. Master on Software Engineering Human-Computer Interaction “I believe that logic + emotion are a winningcombination. When useful and useable meet delight great things happen. It’s about balance.” David Armano Stefan Negru – www.blankdots.com
    3. 3. http://www.flickr.com/photos/sskennel/
    4. 4. Master on Software Engineering Human-Computer InteractionWhat are emotions, feelings and the other affect related concepts ? Stefan Negru – www.blankdots.com
    5. 5. Master on Software Engineering Human-Computer Interaction Definition: “Affect is a feeling or emotion asdistinguished from cognition, thought, or action.‖ Stefan Negru – www.blankdots.com
    6. 6. Master on Software Engineering Human-Computer Interaction“Emotion encompassesphysiological, affective, behavioral, and cognitivecomponents.” Scott Brave & Clifford Nass, 2008 Stefan Negru – www.blankdots.com
    7. 7. Master on Software Engineering Human-Computer Interaction“Emotion is a reaction to events deemed relevant tothe needs, goals, or concerns of an individual.” Scott Brave & Clifford Nass, 2008 Stefan Negru – www.blankdots.com
    8. 8. Master on Software Engineering Human-Computer Interaction Four systems for emotion activation: Cognitive and noncognitive processes.By Izard, Carroll E. Psychological Review, Vol 100(1), Jan 1993, 68-90. Stefan Negru – www.blankdots.com
    9. 9. Master on Software Engineering Human-Computer Interactionneurological structure of emotion (LeDoux, 1996) Stefan Negru – www.blankdots.com
    10. 10. Master on Software Engineering Human-Computer Interaction emotion versus moodmoods are not directed at any object in particular and are experienced as more diffuse, global, and general state a person can be sad about something - an emotion or generally depressed - a mood Stefan Negru – www.blankdots.com
    11. 11. Master on Software Engineering Human-Computer Interaction emotion versus moodAn emotion can lead to or take part in establishing a certain mood Sadness (& other factors) depression Stefan Negru – www.blankdots.com
    12. 12. Master on Software Engineering Human-Computer Interaction emotion versus feelingFeelings relate more to a property associated to and object or being, than to a person’s state of mind.Feeling last more (days/weeks/years) than emotions (seconds) or moods (hours / days) Stefan Negru – www.blankdots.com
    13. 13. Master on Software Engineering Human-Computer Interaction emotion versus feelingFeelings are often pointed towards a class of objects, beings distinguishable through a certain property “I love Adobe CS applications!” “I hate text-editing applications” Stefan Negru – www.blankdots.com
    14. 14. Master on Software Engineering Human-Computer Interaction emotion and memorynegative events, which tend to be highly arousing,are typically remembered better than positive events Stefan Negru – www.blankdots.com
    15. 15. Master on Software Engineering Human-Computer Interaction emotion and performance keeping a user ―happy‖ may, therefore,not only affect satisfaction, but may also lead to efficiency and creativity Stefan Negru – www.blankdots.com
    16. 16. Master on Software Engineering Human-Computer Interaction emotion and performance keeping a user ―happy‖ may also influenceinformation processing and decision making Stefan Negru – www.blankdots.com
    17. 17. Master on Software Engineering Human-Computer Interaction emotion and communicationhumans use emotions when communicating with other humans in order to: show their internal state of mind alert others regarding some event/stateshow empathy (understanding of situations) Stefan Negru – www.blankdots.com
    18. 18. Master on Software Engineering Human-Computer InteractionHow do we recognize and classify them? Stefan Negru – www.blankdots.com
    19. 19. Master on Software Engineering Human-Computer InteractionA Circumplex model of affect (Russell, 1980). Stefan Negru – www.blankdots.com
    20. 20. Master on Software Engineering Human-Computer InteractionRussell’s circumplex remodeled (Desmet, 2002; van Gorp, 2006) Stefan Negru – www.blankdots.com
    21. 21. Master on Software Engineering Human-Computer Interaction emotion dimensions Value pleasant versus unpleasant Arousal (psychological) anxiety versus boredom Stefan Negru – www.blankdots.com
    22. 22. Master on Software Engineering Human-Computer InteractionAnxiety, Boredom and Flow (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990; van Gorp2006) Stefan Negru – www.blankdots.com
    23. 23. Master on Software Engineering Human-Computer Interaction FlowAchieving the desired state and keeping the user in that state is our goal. Stefan Negru – www.blankdots.com
    24. 24. Humane interfaces consider emotions Stefan Negru – www.blankdots.com
    25. 25. Master on Software Engineering Human-Computer Interaction―Products were once designed for the functions theyperformed. But when all companies can make productsthat perform their functions equally well, the distinctiveadvantage goes to those who provide pleasure andenjoyment while maintaining the power. If functions areequated with cognition, pleasure is equated withemotion; today we want products that appeal to bothcognition and emotion.‖ Don Norman ―The Transmedia Design Challenge: Technology that is Pleasurable and Satisfying‖, ACM Interactions Volume 17 Issue 1, January + February 2010 Stefan Negru – www.blankdots.com
    26. 26. Master on Software Engineering Human-Computer Interaction Affective Interaction designThe need for products to convey positive emotions and avoid negative ones is critical to product success. Stefan Negru – www.blankdots.com
    27. 27. Master on Software Engineering Human-Computer Interaction Affective Interaction designDesigning expressive interfaces which make use of: Dynamic elements Animations Icons, fonts, colors, graphical layoutsto influence how the effectiveness of an interface is perceived Stefan Negru – www.blankdots.com
    28. 28. Master on Software Engineering Human-Computer Interaction Affective ComputingAffective Computing is computing that relates to, arises from, or deliberately influences emotion and other affective phenomena. Stefan Negru – www.blankdots.com
    29. 29. Master on Software Engineering Human-Computer Interaction Affective Computing Recognizing Interpreting Drawing out emotions Emotional influence on behavior Expressing emotions Stefan Negru – www.blankdots.com
    30. 30. Master on Software Engineering Human-Computer Interaction Affective Computing A general point of viewhttp://www.interaction-design.org/encyclopedia/affective_computing.html Stefan Negru – www.blankdots.com
    31. 31. Master on Software Engineering Human-Computer InteractionIt’s all nice, tidy and easy to understand right ? Stefan Negru – www.blankdots.com
    32. 32. Master on Software Engineering Human-Computer Interaction Wishful thinkingIt’s all nice, tidy and easy to understand right ? Stefan Negru – www.blankdots.com
    33. 33. Master on Software Engineering Human-Computer InteractionWhere’s the problem ? Stefan Negru – www.blankdots.com
    34. 34. Master on Software Engineering Human-Computer InteractionExamples of affective interactions Stefan Negru – www.blankdots.com
    35. 35. Master on Software Engineering Human-Computer Interaction http://getsatisfaction.com/spotify/topics/when_will_we_have_a_blackberry_cli enthttp://satisfaction.mint.com/mint/topics/account_classifications_we_need_ability_to_change_them Stefan Negru – www.blankdots.com
    36. 36. Master on Software Engineering Human-Computer Interactionhttp://satisfaction.mint.com/mint/topics/account_classifications_we_need_ability_to_change_them Stefan Negru – www.blankdots.com
    37. 37. Master on Software Engineering Human-Computer Interactionhttp://www.nbcchicago.com/news/local-beat/Frank_lloyd-wright-fallingwater-lego.html Stefan Negru – www.blankdots.com
    38. 38. Master on Software Engineering Human-Computer Interaction A few Problems + Context + Social Environment Stefan Negru – www.blankdots.com
    39. 39. Master on Software Engineering Human-Computer Interaction A few more Problems – the engineering point of view1. Detecting Emotions2. Labeling Emotions3. Processing Emotions4. Obtrusive interface Stefan Negru – www.blankdots.com
    40. 40. Master on Software Engineering Human-Computer Interaction 1. Detecting Emotions Neurological responsesvia electroencephalography (EEG) or magneto‐resonance imaging (MRI) User input Facial expression Voice Stefan Negru – www.blankdots.com
    41. 41. Master on Software Engineering Human-Computer Interaction http://www.emotiv.com/ based on electroencephalography (EEG) technology Stefan Negru – www.blankdots.com
    42. 42. Master on Software Engineering Human-Computer Interaction ―Lie to me‖– Tv showhttp://www.imdb.com/media/rm817007104/tt1235099 Stefan Negru – www.blankdots.com
    43. 43. Master on Software Engineering Human-Computer Interaction METT – Micro Expression Training Tool SETT – Subtle Expression Training Tool Stefan Negru – www.blankdots.com
    44. 44. Master on Software Engineering Human-Computer Interaction Asking our user how he feels. Stefan Negru – www.blankdots.com
    45. 45. Master on Software Engineering Human-Computer Interaction Detecting emotions in an Emotion-Oriented system Stefan Negru – www.blankdots.com
    46. 46. Master on Software Engineering Human-Computer Interaction 2. Labeling Emotions Which are basic emotions ? Group Emotions Mixed versus pure emotions Stefan Negru – www.blankdots.com
    47. 47. Master on Software Engineering Human-Computer Interaction http://wefeelfine.org/12 million human emotions recorded since 2005 (2009 statement) Stefan Negru – www.blankdots.com
    48. 48. Master on Software Engineering Human-Computer Interaction Emotion-Oriented Systems The Humaine Handbook, Springer 2011 Stefan Negru – www.blankdots.com
    49. 49. Master on Software Engineering Human-Computer Interaction Basic emotionsanger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness and surprise Stefan Negru – www.blankdots.com
    50. 50. Master on Software Engineering Human-Computer Interaction Labeling emotionsLabeling is important but not for a machine Stefan Negru – www.blankdots.com
    51. 51. Master on Software Engineering Human-Computer InteractionA label for the machine is a x,y coordinate on the circumplex. Stefan Negru – www.blankdots.com
    52. 52. Master on Software Engineering Human-Computer Interaction Proposal of labeling emotionsFeelTagged an Arduino-based Social-Emotional Interactive System – Stefan Negru 2010 Stefan Negru – www.blankdots.com
    53. 53. Master on Software Engineering Human-Computer Interaction 3. Processing emotions Is it a mood/feeling/emotion ? What category/dimension ? Multiple and/or complex emotionsEmotion intensity, timing and context observed ? etc. Stefan Negru – www.blankdots.com
    54. 54. Master on Software Engineering Human-Computer Interaction Annotating emotions <emotionml xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2009/10/emotionml"> <emotion> <dimensions set="PleasantAnxiety"> <pleasant value="1.3"/> <!—- somewhat positive pleasant state --> <anxiety value="1.9"/> <!-- very high positive anxiety --> <modality set="PersonalContext" mode="face voice" medium="visual acoustic"/> </dimensions> </emotion></emotionml> EmotionML http://www.w3.org/TR/emotionml/ Stefan Negru – www.blankdots.com
    55. 55. Master on Software Engineering Human-Computer Interaction 5. Have an unobtrusive interfaceProviding a useful, easy to understand and adaptive interface – secondary goal Unobtrusive interface- primary goal Stefan Negru – www.blankdots.com
    56. 56. Master on Software Engineering Human-Computer Interaction emotion and attention an interface capable of detecting, or predicting a user’s emotional or mood state could similarlyassume an affect‐regulation role, helping to guide attention away from negative and toward more positive stimuli Stefan Negru – www.blankdots.com
    57. 57. Master on Software Engineering Human-Computer Interaction emotion and attention Disregarding the flow state“This system failed to understand your command.” – blaming itself“The command was not understood.” – blaming no one“You did not speak clearly enough for your command to be understood.” –blaming the user Stefan Negru – www.blankdots.com
    58. 58. Master on Software Engineering Human-Computer Interaction Stefan Negru – www.blankdots.com
    59. 59. Master on Software Engineering Human-Computer Interaction Affective based interactionAffective aspects of interaction (Rogers, 2007) frustration how we can detect and reduce it? Stefan Negru – www.blankdots.com
    60. 60. Master on Software Engineering Human-Computer Interaction Affective based interactionAffective aspects of interaction (Rogers, 2007) persuasive technologieshow we can change the user attitude & behavior by using the actual technologies? Stefan Negru – www.blankdots.com
    61. 61. http://www.happypills.es/
    62. 62. Master on Software Engineering Human-Computer Interaction Affective InteractionExample: a robot hardware platform called iCAT uses aset of logical rules to convey emotional states as it makesdecisions, with the goal of improving human-robotinteractionPhilips Research Laboratory 2005 Stefan Negru – www.blankdots.com
    63. 63. Master on Software Engineering Human-Computer Interaction http://www.research.philips.com/ Stefan Negru – www.blankdots.com
    64. 64. Master on Software Engineering Human-Computer Interaction http://pleoworld.com/Pleo is an animatronic dinosaur toy designed to emulate the appearance and (imagined)behavior of a week-old baby Camarasaurus. Stefan Negru – www.blankdots.com
    65. 65. Master on Software Engineering Human-Computer Interaction ALIZ-E projecthttp://fostsvn.uopnet.plymouth.ac.uk/ Stefan Negru – www.blankdots.com
    66. 66. Master on Software Engineering Human-Computer Interaction Q Sensor 2.0 - Measuring Emotionhttp://www.affectiva.com/q-sensor/ Stefan Negru – www.blankdots.com
    67. 67. Master on Software Engineering Human-Computer Interactionhttp://blog.youeye.com/youeye-announces-webcam-emotion-tracking Stefan Negru – www.blankdots.com
    68. 68. Master on Software Engineering Human-Computer Interaction“Affdex reads emotional states such as liking and attentionfrom facial expressions using a webcam... to give marketersfaster, more accurate insight into consumer response tobrands and media. “http://www.affectiva.com/affdex/ Stefan Negru – www.blankdots.com
    69. 69. Master on Software Engineering Human-Computer Interaction Ethical aspects The goal is not to control people actions but to support them in order to improve their emotional state and toprovide a better interaction based on the user’s emotional state Stefan Negru – www.blankdots.com
    70. 70. Master on Software Engineering Human-Computer Interaction Dark side of emotionsHumans could have an offensive behavior regarding the digital entities www.agentabuse.org Stefan Negru – www.blankdots.com
    71. 71. Master on Software Engineering Human-Computer Interaction Dark side of emotions Humans could have an offensive behavior regarding the digital entities example (Tatsuya Nomura, 2005): impolite behavior of the patients,when they discovered that the therapist is a virtual agent Stefan Negru – www.blankdots.com
    72. 72. Master on Software Engineering Human-Computer Interaction Dark side of emotions Humans could have an offensive behavior regarding the digital entities experiment (Christoph Bartneck et al., 2005):humans tend to hurt more easily robots/devices than people Stefan Negru – www.blankdots.com
    73. 73. Master on Software Engineering Human-Computer Interaction Unobtrusive versus InformativeShould users be informed that their affective states are being monitored and adapted to ? Stefan Negru – www.blankdots.com
    74. 74. Master on Software Engineering Human-Computer Interaction Questions Stefan Negru – www.blankdots.com

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