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  • At the University of New England we have a diverse mix of cultures. There are students from 62 different countries represented at UNE.
  • Principle six: The sixth Good Practice Principle acknowledges that different disciplines have different English language requirements and discourses and that most students do not enter university with ‘ready‐made’ proficiency in the academic language of their discipline(s). It is based on a view that development of appropriate English language proficiency is more likely to occur when it is linked to need (e.g. discipline‐specific academic activities, assessment tasks, practica). Sources indicate that while there is no single ‘best’ way to develop students’ English language proficiency, contextualisation within disciplines and integration of language development across the curriculum seem likely to be effective approaches. ‘Integration’ in this context means taking a holistic view across a discipline to address needs through a variety of means, including: embedding language development through curriculum design and assessment;
  • An initial survey was undertaken and although the response rate could have been better, it did highlight issues that could be addressed. This slide shows that reading, writing and legal language are the main concerns of the students in Corporations Law. Developing a contextualised module that focuses on these areas was proposed.
  • This was meet with overwhelming support from the students.
  • The academic skills that were included in the first module such as Paraphrasing, identifying definitions both legal and everyday, how to skim and skip when reading were situated in a real context and gave the students the opportunity to practice these skills while being immersed in a real world scenario. Again this is a learning style that many international students may not be familiar with. Question: wouldn’t it have been more appropriate to give them instructions in a form they are familiar with.eg. Here are the answers.
  • Module 1 was made available online and was intended to be used as a teaching tool that would supplement other unit material . The scenario was established of a student being employed by a local law firm and her boss gives her a note from a client and asks her to find relevant information, cases and statutes that he can use to advise the client of any legal action they can pursue. The student was to use the IRAC methodology which stands for Issue, Rule, Application or Analysis and Conclusion. Module 1 was to cover the Issues component and Module 2 would cover the others. The scenario is equivalent to what the students will need to do for their assessment in Corporations Law.
  • Show actual module in safari.
  • Strategies for reading the textbook.
  • Paraphrasing was one academic skill that was covered by module 1.
  • The technique of Skip and Skim.
  • After the unit was made available to the students it became obvious through an informal investigation of activity in Blackboard that very few students were making use of the module, nor was the module being used by the tutors or unit coordinator as a teaching tool as was initially intended. As you can see 21 students out of over 100 looked at the module and only 3 had it open long enough to gain anything from it. These figures are obviously inconclusive as there is no way of knowing whether the person who stayed for 2:52:48 actually was viewing the module or left the module open while they had dinner. However, it does show that the module was not being used by the students.
  • As this person points out the module was too long and she felt her time would be better spent concentrating on the assignments.
  • Module 2 was designed to cover Research, Application and Conclusion components of the IRAC method. It was made with a program that reduced the file size and included audio text and images. This module will be made available to students in Semester 1 2011. The recommendation will be that both modules be used by the tutors or unit coordinator as teaching tools as well as being made available online for self directed learning.
  • A focus group was conducted with Chinese students to obtain additional information on the difficulties they were facing with Corporations Law.
  • Full paper references.
  • A focus group was conducted with Chinese students to obtain additional information on the difficulties they were facing with Corporations Law.

Transcript

  • 1. Using online scenario-based learning modules to assist NESB students studying Corporations Law.
  • 2. 62 different countries are represented at the University of New England.
  • 3. AUQA Good Practice Principles (2008) (http://www.deewr.gov.au/HigherEducation/Publications/Pages/GoodPracticePrinciples.aspx) Principle Six - Development of English language proficiency is integrated with curriculum design, assessment practices and course delivery through a variety of methods. Unpacking academic requirements: international students in Management and Education disciplines (2007) http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/611901014-60834963/content~db=all~content=a795272970~frm=titlelink A study looking at the difficulties and solutions international students experienced when struggling to interpret different disciplinary requirements. Lecturer communication in a multicultural higher education context (2007) http://www.isana.org.au/cross-cultural-communication/lecturer-communication-in-a-multicultural-higher-education-context.html The aim of this exploratory study was to examine the ways in which lecturers communicate in the classroom to consider factors affecting student comprehension of lecture content .
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  • 6. Online scenario-based learning is situated in a real context and is based on the idea that knowledge cannot be known and fully understood independent of its context. Kindley, Randall W (2002), Scenario- Based E-Learning: A Step Beyond Traditional E-Learning, Retrieved 30/11/2010 .
  • 7. Module One
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  • 13. “ Because it’s too long and I’m not patient to finish it.” Images of students are only representations of audio.
  • 14. Module Two
  • 15. “ Because in China the most focus is on how the teacher teaches the students but here it is focused on reflect ”. “ The courts decision is really hard to understand, said really formal or informal, whatever, we can’t understand . . .” “ Maybe we need someone to help us paragraph the legislation and the case book . . .” “ In Business Law they summarise all the sentences into PowerPoint or something so it’s much easier. . . ” “ I’m wondering whether maybe there is someone or the lecturer can help us to rearrange the words, I mean, in very normal ways . . .” Images of students are only representations of audio.
  • 16. Agostinho, S., Meek, J, & Herrington, J. 2005. Design methodology for the implementation and evaluation of a scenario-based online learning environment. Journal of Interactive Learning Research , 16(3), 229-242.   Akerlind, G., Carr-Gregg, S., Field, R., Houston, L., Jones, J., Lupton, M., McKenzie, J., Treloar, C., 2010. “A threshold concepts focus to first year law curriculum design: supporting student learning using variation theory”, Paper presented to the First Year in Higher Education Conference, Adelaide, July. Armstrong E: A hybrid model of problem-based learning. In: Barr RD and Tagg J: From teaching to learning - a new paradigm for undergraduate education. Change, Nov/Dec.1995:13-25 (also available online at http://critical.tamucc.edu/~blalock/readings/tch2learn.htm ) Bazeley, P. 2007. Qualitative data analysis with NVivo . 2 nd ed. London: Sage. Bazerman, C. 1981. "What written knowledge does: Three examples of academic discourse". Philosophy of the Social Sciences, 11 , 361-387.   Becher, T. 1994. "The significance of disciplinary differences". Studies in Higher Education, 19 (2), 151-161. Berkenkotter, C., and T. N. Huckin. 1995. Genre knowledge in disciplinary communication: Cognition/culture/power . Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Boud D and Feletti G (editors). 1991. The challenge of problem-based learning . London, Kogan Page. Bourdieu, P. (1986). 'The forms of capital' trans. by R. Nice. In J.E. Richardson (ed.) Handbook of Theory of Research for the Sociology of Education , pp. 241-58. Cousin, G. (2006). 'Threshold concepts, troublesome knowledge and emotional capital: An exploration into learning about others, in, Mayer, J. H. F. and Land, R. (eds). Overcoming barriers to student understanding: Threshold concepts and troublesome knowledge , Abingdon, Oxon.: Routledge, pp. 134-147. Dahl, T., 2004, 'Textual metadiscourse in research articles: a marker of national culture or of academic discipline?', Journal of Pragmatics , 36, 1807-1825. Donald, J. 2002. Learning to think: Disciplinary perspectives . San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Fløttum, K, Dahl, T, Kinn, T, Müller Gjesdal, A & Thue Vold, E 2007, "Cultural identities and academic voices", in Fløttum, K. (ed) Language and Discipline Perspectives on Academic Discourse, Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, Fraser, H. submitted. Speaking and Listening in the Multicultural University: 
A survey of attitudes and experiences   Hmelo-Silver, C. E. (2004). Problem-based learning: What and how do students learn? Educational Psychology Review , 16, 235-266. Hmelo-Silver, C. E. & Barrows, H. S. (2006). Goals and strategies of a problem-based learning facilitator. Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-based Learning , 1. 21-39. Hmelo-Silver, Duncan, & Chinn. (2007). Scaffolding and Achievement in Problem-Based and Inquiry Learning: A Response to Kirschner, Sweller, and Clark (2006)
  • 17. Educational Psychologist, 42 (2), 99–107 Hyland, K. (1999). Academic Attribution: Citation and the Construction of Disciplinary Knowledge. Applied linguistics, 2 (3), 341-367.   Hyland, K. (2004). Disciplinary Discourses: Social Interaction in Academic Writing . Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.   Iedema, R. (1993). ‘Legal English: Subject-specific literacy and genre theory’, Australian Review of Applied Linguistics , 16(2), 86-122. Kirschner, P. A., Sweller, J., and Clark, R. E. (2006) Why minimal guidance during instruction does not work: an analysis of the failure of constructivist, discovery, problem-based, experiential, and inquiry-based teaching. Educational Psychologist 41 (2) 75-86 Kvale, S. 1996. Interviews : an introduction to qualitative research interviewing . Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.   Marton, F., D. Hounsell, and N. J. Entwistle. Editors. 2005. The experience of learning: Implications for teaching and studying in higher education , 3rd (Internet) edition. Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh, Centre for Teaching, Learning and Assessment. Mayer, J. H. F. and Land, R. (eds). (2006) Overcoming barriers to student understanding: Threshold concepts and troublesome knowledge, Abingdon, Oxon.: Routledge. Merrill, M.D. (2007) A Task-Centered Instructional Strategy. "Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 40" (1), 33-50. North, S. (2005a). "Different values, different skills? A comparison of essay writing by students from arts and science backgrounds". Studies in Higher Education, 30 (5), 517-533.   North, S. (2005b). "Disciplinary variation in the use of theme in undergraduate essays". Applied Linguistics, 26 (3), 431-452.   Ramsden, P. 2003. Learning to teach in higher education , 2 nd ed. London: Routledge/Falmer.   Richards, L. 2005. Handling qualitative data: a practical guide . London: Sage.   Savin-Baden, M. & Major, C. H. 2004. Foundations of problem-based learning . New York: Society for Research into Higher Education & Open University Press.   Savin-Baden, M. 2008. A practical guide to problem-based learning online. London, Routledge.  Sweller, J., Van Merrienboer, J., & Paas, F. (1998). "Cognitive architecture and instructional design". Educational Psychology Review 10: 251–296. Trigwell, K., and S. Shale. 2004. Student learning and the scholarship of university teaching. Studies in Higher Education 29(4):523-536.   Wenger, E. 1998. Communities of practice: learning, meaning and identity . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • 18. Finding Common Ground: enhancing interaction between domestic and international students - A unique set of resources for academics teaching in universities. ALTC-funded project led by the CSHE, University of Melbourne, in collaboration with RMIT University and Victoria University. The project sought to provide support for staff involved in the teaching of international students. http://www.cshe.unimelb.edu.au/research/projectsites/enhancing_interact.html Email:blandrig@une.edu.au Twitter:@stuffy65 Skype name:stuffy65
  • 19. “ Because in China the most focus is on how the teacher teaches the students but here it is focused on reflect ”. “ The courts decision is really hard to understand, said really formal or informal, whatever, we can’t understand . . .” “ Maybe we need someone to help us paragraph the legislation and the case book . . .” “ In Business Law they summarise all the sentences into PowerPoint or something so it’s much easier. . . ” “ I’m wondering whether maybe there is someone or the lecturer can help us to rearrange the words, I mean, in very normal ways . . .” Images of students are only representations of audio.