Adjectives, adverbs and preposotionsPresentation Transcript
Medical Technology Career English II By: Blanche Núñez October 8th 2012
Adjectives are words that describe or modify another person or thing in the sentence. The Articles — a, an, and the — are adjectives. For example: the tall professor the lugubrious lieutenant a months pay
Adjectives nearly always appear immediately before the noun or noun phrase that they modify. Sometimes they appear in a string of adjectives, and when they do, they appear in a set order according to category. For example: the tall professor
Adjectives can express degrees of modification. The degrees are known as the positive, the comparative, and the superlative. We use the comparative for comparing two things and the superlative for comparing three or more things.COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE
COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE Use THAN Use THE Suffix – er Suffix –est If the adjective of If the adjective of two or more two or more syllables ends in syllables ends in «y», add –ier . «y», add –iest. Use MORE when an Use MOST when adjective has more an adjective has than one syllable. more than one syllable.
Tom is old. He is 70. …Joe is 120. He is the But Paul is 83. He is oldest. older than Tom. A pocket camera is ...But a digital camera expensive... A reflex is the most expensive camera is more expensive of the three than a pocket camera.
rich richer richest lovely lovelier loveliest beautiful more beautiful most beautifulgood better bestbad worse worstlittle less leastMuch,many, some more mostfar further furthest
Do not use more along with a comparative adjective formed with –er. Do not use most along with a superlative adjective formed with -est something is more heavier or most heaviest). The as — as construction is used to create a comparison expressing equality: She is as bright as her mother.
The order in which adjectives in a series sort themselves out is perplexing for people learning English as a second language. It takes a lot of practice with a language before this order becomes instinctive, because the order often seems quite arbitrary. The categories in the following table can be described as follows:
School is boring, but homework more boringis_________________ than school.Sourcehttp://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/adjectives.htm
Adverbs are words that modify a verb (He drove slowly. — How did he drive?) an adjective (He drove a very fast car. — How fast was his car?) another adverb (She moved quite slowly down the aisle. — How slowly did she move?)
Adverbs often tell when, where, why, or under what conditions something happens or happened. Adverbs frequently end in -ly; however, many words and phrases not ending in -ly serve an adverbial function and an -ly ending is not a guarantee that a word is an adverb. The words lovely, lonely, motherly, friendly, neighborly, for instance, are adjectives: That lovely woman lives in a friendly neighborhood.
Often these adverbs are formed by adding -ly to the end of an adjective. Adjectives ending -l add -ly ; careful-carefully. Adjectives ending -y change to -ily ; lucky- luckily Adjectives ending -ble change to -bly ; responsible-responsibly. Adjectives ending – ic change to –ally; fantastic - fantastically
Adverbs of Manner (How something happens) She moved slowly and spoke quietly. Carefully, correctly,eagerly,easily,fast, loudly, patiently,quickly Adverbs of Place (Where something happens) She has lived on the island all her life. Abroad,anywhere,downstairs,here,in,nowhere,out,outside,there Adverbs of Frequency (How often something happens) She takes the boat to the mainland every day. Always, sometimes, usually, seldom,rarely, never Adverbs of Time (When something happens) She tries to get back before dark. After, later, just, now recently, tomorrow, yesterday, soon Adverbs of Purpose (Why something happens) She drives her boat slowly to avoid hitting the rocks. To, in order to, accidentally, intentionally, because, since, so that
One of the hallmarks of adverbs is their ability to move around in a sentence. Adverbs of manner are particularly flexible in this regard. Solemnly the minister addressed her congregation. The minister solemnly addressed her congregation. The minister addressed her congregation solemnly.
The following adverbs of frequency appear in various points in these sentences: Before the main verb: I never get up before nine oclock. Between the auxiliary verb and the main verb: I have rarely written to my brother without a good reason. Before the verb used to: I always used to see him at his summer home.
Indefinite adverbs of time can appear either before the verb or between the auxiliary and the main verb: He finally showed up for batting practice. She has recently retired.
THE ROYAL ORDER OF ADVERBS Verb Manner Place Frequency Time Purpose every to keep inBeth swims enthusiastically in the pool before dawn morning shape. every to get aDad walks impatiently into town before supper afternoon newspaper.Tashonda every in her room before lunch.naps morning In actual practice, of course, it would be highly unusual to have a string of adverbial modifiers beyond two or three (at the most). Because the placement of adverbs is so flexible, one or two of the modifiers would probably move to the beginning of the sentence: "Every afternoon before supper, Dad impatiently walks into town to get a newspaper." When that happens, the introductory adverbial modifiers are usually set off with a comma.
carefulSue is a (careful)___________ girl.She takes her medicines carefully_______________.
A preposition describes a relationship between other words in a sentence. Prepositions are nearly always combined with other words in structures called prepositional phrases. Example: You can sit before the desk (or in front of the desk).
We use at to designate specific times. The train is due at 12:15 p.m. We use on to designate days and dates. My brother is coming on Monday. Were having a party on the Fourth of July. We use in for nonspecific times during a day, a month, a season, or a year. She likes to jog in the morning. Its too cold in winter to run outside.
We use at for specific addresses. Grammar English lives at 55 Boretz Road in Durham. We use on to designate names of streets, avenues, etc. Her house is on Boretz Road. And we use in for the names of land-areas (towns, counties, states, countries, and continents). She lives in Durham. Durham is in Windham County.
We use to in order to express movement toward a place. They were driving to work together. Toward and towards are also helpful prepositions to express movement. These are simply variant spellings of the same word; use whichever sounds better to you. Were moving toward the light. With the words home, downtown, uptown, inside, outside, downstairs, upstairs, we use no preposition. Grandma went upstairs
We use for when we measure time (seconds, minutes, hours, days, months, years). She held his breath for seven minutes. We use since with a specific date or time. Hes worked here since 1970. See the chart for others prepositions and their usage.
There are hardly any rules as to when to use which preposition. The only way to learn prepositions is looking them up in a dictionary, reading a lot in English (literature) and learning useful phrases off by heart (study tips).