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  1. 1. The Ideal Page: Between Digital Facsimile and Medieval Manuscript Benjamin Albritton, Stanford University LibrariesRobert Sanderson, Los Alamos National Laboratory 2012 Medieval Academy of America Meeting Saint Louis, MO
  2. 2. Overview• Background• Framing Questions• Working with Digital Surrogates• Supporting a world of linked medieval knowledge• Initial Experiments and Next Steps
  3. 3. Framing Questions• What do we study, as medievalists?• What is a manuscript?• What purposes does a digital surrogate serve?• What can we do with traditionally tacit information? (transcriptions, annotations, etc.)
  4. 4. Working with Surrogates
  5. 5. Naïve Approach: Transcribe Images Directly
  6. 6. Naïve Approach: Multiple RepresentationsCCC 26 f. iiiR
  7. 7. Naïve Approach: Multiple RepresentationsCCC 26 f. iiiR Fold A Open
  8. 8. Naïve Approach: Multiple RepresentationsCCC 26 f. iiiR Fold A Open Fold A and B Open
  9. 9. Naïve Approach: Multiple RepresentationsCCC 26 f. iiiR Fold A Open Fold A and B Open f. iiiV
  10. 10. Canvas Paradigm• A Canvas is an empty space in which to build up a display• Brings non-collocated information into a single viewing space• Makes explicit that the image is a surrogate
  11. 11. Domain RequirementsWorking at physical item level provides unique challenges!1. Only parts of pages may be digitized• Only illuminations digitized• Fragments of pages• Multiple fragments per image Cod. Sang. 1394: 10.5076/e-codices-csg-1394
  12. 12. Domain Requirements2. Page may not be digitized at all• Not "interesting" enough This page intentionally, but unfortunately,• Digitization destructive left blank• Page no longer exists• Page only hypothetical
  13. 13. Domain Requirements3. Non-rectangular pages• Fashionable heart shaped manuscripts• Fragments• Pages with foldouts Facsimile of BNF Rothschild 2973
  14. 14. Domain Requirements4. Alignment of multiple images of same object• Multi-spectral imaging• Multiple resolutions• Image tiling• Microfilm vs photograph• Multiple digitizations Archimedes Palimpsest Multi-Spectral Images
  15. 15. Domain Requirements5. Multiple page orders over time• Rebinding• Scholarly disagreement on reconstruction6. Different pages of the manuscript held by different institutions Cod Sang 730: 10.5706/e-codices-csg-0730a
  16. 16. Domain Requirements7. Transcription of: • Text • Music • Musical Notation • Performance • Diagrams Reusing existing resources, such as TEI, where possible8. Transcriptions both created and stored in a distributed way, with competing versions Parker: XXX XXX
  17. 17. Canvas ParadigmA Canvas is an empty space in which to build up a display • HTML5, SVG, PDF, … even Powerpoint! • Can "paint" many different resources, including text, images and audio, on to a CanvasWe can use a Canvas to represent a folio of a manuscript.Distributed nature is fundamental in the requirements • Painting resources, commentary and collaboration • Idea: Use Annotations to do all of those • Annotations can target the Canvas instead of individual Images
  18. 18. Canvas to Page RelationshipThe Canvass top left and bottom right corners correspond to the corners ofa rectangular box around the folio
  19. 19. OAC Annotations to Paint Images
  20. 20. OAC Annotations to Paint Text
  21. 21. Transcription: Morgan 804
  22. 22. Transcription: Morgan 804
  23. 23. Fragments: Cod Sang 1394
  24. 24. Musical Manuscripts: Parker XXX
  25. 25. Missing Pages: Parker CCC 286
  26. 26. Repeated Zones: Frauenfeld Y 112
  27. 27. Rebinding: BNF 113-116
  28. 28. Supporting a World of Linked Medieval KnowledgeThose Annotations could be anywhere on the web! • Need to be able to discover them!Publish / Subscribe Model for Dissemination. • Annotation creators publish annotations as linked data • Annotation consumers harvest from (trusted?) projects, aggregators or authors • Sync across repositories for sustainabilityAnticipated Issues: • Unreliable authors (or spam) • Multiple published versions • Humanist trend to not expose working data
  29. 29. Teaching with Distributed Digital Tools and Surrogates (UVa, Spring 2012)• Deborah McGrady, UVa: FREN 5150/8510: Textual Bodies: The Making of Books, Authors and Readers in the Middle Ages• 12-15 graduate students• Use of: • Images from the Bibliothèque nationale de France • Hosted at Stanford University • Transcription tool: T-PEN (Saint Louis University) • Annotation tool: DM (Drew University)
  30. 30. Using DM to create and manage annotations
  31. 31. A Space for Simple Description
  32. 32. Working Across Tools
  33. 33. Transcriptions in T-PEN
  34. 34. DM for discovery and display
  35. 35. Next Steps for Student Materials• Extract annotations and transcriptions from tools for: • New display • “Digital appendices” to traditional publication • Personal note stores • New projects • New questions
  36. 36. SummaryModel:Canvas paradigm provides a coherent solution to modeling the layout ofmedieval manuscripts • Annotations, and Collaboration, at the heart of the modelImplementation: • Distribution across repositories for images, text, commentary • Consistent methods to access content from many repositories • Encourages tool development by experts in the fieldThe SharedCanvas model implemented by distributed repositories brings thehumanists primary research objects to their desktop in a powerful, extensibleand interoperable fashion
  37. 37. Software, Tools, and Initiatives Mentioned• Project Blacklight (discovery front-end) –• International Image Interoperability Framework (Image API) –• Open Annotation (Annotation Data Model) –• SharedCanvas (Aggregated Facsimile Data Model) –• T-PEN (Transcription tool – Saint Louis University) –• DM (General annotation desktop – Drew University) –
  38. 38. Thank You Benjamin Albritton @bla222 Robert Sanderson @azaroth42 Web: Paper: Group: Annotation Collaboration:
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