PGA DVD Master Class    • Introduction and Overview for Today         – Blaine Graboyes and Sven Krong         – Schedule ...
Media Architecture                            creative                                   technical                       e...
The Big Picture About DVD    • The creative, technical and business possibilities are      only just becoming understood a...
DVD Brings New Possibilities    • Marketing         – Bowflex & Select Comfort DM, Listerine, Lexus, TiVo    • Education a...
Photos > DVD Photo Book5    27.03.04 @ AFI    DVD Master Class
Installed Base Is Impressive    • 63% of U.S households (HH) have a DVD player            – Only 3.5% have DVR or TiVO and...
DVD Makes $$$$$    • Home Video market is growing quickly         – $4.6 billion in 1997 > now $14.3 billion in 2003    • ...
Unique Distribution & Niche Markets    • In-Store Promotions, In&On Pack Premiums, Gift-      with-Purchase, LidRock, Maga...
Unique Distribution & Niche Markets    • Women         – Control 80% of household expenditures         – Buy 50% of all ca...
Introduction to the DVD Format     • Presented by Sven Krong          – Features of DVD-Video & the TV experience         ...
Features of DVD-Video     •     DVD disc provides more storage and faster access     •     Cinema-like quality; interactiv...
DVD-Video Hardware and Software     •     Entertainment     •     Consumer Electronics     •     Gaming     •     Business...
DVD-Video Not Fully Realized     •     Consumer Awareness     •     Compelling Content (beyond movies)     •     Connected...
IP and DRM     •     IP = Intellectual Property     •     DRM = Digital Rights Management     •     How will consumers use...
Expiration Dates     •     How long will DVD remain the market leader?     •     When will the demand for next generation ...
DVD-Video Content Creators     • Producers, Directors, Designers, Programmers          – Understanding the technology     ...
Features of DVD-ROM     • DVD can contain any computer data or files          – Video, HTML, Flash, Applications, Database...
Video, ROM and Hybrid                        DVD-Video                                HYBRIDTV Experience                 ...
DVD-ROM For Consumers     •     Awareness of experience is limited     •     DVD-ROM content not driving sales     •     D...
The Next Step for DVD-ROM     • Driving awareness          – Studios, producers, manufacturers, killer apps     • Explorin...
DVD-Video Example                           The Last Minute21     27.03.04 @ AFI     DVD Master Class
DVD-ROM Example                           Click Media22     27.03.04 @ AFI     DVD Master Class
Glossary of Important Terms     • Included in handout          – Courtesy of Bruce Nazarian     • Please note any other te...
MAJOR SECTION #1     • Overview of the DVD Production Process and Tools          – DVD Production Pipeline Overview       ...
DVD Production Pipeline     1.     Pre-Production     2.     Production, Post and Delivery     3.     Design for DVD     4...
26     27.03.04 @ AFI     DVD Master Class
Pre-Production     • Capturing the vision in the DVD Spec     • The MOST IMPORTANT PART OF DVD PRODUTION!          – 90% p...
28     27.03.04 @ AFI     DVD Master Class
Production and Post     • Same tools and process as broadcast          – Final Cut Pro, Avid, After Effects, Flame, etc.  ...
30     27.03.04 @ AFI     DVD Master Class
Design for DVD     • Begin with flowchart and content files     • Design Process          – Design Direction and Layouts  ...
32     27.03.04 @ AFI     DVD Master Class
Video Encoding     • Hardware vs. Software          – Hardware = Faster, Better Quality, Expensive, Studio                ...
Audio Encoding     • Generally Dolby Digital or DTS          – Hardware = Real Time, Best Quality, Studio Environment     ...
35     27.03.04 @ AFI     DVD Master Class
Authoring     • The right tool for each job - what can you afford?          – Scale of Risk vs. Expenses                 •...
37     27.03.04 @ AFI     DVD Master Class
Output and Testing     • Final review before replication run(s)     • Emulation vs. Preview System          – An emulation...
39     27.03.04 @ AFI     DVD Master Class
Manufacturing     • Duplication - use of DVD-R for one-off or low volume          – Limited to DVD-5 capacity = 4.7GB     ...
COVER IN AFTERNOON SESSION41     27.03.04 @ AFI     DVD Master Class
Short Break                         10 minutes42     27.03.04 @ AFI     DVD Master Class
• In-Depth Coverage on DVD A-Z          –Pre-Production          – Production, Post and Delivery          – Design for DVD...
Pre-Production     • The most important phase of the whole process          – 90% preparation and 10% execution     • Begi...
Pre-Production Document Samples     •     RFP/ Proposal / Budget     •     Schedule and Milestones     •     Flowchart and...
Pre-Production Document Samples     • RFP/ Proposal / Budget          – RFP = Request For Proposal          – Client reque...
47     27.03.04 @ AFI     DVD Master Class
48     27.03.04 @ AFI     DVD Master Class
2MM DVD-Replication                        Dwarfs Production Budget                         Offer All-In Price w/o49     2...
Schedules and Milestones     •     Pre-Production             days, weeks or months WORK ORDER     •     •           Produ...
Flowcharts and Navigation     • Captures the vision and user experience of the       project into a single document that i...
52     27.03.04 @ AFI     DVD Master Class
53     27.03.04 @ AFI     DVD Master Class
54     27.03.04 @ AFI     DVD Master Class
55     27.03.04 @ AFI     DVD Master Class
56     27.03.04 @ AFI     DVD Master Class
57     27.03.04 @ AFI     DVD Master Class
Content and Data Sets     • Content file for every menu or screen (text)          – Menu button text          – Biographie...
Team and Gear     • DVD requires a team with diverse skill sets          – Executive Producers          – Producers and Di...
Essential Gear     •     Computers for design functions     •     Editorial, video post, DBC decks     •     Audio mix, mu...
Contracts and Legal     • Before any work begins, there must be a signed       agreement between client / vendor / partner...
Contracts and Legal     • Sample of Palm Pictures contract from The Last       Minute co-produced by Patrick Anding and me...
Specifications and Overviews     • Sometimes may be contained in previous documents     • Specifications = Disc Configurat...
Marketing One-Sheets     • Basically back-of-box copy with additional       information on project overview and production...
Disc Configuration65     27.03.04 @ AFI     DVD Master Class
Pre-Production Summary     • The best project will be 90% organization and       preparation and 10% execution     • A wel...
• In-Depth Coverage on DVD A-Z          – Pre-Production          –Production, Post and Delivery          – Design for DVD...
Production, Post and Delivery     •     Basically the same as broadcast production     •     Get the DVD team involved as ...
Production for DVD Tips     • Encoding and authoring cannot alter your video - what       is on your tape is what we will ...
• In-Depth Coverage on DVD A-Z          – Pre-Production          – Production, Post and Delivery          –Design for DVD...
Design For DVD     • Broadcast specs with overlay complications     • Focus on producing menu/screens and graphics package...
DVD Menu Structure             loop point for menu                      audio track          subpicture/button track      ...
DVD Menu Structure                                             Background                                              Men...
DVD Menu Structure                                             Background                                              Men...
DVD Menu Structure                                             Background                                              Men...
Design For DVD - Creative     • Basic Menu / Screen Layouts          – Main Menu is most common with options to Play and a...
Motion Menu Sample77     27.03.04 @ AFI     DVD Master Class
Motion Menu Sample78     27.03.04 @ AFI     DVD Master Class
Motion Menu Sample79     27.03.04 @ AFI     DVD Master Class
Main Menu80     27.03.04 @ AFI     DVD Master Class
Setup81     27.03.04 @ AFI     DVD Master Class
Scenes82     27.03.04 @ AFI     DVD Master Class
Special Features83     27.03.04 @ AFI     DVD Master Class
Special Features Alternate84     27.03.04 @ AFI     DVD Master Class
Environments85     27.03.04 @ AFI     DVD Master Class
Design For DVD - Technical     • Each authoring facility has specific delivery requirements     • Typical sizes for DVD me...
Square vs. Rectangular Pixels     720 X 540           Square   Rectangular   720 X 480                           PC       ...
Typical Screen Sizes     • NTSC 4X3 - Construct at 720X540, resize to 720X486,       crop to 720X480 center for delivery  ...
Typical Screen Sizes89     27.03.04 @ AFI     DVD Master Class
Typical Screen Sizes     Using Canvas Size     Crop from 720 X486To centered 720 X 48090      27.03.04 @ AFI      DVD Mast...
Typical Screen Sizes                                        4X3 Pan&Scan           16:9 Widescreen91     27.03.04 @ AFI   ...
Equipment for Design     • Typically desktop computers (Mac or PC)          – Networked using consumer or proprietary soft...
Overlays, 8-bits, Highlights     • The most often misunderstood aspect of DVD design          – The subpicture overlays fo...
Sample of 8-bit Overlay                                              Overlay 8-bit                                        ...
Overlays, 8-bits, Highlights     • Overlay input file is remapped in authoring          – RGB values of input mapped to ne...
Sample of 8-bit Overlay                 Via RGB color values and transparency96     27.03.04 @ AFI     DVD Master Class
Buttons On Menu Screen                                              DVD Menu                                              ...
Buttonsm 8-bit and Background Art                                     Background                                      Menu...
Delivery Of Art To Authoring     • Each authoring facility has different specifications       for delivery of assets; chec...
Trends In DVD Menu Design      •     Narrative Storyline      •     Original, Exclusive Cast Content      •     Very High ...
Tips And Tricks For DVD Design      • No overlapping button areas      • Overlays flash at end of motion menu loops      •...
• In-Depth Coverage on DVD A-Z           – Pre-Production           – Production, Post and Delivery           – Design for...
Video and Audio Encoding      • Methodical and time consuming for best outcome           – 3+X real time minimum for video...
Video Encoding Timeline      • 1st Pass = Analysis and Operator Adjustements      • 2nd Pass = Encoding / Compression     ...
Video And Audio Master Formats      • Video Master Formats           – Digital Betacam (DBC), Beta SP, DV, DVCam, data    ...
16:9 And 4X3 Overview      • 16:9 is widescreen video for display on newer 16X9        TVs, often plasma, LCD or projectio...
16:9 and 4X3 TVs               16:9 Widescreen       4X3Classic TV107      27.03.04 @ AFI      DVD Master Class
16:9 And 4X3 Overview      • A video master provided in Anamorphic 6:9 format can        be encoded for DVD in a manner th...
VBR & CBR Encoding      • VBR = Variable Bit Rate           – Encode rate / quality varies over the time in relation to th...
VBR & CBR Encoding110      27.03.04 @ AFI      DVD Master Class
• In-Depth Coverage on DVD A-Z           – Pre-Production           – Production, Post and Delivery           – Design for...
Authoring Basics      • Main Stages of DVD Authoring           – Video / Audio Compression           – Subtitling         ...
Authoring Tools      • Use the right tool for the right job           – Shareware       NA                 NA           – ...
Consumer Tools      •     Allows anyone to make a DVD with limited functions      •     Generally provides compression to ...
Prosumer Tools      • Provide limited access to the DVD Specification via and        Abstraction Layer or Metaphor        ...
Prosumer Tools116      27.03.04 @ AFI      DVD Master Class
Professional Tools      • Provides full access to the DVD Specification with        more control and reliability      • So...
Proprietary Tools      • Ultimate tools in terms of control and reliability with        greater speed in all aspects, but ...
Pre-Production For Authoring      • Production Documentation           – Flowchart, Asset List, Data Sets, Specifications ...
Bit Budget Sample                                 Disc Size                                 Total Video Run Time          ...
Advanced Authoring Topics      •     Seamless Branching      •     16X9 vs. 4X3      •     Multi-Angle Video      •     Ra...
Seamless Branching      • Ability to seamlessly (without a noticeable video or        audio glitch) and programmatically (...
Parental Block123      27.03.04 @ AFI      DVD Master Class
16:9 vs. 4X3      • Each VTS can only contain either / or      • Menus need to be authored twice           – Subpictures d...
Multi-Angle Video      • Ability to include up to 9 video tracks or angles that        play in parallel, allowing the user...
Multi-Angle Video                                             7 video angles                                             1...
Random Function(s)      • Random PGC Playback           – Designate a PGC (video clips or chapters) to playback in a      ...
Random PGC Playback128      27.03.04 @ AFI      DVD Master Class
Dual Layer      • SSDL - Single Side, Dual Layer - DVD-9           – Holds 8.5GB or about 4 hours of video           – All...
User Operations      • Ability to control what functions are available to the        user via their DVD remote control    ...
User Operations131      27.03.04 @ AFI      DVD Master Class
Copy Protection      • CSS - Copy Scrambling System           – Intended to stop PC copying                  • Hacking can...
Copy Protection133      27.03.04 @ AFI      DVD Master Class
Storing and Using Values      • This is how all interactivity on DVD is built           – 16 GPRM (General Parameter) valu...
Storing and Using Values                                  Each GPRM can be named                                for refere...
GPRM Functions      •     Move              to another      •     Swap              with another      •     Add           ...
GPRM Functions137      27.03.04 @ AFI      DVD Master Class
When DO GPRMs Reset      •     Initial Access      •     Power ON / OFF      •     Stop. Stop.                            ...
• In-Depth Coverage on DVD A-Z           – Pre-Production           – Production, Post and Delivery           – Design for...
What is QC?      • QC or Quality Control is the process of reviewing and        testing your DVD project at varies stages ...
Output and Testing      • Quality Control is essential at EVERY STAGE!      • Stages of QC           –   Flowchart        ...
EB or Video and Audio QC      • EB = Elementary Bit Stream (video, audio, subtitles)      • EB or Video / Audio QC        ...
Output and Testing      •     QC Philosophy      •     Functionality vs. Compatibility      •     3rd party QC companies  ...
QC Philosophy      •     Allow time and budget for proper QC      •     QC is support function for everyone to ensure qual...
Functionality vs. Compatibility      • Functionality is about sticking to the DVD Spec and        delivering the desired u...
QC Of DVD-9      • Current only three options           – PC-base Emulator - requires advanced hardware and does not allow...
MAJOR SECTION #2      • In-Depth Coverage on DVD A-Z           – Pre-Production           – Production, Post and Delivery ...
Manufacturing      • Work with a reliable, registered replicator           – Must pay DVD Royalties      • DLT (Digital Li...
Duplication vs. Replication      • Duplication - use of DVD-R for one-off or low volume           – Limited to DVD-5 capac...
Duplication vs. Replication                               Replication                              Manufacturing          ...
Manufacturing Stages      1.     Disc Art, Insert and Package Design      2.     Package and Insert Printing      3.     D...
Replication Process      •     Premastering             input media verified      •     Glass Mastering          LBR creat...
Replication Pricing Guidelines                                  1,000     10,000       1,000,000      • DVD-5             ...
Replication Royalties      • Always use a licensed replicator that pays DVD        royalties , as this can open both your ...
1 Day                                   for 2 hr.                          Days      Movie                         Weeks  ...
Lunch Break                         1.5 hours - please be back by 1.45pm                          Fun, Samples and $$$$ to...
Sample DVDs      •     The Last Minute       unique special features      •     Sinbad                3D models to DVD-Vid...
Commercial Sales and Distribution      • License va. Distribution vs. Indie Sales      • Exciting new markets are emerging...
New Markets, New $$$      •     Direct-to-DVD market is $2 billion and growing fast      •     TV shows and miniseries hav...
New Markets, New $$$      Warren Lieberfarb mentioned recently “…that more      important than capacity (concerning HD-DVD...
DVD Inspires New Business Models      • Gold Circle offers to        divvy up 100% of DVD        royalties in exchange    ...
DVD Provides New Distributon Models      Cynthia Rhea, SVP of Marketing, HBO Home Video         DVD is an “overnight sensa...
What DVD Means To Filmmakers      • By Sandi DuBowski from Filmmaker, Vol.12#2           –   Extending the story          ...
International DVD      • What it takes to reach the whole world           – PAL and NTSC           – Subtitles           –...
PAL and NTSC      • DVD still uses PAL and NTSC video standards           – Cannot be on same side of DVD                 ...
Subtitles      • Subtitles are often included only for Main Program      • Common configuration for Europe is EFIGS       ...
Process For International      • Decide on which countries and how many versions           – SKU - Stock Keeping Unit - ID...
Region Coding      1.    North America      2.    Europe, Middle East,            South Africa, Japan      3.    Southeast...
Region Coding      • Set by Author before output to DLT169       27.03.04 @ AFI       DVD Master Class
DVD Marketing                         Presented by Brian Ring170      27.03.04 @ AFI      DVD Master Class
Table of Contents      • DVD Business Overview      • Media Environment      • DVD-based Marketing171      27.03.04 @ AFI ...
Brian L. Ring      •      President, DVDMarketer LLC & New Biz Dev, Comchoice                DVDMarketer LLC is a market ...
28 DVDs sold more than 5MM units in 2003                                                                Rapid Growth in DV...
DVD players will be in over 2/3rds US HH                                                            Rapid Growth in DVD Pl...
DVD Penetration: The # behind the #s                           Console   DVD   DVD Rom   Expanded            Overall      ...
Broadband is coming!      •      VHS HHs rose by 4MM in 2002 to 97MM      •      DVD Recorders will drive new growth      ...
Puzzle: Name the company                                 1-Jan-08   1-Jan-07   1-Jan-06       Total Revenue             $2...
Puzzle: Name the company          • On a busy day, this company distributes 5MM            Gigabytes/day. This represents ...
The Answer179      27.03.04 @ AFI      DVD Master Class
Table of Contents      • DVD Business Overview      • Media Environment      • DVD-based Marketing180      27.03.04 @ AFI ...
Video Is Critical To National Advertisers             National Advertisers Budgets (Bs)             National Advertiser Bu...
Media Facts      • Proliferating media channels have fragmented audiences      • Video drives commerce: the Barry Diller v...
AVOD & Branded Entertainment             Exhibit Q9 Advertising Agency Survey               •       9.    Please rate each...
Table of Contents      • DVD Business Overview      • Media Environment      • DVD-Based Marketing184      27.03.04 @ AFI ...
Companies Interested In DVD                  Exhibit Q11 Advertising Agency Survey                       •     11. How int...
Sponsored Content Examples        •   BMW: BMW Films “The Hire”                Bundled with Vanity Fair; 750K        •   ...
Charts, Data and Resources      • Comchoice Installed Base and U.S. HH Data      • DVD Demystified by Jim Taylor      • DV...
The Future of DVD                         Presented by Brad Collar188      27.03.04 @ AFI      DVD Master Class
Outlook on                         HD-DVD Technology                                          Brad Collar                 ...
Agenda                       • Wish-List for HD-DVD                       • HD-DVD Format Concept                       • ...
Wish-List for HD-DVD      • A single format           – Playable on both CE and PC products      • Sufficient viewing time...
Wish-List for HD-DVD      • Superior picture quality           – Support for image resolutions up to 1920x1080           –...
Wish-List for HD-DVD      • Player compatibility with legacy standard DVD video and DVD        audio discs      • Renewabl...
Wish-List for HD-DVD      • Advanced authoring features           –   Capability to support SD and HD content on the same ...
Wish-List for HD-DVD      • Effective enforcement of compliance for playback device,        content, and physical media   ...
Wish-List for HD-DVD      • Mandatory player connectivity to the Internet           – Publisher’s option for advanced inte...
How Critical is Network Connectivity?      • To provide consumers a clear and compelling step-up from        today’s DVD: ...
HD-DVD Format Concept                HD-DVD Video Player                                HD Copy Protection               H...
HD-DVD Format Concept       Current SD-DVD                  Future HD-DVD                                                 ...
What is WB’s vision for HD-DVD?         Current DVD                   HD-DVD                                              ...
Two Camps      • Blu-ray Disc Founders           – Operating outside DVD Forum           – Closed consortium, but engaging...
Blu-ray Disc Founders Proposal                 Blue Laser         =405nm     0.85NA lens                                  ...
DVD Forum Proposal (HD-DVD)            Blue Laser                 =405nm                                                 0...
Selecting a Physical Media      •   Blu-ray            – Larger data capacity than HD-DVD            – Currently using onl...
Video Compression Codec Candidates      • MPEG-2            – Standardized in 1994            – Used in current DVD (neede...
Audio Compression Codec Candidates      •   Dolby Digital – used in current DVD      •   DTS – used in current DVD      • ...
The Two Camps and the Codecs      • Blu-ray            –   MPEG-2 for video compression            –   Dolby Digital audio...
Timing of HD-DVD      • Blu-ray HD-DVD recorders already being sold in Japan      • HD-DVD Launch Criteria         – Techn...
QUESTIONS and ANSWERS209      27.03.04 @ AFI      DVD Master Class
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PGA DVD Master Class

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Presentation titled "DVD Master Class" given by Blaine Graboyes (along with Sven Krong from Click Media) on March 27, 2005 at The Producers Guild of America

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PGA DVD Master Class

  1. 1. PGA DVD Master Class • Introduction and Overview for Today – Blaine Graboyes and Sven Krong – Schedule • 9.30 - 12.30 Morning Session - More Technical • 12.30 - 2.00 Lunch - please be back by 1.45 • 2.00 - 4.00 Afternoon Session - More Fun and Business – Use handouts for notepads, but focus on discussion – Save questions until end of session please – Audience Profile; TV, DVD, CD, Web, Client, Vendor1 27.03.04 @ AFI 09:30 DVD Master Class
  2. 2. Media Architecture creative technical economic2 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  3. 3. The Big Picture About DVD • The creative, technical and business possibilities are only just becoming understood and exploited • Installed base may surprise you in both large overall installed base, as well as big niche users • DVD is a very profitable format for digital media • Unique and evolving production / distribution models can reach specialty markets and big money3 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  4. 4. DVD Brings New Possibilities • Marketing – Bowflex & Select Comfort DM, Listerine, Lexus, TiVo • Education and Training – Classroom, Instructional, How-To, Certification • DVD Games – Scene It, Trivial Pursuit, Disney Games, InteracTV • New Business Strategies – NETFLIX, FlexPlay, Niche Rental, New Royalty Splits4 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  5. 5. Photos > DVD Photo Book5 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  6. 6. Installed Base Is Impressive • 63% of U.S households (HH) have a DVD player – Only 3.5% have DVR or TiVO and 25% have Broadband • 29% installed base of DVD-ROM in use homes • Hispanics have the highest rate at 78.3% installed • NETFLIX projecting 5MM members by 2006 • Average sports video watched 20 times in groups of 3 or more 14-29 year olds = 60 viewings for only 1 DVD6 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  7. 7. DVD Makes $$$$$ • Home Video market is growing quickly – $4.6 billion in 1997 > now $14.3 billion in 2003 • DVD/video and rental accounts for 62% of total domestic income for studios, with as much as 4/5ths estimated to come from DVD sales • Revitalize catalog titles - Scarface #1 in 2003 • Total shipments of DVD units up from 685MM in 2002 to over 1 billion in 2003, with 33% gain in sales revenue7 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  8. 8. Unique Distribution & Niche Markets • In-Store Promotions, In&On Pack Premiums, Gift- with-Purchase, LidRock, Magazine, Newspaper, Gas Stations, Convenience Stores - EVERYWHERE! • Recent Examples – Hell Boy promo DVD at Best Buy – Daredevil mini-DVD on-pack at Circuit City – Perfect Date marketing DVD for Fox Intl.8 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  9. 9. Unique Distribution & Niche Markets • Women – Control 80% of household expenditures – Buy 50% of all cars and influence 80% of car purchases – DVD installed base in female HH = to national average – Men may earn more, but control only 24% of purchases – Women love games too, just different kinds • Kids – DVD has an 80% installed base in homes with kids9 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  10. 10. Introduction to the DVD Format • Presented by Sven Krong – Features of DVD-Video & the TV experience – Features of DVD-ROM & the PC experience – Explanation of DVD-Video, DVD-ROM and Hybrid • Samples of DVD-ROM and projects DVD-VIdeo10 27.03.04 @ AFI 10:15 DVD Master Class
  11. 11. Features of DVD-Video • DVD disc provides more storage and faster access • Cinema-like quality; interactive and linear video • High-quality stereo and surround sound • Provides data store and computer functions • Consumer benefits; quality, quantity, price • Drives consumers to want to buy and own media • Global market for DVD-Video hardware and software11 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  12. 12. DVD-Video Hardware and Software • Entertainment • Consumer Electronics • Gaming • Business • Education12 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  13. 13. DVD-Video Not Fully Realized • Consumer Awareness • Compelling Content (beyond movies) • Connected Media • Original Develop Specific to DVD • Branded Entertainment13 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  14. 14. IP and DRM • IP = Intellectual Property • DRM = Digital Rights Management • How will consumers use your DVD? • How will you manage your IP?14 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  15. 15. Expiration Dates • How long will DVD remain the market leader? • When will the demand for next generation begin? • When to expect generation hardware and software? • When will removable media become obsolete? – Maybe never? • Brad Collar to discuss further at end of Afternoon Session15 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  16. 16. DVD-Video Content Creators • Producers, Directors, Designers, Programmers – Understanding the technology – Understanding your market – Implications for production – Implications for the narrative – Opportunities – Resources – Pitfalls / Unknowns16 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  17. 17. Features of DVD-ROM • DVD can contain any computer data or files – Video, HTML, Flash, Applications, Databases, PDF, etc. • Options – DVD-Video - software playback and integration – DVD-ROM - interactive content and data – Hybrid - integration of Video and ROM contents17 27.03.04 @ AFI 10:25 DVD Master Class
  18. 18. Video, ROM and Hybrid DVD-Video HYBRIDTV Experience DVD-ROM18 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  19. 19. DVD-ROM For Consumers • Awareness of experience is limited • DVD-ROM content not driving sales • DVD-ROM capabilities under utilized • IP Rights for Content Creation unclear • Broadband connectivity not high enough • DVD-ROM not making money!!!19 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  20. 20. The Next Step for DVD-ROM • Driving awareness – Studios, producers, manufacturers, killer apps • Exploring new applications and markets – Travel, shopping, VR • Generating revenue – Sales and marketing20 27.03.04 @ AFI 10:40 DVD Master Class
  21. 21. DVD-Video Example The Last Minute21 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  22. 22. DVD-ROM Example Click Media22 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  23. 23. Glossary of Important Terms • Included in handout – Courtesy of Bruce Nazarian • Please note any other terms needing further explanation and feel free to stop and ask23 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  24. 24. MAJOR SECTION #1 • Overview of the DVD Production Process and Tools – DVD Production Pipeline Overview – The DVD Toolbox24 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  25. 25. DVD Production Pipeline 1. Pre-Production 2. Production, Post and Delivery 3. Design for DVD 4. Video and Audio Encoding 5. Authoring and QC 6. Output and Testing 7. Manufacturing25 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  26. 26. 26 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  27. 27. Pre-Production • Capturing the vision in the DVD Spec • The MOST IMPORTANT PART OF DVD PRODUTION! – 90% preparation and 10% execution • Pre-Pro Toolset – Flowchart Tools - Illustrator, Visio, OmniGraffle – Data Tools - Excel, Word, FileMaker – Communication Tools - Phone, Email, IM, Video Conf • Proprietary tools for client review / project management27 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  28. 28. 28 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  29. 29. Production and Post • Same tools and process as broadcast – Final Cut Pro, Avid, After Effects, Flame, etc. • Choose formats, media and mediums – Film, HD, DV, 16:9, 4X3 • Quality In = Quality Out – DVD does not improve quality of master • Organized delivery is key to smooth process29 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  30. 30. 30 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  31. 31. Design for DVD • Begin with flowchart and content files • Design Process – Design Direction and Layouts – Motion Comps and Animation – Production Art - add contents – Reviews, QC and Approvals – Organized Delivery as per Project Specs • Generally TARGA, TIF, BMP or DBC tape31 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  32. 32. 32 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  33. 33. Video Encoding • Hardware vs. Software – Hardware = Faster, Better Quality, Expensive, Studio • IO = SDI, Masters = DBC, DV, Beta • Minimum 3 X real time to encode – Software = Slower, Good Quality, Less Expensive, Portable • IO = DV or data, Masters = DV or files • Generally 8 - 12 X real time to encode33 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  34. 34. Audio Encoding • Generally Dolby Digital or DTS – Hardware = Real Time, Best Quality, Studio Environment • IO = AES, analog or data – Software = Usually not Real Time, Good Quality, Ok usage • IO = data34 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  35. 35. 35 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  36. 36. Authoring • The right tool for each job - what can you afford? – Scale of Risk vs. Expenses • In-House - consumer and produmer • Out-of-House - professional and proprietary – Can do powerful development on your desktop – Data IO Key - SCSI still common for DLT, firewire, networks – Choice is available between Macintosh and Windows PC • Pros and cons pale fore personal issues36 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  37. 37. 37 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  38. 38. Output and Testing • Final review before replication run(s) • Emulation vs. Preview System – An emulation system testing for usability to compliance of the DVD Specification – Emulation systems allow you to debug, by reviewing the structure and programmatic elements – DVD-R for QC and Review – DLT for Manufaciring • Check discs come back an are again review to avoid issue38 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  39. 39. 39 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  40. 40. Manufacturing • Duplication - use of DVD-R for one-off or low volume – Limited to DVD-5 capacity = 4.7GB • DVD-9 DVD-R coming soon at 8.5GB – Great for pitches and presentations • Replication - mass production from raw materials – Good for 1000s to millions of discs – For mass distribution, i.e. retail sales, etc.40 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  41. 41. COVER IN AFTERNOON SESSION41 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  42. 42. Short Break 10 minutes42 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  43. 43. • In-Depth Coverage on DVD A-Z –Pre-Production – Production, Post and Delivery – Design for DVD – Video and Audio Encoding – Authoring – Output and Testing – Manufacturing43 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  44. 44. Pre-Production • The most important phase of the whole process – 90% preparation and 10% execution • Begins with signed commitment for project • Capture the vision and idea of the project – Seems esoteric, is actually just practical – Make sure you aim for and hit THE BAR • Pre-Production documentation (samples) • Takes days, weeks or months depending on project44 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  45. 45. Pre-Production Document Samples • RFP/ Proposal / Budget • Schedule and Milestones • Flowchart and Navigation • Content and Data Sets • Team and Gear • Contracts and Legal • Specification and Overview Documents • Marketing One-Sheet45 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  46. 46. Pre-Production Document Samples • RFP/ Proposal / Budget – RFP = Request For Proposal – Client request to vendor to provide estimate for work • Proposal can be as short as an estimate or as long as 100 pages with storyboards, prototype DVDs, etc. – Often includes multiple elements or departments • Branding and Creative • Design and Production • Technical Services • Marketing and PR • Manufacturing • Sponsors and Funding46 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  47. 47. 47 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  48. 48. 48 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  49. 49. 2MM DVD-Replication Dwarfs Production Budget Offer All-In Price w/o49 27.03.04 @ AFI Production Line Items DVD Master Class
  50. 50. Schedules and Milestones • Pre-Production days, weeks or months WORK ORDER • • Production Design weeks or months 2 - 12 weeks } OFTEN IN PARALLEL • Encoding 1 full day for a 2 hour program • EB QC 6 to 10 weeks 1 or 2 days ALL ASSET DUE DATE In an average, perfect world • • Authoring Menu Mux 1 - 2 weeks 3 - 5 days } OFTEN IN PARALLEL • QC 1 or 2 days50 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  51. 51. Flowcharts and Navigation • Captures the vision and user experience of the project into a single document that is shared by the entire production team and outlines all key aspects – a.k.a. Disc Config(uration) • Should clearly document; menu types, style and configurations, interactivity, button names, etc. – An error in spelling or function in the flowchart can cost time and money later in the process - REVIEW WELL!51 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  52. 52. 52 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  53. 53. 53 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  54. 54. 54 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  55. 55. 55 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  56. 56. 56 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  57. 57. 57 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  58. 58. Content and Data Sets • Content file for every menu or screen (text) – Menu button text – Biographies, Filmographies, Web Info, etc. • Data Sets are often used for projects that contain large amounts of repetitive screens, such as Galleries or Question & Answer screens for DVD games • Content and Data Sets must be reviewed for 100% accuracy and approved by client before production58 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  59. 59. Team and Gear • DVD requires a team with diverse skill sets – Executive Producers – Producers and Directors and Production Crews – Creative Director and Design Production Team – Researchers, Writers, Business Development – Video and Audio Post – Subtitle Creation and QC – Video and Audio Encoding – DVD Authoring and Web / ROM Development – Quality Control – Production, Project and Process Management59 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  60. 60. Essential Gear • Computers for design functions • Editorial, video post, DBC decks • Audio mix, music and sound effects • Compositing • 3D and Special Effects • Project Management60 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  61. 61. Contracts and Legal • Before any work begins, there must be a signed agreement between client / vendor / partner • Should outline relevant issues such as Budget, Schedule, Scope of Work, Copyrights, etc. • Can be done yourself or may require legal help – Michael C. Donaldson’s Clearance & Copyright: Everything the Independent Filmmaker Needs to Know - the essential guide to dealing with acquisition, rights and insurance61 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  62. 62. Contracts and Legal • Sample of Palm Pictures contract from The Last Minute co-produced by Patrick Anding and me 19 PAGES NAME / LIKENESS REQUIREMENTSOVERVIEW DELIVERABLES WORK FOR HIRE62 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  63. 63. Specifications and Overviews • Sometimes may be contained in previous documents • Specifications = Disc Configuration • May also include: – Brand Book or Style Guide – Focus Group Testing – Game Play Guidelines – Marketing Documents63 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  64. 64. Marketing One-Sheets • Basically back-of-box copy with additional information on project overview and production strategy and team members64 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  65. 65. Disc Configuration65 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  66. 66. Pre-Production Summary • The best project will be 90% organization and preparation and 10% execution • A well pre-produced plan allows for adaptation, evolution and improvement along the way • And saves the time and money needed for this along the way by considering issues before they happen66 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  67. 67. • In-Depth Coverage on DVD A-Z – Pre-Production –Production, Post and Delivery – Design for DVD – Video and Audio Encoding – Authoring – Output and Testing – Manufacturing67 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  68. 68. Production, Post and Delivery • Basically the same as broadcast production • Get the DVD team involved as soon as possible • Discuss complex issues about formats, interactivity • Quality In = Quality Out – DVD does not improve video and cannot add fades, cuts • Organized delivery is key to smooth production – Clip name, Timcode IN and Timecode OUT68 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  69. 69. Production for DVD Tips • Encoding and authoring cannot alter your video - what is on your tape is what we will be on your DVD – Fades, edits, cuts, supers, etc. • Encoding for DVD is NOT editing, more like CAPTURE • Michael W. Dean’s $30 Film School is the book on no- budget filmmaking and is a readable primer with tips for even the most experienced professional69 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  70. 70. • In-Depth Coverage on DVD A-Z – Pre-Production – Production, Post and Delivery –Design for DVD – Video and Audio Encoding – Authoring – Output and Testing – Manufacturing70 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  71. 71. Design For DVD • Broadcast specs with overlay complications • Focus on producing menu/screens and graphics packages for use in Video Post • What is a DVD Menu? - system for navigating disc and accessing content – Background Menu Art – Subpicture Overlay – Audio / Music / FSX – Xtions, Intro, Outro, Loop71 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  72. 72. DVD Menu Structure loop point for menu audio track subpicture/button track Program Chain Editor displaying motion menu72 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  73. 73. DVD Menu Structure Background Menu Art73 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  74. 74. DVD Menu Structure Background Menu Art showing button areas & navigation74 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  75. 75. DVD Menu Structure Background Menu Art showing all button highlights75 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  76. 76. Design For DVD - Creative • Basic Menu / Screen Layouts – Main Menu is most common with options to Play and access other features and menus • Common Menu Arrangements – Feature Film, TV, Music, etc. • Easter Eggs – Hidden content available thru game-like features • Menu / Screen Types – Still, Motion, Scenes, Gallery, Transitions, etc.76 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  77. 77. Motion Menu Sample77 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  78. 78. Motion Menu Sample78 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  79. 79. Motion Menu Sample79 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  80. 80. Main Menu80 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  81. 81. Setup81 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  82. 82. Scenes82 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  83. 83. Special Features83 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  84. 84. Special Features Alternate84 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  85. 85. Environments85 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  86. 86. Design For DVD - Technical • Each authoring facility has specific delivery requirements • Typical sizes for DVD menu production – NTSC and PAL / 4X3 and 16:9 • Equipment for production and delivery • Overlays / 8-bits / Highlights – Complexities hopefull explained • Delivery of art to compression / authoring • Trend, Trips and Tricks • Takes 2 - 8 weeks generally depending on the project86 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  87. 87. Square vs. Rectangular Pixels 720 X 540 Square Rectangular 720 X 480 PC TV87 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  88. 88. Typical Screen Sizes • NTSC 4X3 - Construct at 720X540, resize to 720X486, crop to 720X480 center for delivery • NTSC 16:9 - Construct at 960X540, resize to 720X486, crop to 720X480 center for delivery • PAL 4X3 - Construct at 720X540, resize to 720X576 • PAL 16:9 - Construct at 960X540, resize to 720X57688 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  89. 89. Typical Screen Sizes89 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  90. 90. Typical Screen Sizes Using Canvas Size Crop from 720 X486To centered 720 X 48090 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  91. 91. Typical Screen Sizes 4X3 Pan&Scan 16:9 Widescreen91 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  92. 92. Equipment for Design • Typically desktop computers (Mac or PC) – Networked using consumer or proprietary software • Video Editorial is now standard – Footage delivered on DBC or HD • Sometimes use of post house tools – Flame, Henry, Combustion, Da Vince, etc. • Software Tools; Photoshop, Illustrator, After Effects, Final Cut, Avid, 3D, etc. • Audio Delivery; 16-bit, 48KHz PCM files – 5.1 Surround usually delivered on DA-8892 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  93. 93. Overlays, 8-bits, Highlights • The most often misunderstood aspect of DVD design – The subpicture overlays form the visual display of the user remote / menu cursor action • Very limited graphical display format – 4 color, no anti-aliasing • 1 color becomes transparent, leaving 3 colors for highlight • Generally use White, Red, Green, Blue • Basic shapes and straight edges are best93 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  94. 94. Sample of 8-bit Overlay Overlay 8-bit showing 8-bit art file in Photoshop94 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  95. 95. Overlays, 8-bits, Highlights • Overlay input file is remapped in authoring – RGB values of input mapped to new RBG in authoring – Allows for 16 levels of transparency • Three Overlay States – Default base appearance – Select cursor on specific button – Activate displays momentarily after SELECT95 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  96. 96. Sample of 8-bit Overlay Via RGB color values and transparency96 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  97. 97. Buttons On Menu Screen DVD Menu showing button areas only97 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  98. 98. Buttonsm 8-bit and Background Art Background Menu Art showing all button highlights98 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  99. 99. Delivery Of Art To Authoring • Each authoring facility has different specifications for delivery of assets; check early in production • Double check all files before delivery to authoring – Changes later cost excess time and money • Delivery Formats – TARGA, TIF, BMP, DBC, documentation99 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  100. 100. Trends In DVD Menu Design • Narrative Storyline • Original, Exclusive Cast Content • Very High Production Value • Random, Custom Menus • Games and Challenges100 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  101. 101. Tips And Tricks For DVD Design • No overlapping button areas • Overlays flash at end of motion menu loops • Technical specifications for best playback – Null sound 15 frames at head to ensure audio synch • Not too much text; 50 words, 18+ point • Test design and overlay on NTSC monitors • Consistency across menu sets • Do not include extra channels, layers, alphas, etc.101 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  102. 102. • In-Depth Coverage on DVD A-Z – Pre-Production – Production, Post and Delivery – Design for DVD –Video and Audio Encoding – Authoring – Output and Testing – Manufacturing102 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  103. 103. Video and Audio Encoding • Methodical and time consuming for best outcome – 3+X real time minimum for video encoding • 2 hour film = 8 hour day for encoding • Discuss 16:9 and 4X3 issues – Anamorphic and Pan&Scan • VBR and CBR video encoding methods103 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  104. 104. Video Encoding Timeline • 1st Pass = Analysis and Operator Adjustements • 2nd Pass = Encoding / Compression • 3rd Pass = Review, QC and Revisions (if needed) – 3rd Pass can easily take more than X1 TRT • Therefore takes one full day for a 2 hour movie104 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  105. 105. Video And Audio Master Formats • Video Master Formats – Digital Betacam (DBC), Beta SP, DV, DVCam, data • Audio Master Formats – Video master, DA-88, DAT, data105 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  106. 106. 16:9 And 4X3 Overview • 16:9 is widescreen video for display on newer 16X9 TVs, often plasma, LCD or projection – Wider than tall in 16 X 9 ratio • 4X3 is the classic, standard TV display ratio – Can be letterbox or full frame • Letterbox - bars at top and bottom • Full frame, also Pan&Scan - complete display – Pan&Scan is showing a 4X3 portion of a larger 16:9 image, often showing just the center portion, though tracking is possible106 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  107. 107. 16:9 and 4X3 TVs 16:9 Widescreen 4X3Classic TV107 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  108. 108. 16:9 And 4X3 Overview • A video master provided in Anamorphic 6:9 format can be encoded for DVD in a manner that allows the user to choose between aspects ratios upon playback • A 4X3 master cannot be encoded for 16:9 display – Requires a post house anamorphic conversion108 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  109. 109. VBR & CBR Encoding • VBR = Variable Bit Rate – Encode rate / quality varies over the time in relation to the complexity of the source material • Theoretically, bits are saved in easy scenes for use in harder • Provides most efficient use of space vs. quality • Generally takes 2 passes for encoding • CBR = Constant Bit Rate – Encode rate does not vary over course of program • Excellent quality if space is not concern (<70mins. DVD-5) • Requires only 1 pass for encoding - faster!109 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  110. 110. VBR & CBR Encoding110 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  111. 111. • In-Depth Coverage on DVD A-Z – Pre-Production – Production, Post and Delivery – Design for DVD – Video and Audio Encoding –Authoring – Output and Testing – Manufacturing111 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  112. 112. Authoring Basics • Main Stages of DVD Authoring – Video / Audio Compression – Subtitling – Formatting (Authoring or Programming) • Pre-Production is the most essential component • Bit budgeting • Advanced authoring topics and concepts112 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  113. 113. Authoring Tools • Use the right tool for the right job – Shareware NA NA – Consumer home use 1-10 – Prosumer indie, corporate 100s, 1000s – Professional distro, labels 10,000s – Proprietary studios 1,000,000s • For average project: 3-5 days menus, 1-2 weeks DVD113 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  114. 114. Consumer Tools • Allows anyone to make a DVD with limited functions • Generally provides compression to MPEG-2 • Uses pre-built templates for menus • Output to DVD-R only, no DLT support • Products Include – Sonic MyDVD and DVDit – Apple iDVD – Ulead DVD Movie Factory114 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  115. 115. Prosumer Tools • Provide limited access to the DVD Specification via and Abstraction Layer or Metaphor – PGCs = Stories • Less a limit in functionality or possibilities, more a limit in expert control and reliability • Products Include – Adobe Encore – Apple DVD Studio Pro – Sonic REELDVD – Pinnacle Liquid Edition 5.5115 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  116. 116. Prosumer Tools116 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  117. 117. Professional Tools • Provides full access to the DVD Specification with more control and reliability • Sonic Solutions - Mac and Windows products – Scenarist SGI still running some places • Products Include – Sonic DVD Creator - Mac – Sonic Scenarist - Windows117 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  118. 118. Proprietary Tools • Ultimate tools in terms of control and reliability with greater speed in all aspects, but only available to the studios and Hollywood vendors • Use of workgroup environment for high productivity • Products Include – Toshiba – Panasonic118 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  119. 119. Pre-Production For Authoring • Production Documentation – Flowchart, Asset List, Data Sets, Specifications • Bit Budgeting – DVD holds a finite amount of data • DVD-5 4.7GB 2 hours video • DVD-9 8.5GB 4 hours video • But, compression schemes are variable – Better Quality = + MB, < TRT – Lower Quality = - MB, > TRT119 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  120. 120. Bit Budget Sample Disc Size Total Video Run Time Average Bit Rate for Encode Maximum Bit Rate For Encode Bit Rates for Audio Tracls Track 1 = stereo Track 2 = surround Subtitle Tracks120 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  121. 121. Advanced Authoring Topics • Seamless Branching • 16X9 vs. 4X3 • Multi-Angle Video • Random Functions • Dual Layer • User Operations • Copy Protection • Storing and Using Values121 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  122. 122. Seamless Branching • Ability to seamlessly (without a noticeable video or audio glitch) and programmatically (based on certain parameters) switch between different video elements on the DVD - such as Parental Controls or Interactive Storytelling122 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  123. 123. Parental Block123 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  124. 124. 16:9 vs. 4X3 • Each VTS can only contain either / or • Menus need to be authored twice – Subpictures do not scale via TV display124 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  125. 125. Multi-Angle Video • Ability to include up to 9 video tracks or angles that play in parallel, allowing the user to switch real time between different views or content using the ANGLE button on the remote control • All multi-angle tracks must be identical in length • There is a lag between angle switching due to player • Impact on bit budget - each angle X run time125 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  126. 126. Multi-Angle Video 7 video angles 1 audio track126 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  127. 127. Random Function(s) • Random PGC Playback – Designate a PGC (video clips or chapters) to playback in a random order controlled by the player • Random Values – Generate a random number to be used programmatically by the DVD Author to add random user experience • User for Games127 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  128. 128. Random PGC Playback128 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  129. 129. Dual Layer • SSDL - Single Side, Dual Layer - DVD-9 – Holds 8.5GB or about 4 hours of video – Allows for printing on one side of disc • DSDL - Dual Side, Dual Layer - DVD-17 – Holds 17GB or about 8 hours of video – Does not allow for printing on either side of disc • All DVD players can play dual layer discs by refocusing between data layers during playback – There can be a minor pause during the layer break129 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  130. 130. User Operations • Ability to control what functions are available to the user via their DVD remote control • A specific button or control can be locked out during any part or all of the DVD • This is to control navigation and user experience, especially in more complex titles or games130 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  131. 131. User Operations131 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  132. 132. Copy Protection • CSS - Copy Scrambling System – Intended to stop PC copying • Hacking can break CSS • APS - Macrovision – Intended to stop analog copying • Can be stripped using Copy Box from Radio Shack132 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  133. 133. Copy Protection133 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  134. 134. Storing and Using Values • This is how all interactivity on DVD is built – 16 GPRM (General Parameter) values • Each 16 bits (0 or 1) long – It is all about how you use them • Numerals vs. Bits – Numerals are 1, 2, 3… +, -, X, / – Bits are 0 and 1 binary134 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  135. 135. Storing and Using Values Each GPRM can be named for reference during authoring135 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  136. 136. GPRM Functions • Move to another • Swap with another • Add + to / with another • Subtract - from / with another • Multiply X from / with another • Divide / from / with another • Modulo remainder • Random value generator • And binary logic • Or binary logic • X Or binary logic136 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  137. 137. GPRM Functions137 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  138. 138. When DO GPRMs Reset • Initial Access • Power ON / OFF • Stop. Stop. This can effect • Title Search navigation and • Play a Part of Title game play • Time Play • Menu Call from Stop State • Programatically138 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  139. 139. • In-Depth Coverage on DVD A-Z – Pre-Production – Production, Post and Delivery – Design for DVD – Video and Audio Encoding – Authoring –Output and Testing – Manufacturing139 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  140. 140. What is QC? • QC or Quality Control is the process of reviewing and testing your DVD project at varies stages throughout production to ensure the best possible quality • QC issues cover everything from video and audio quality, to aesthetic concerns, to DVD playback functionality, navigation and compatibility140 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  141. 141. Output and Testing • Quality Control is essential at EVERY STAGE! • Stages of QC – Flowchart navigation – Content spelling and grammar – Master(s) quality of provided tapes – Subtitles synch, placement – Video / Audio encoded quality – Menu Mux design and function – Emulation overall functionality – Check Disc compatibility, manufacturing141 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  142. 142. EB or Video and Audio QC • EB = Elementary Bit Stream (video, audio, subtitles) • EB or Video / Audio QC – Focused on synch, no glitches, overall quality • Menu QC – Verify artwork, buttons and navigation are correct • Logice QC – Functionality of the overall DVD and Spec compliance142 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  143. 143. Output and Testing • QC Philosophy • Functionality vs. Compatibility • 3rd party QC companies • QC of DVD-9 – DVD-9 DVD-R coming soon! • QC takes 1 or 2 days for typical DVD – Takes 3 - 5 days for Compatibility Testing143 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  144. 144. QC Philosophy • Allow time and budget for proper QC • QC is support function for everyone to ensure quality • Assume the project is 100% correct and work back • Functionality is the key issue – Video, Audio, Subtitles, Defaults, Buttons, User Ops – Entails checking hundreds of buttons and combinations • Aesthetics is second issue – First impressions are made in design, especially seamlessness – Menu Art, Highlights, 4X3 / 16:9,144 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  145. 145. Functionality vs. Compatibility • Functionality is about sticking to the DVD Spec and delivering the desired user experience • Compatibility is about dealing with incompatibilities between players due to manufacturer differences • DVD Specification covers discs not players • Use a 3rd Party Lab for compatibility QC – Intellikey, Numerique - test across hundreds of players145 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  146. 146. QC Of DVD-9 • Current only three options – PC-base Emulator - requires advanced hardware and does not allow for testing on multiple devices, but does allow viewing the entire project – Shrinker App - 3rd party shareware recompresses video to fit onto a smaller size media, but is not a qualified authoring tool and could create unkown issues – Post-Gape - divide the content onto two DVD-Rs, but never able to review the entire project on one disc • DVD-9 DVD-R is coming soon!!146 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  147. 147. MAJOR SECTION #2 • In-Depth Coverage on DVD A-Z – Pre-Production – Production, Post and Delivery – Design for DVD – Video and Audio Encoding – Authoring – Output and Testing –Manufacturing147 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  148. 148. Manufacturing • Work with a reliable, registered replicator – Must pay DVD Royalties • DLT (Digital Linear Tape) is preferred format • Replicator will provide Check Disc – For compatibility testing • Usually 2 - 5 days for Check Discs, the 7 - 12 days for a full replication run148 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  149. 149. Duplication vs. Replication • Duplication - use of DVD-R for one-off or low volume – Limited to DVD-5 capacity = 4.7GB • DVD-9 DVD-R coming soon at 8.5GB – Great for pitches and presentations • Replication - mass production from raw materials – Good for 1000s to millions of discs – For mass distribution, i.e. retail sales, etc.149 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  150. 150. Duplication vs. Replication Replication Manufacturing Plant DuplicationHome and Office150 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  151. 151. Manufacturing Stages 1. Disc Art, Insert and Package Design 2. Package and Insert Printing 3. DVD Replication 4. DVD Disc Art Printing 5. Assembly 6. Shipping151 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  152. 152. Replication Process • Premastering input media verified • Glass Mastering LBR creates etched master • Electroplating master is plated to create mold(s) • Stamping mold(s) used to stamp data • Metalization aluminum added to reflect light • Lacquering protective layer added • Bonding optically transparent glue • Printing silkscreen or offset on disc152 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  153. 153. Replication Pricing Guidelines 1,000 10,000 1,000,000 • DVD-5 $1.10 $.64 $.55 • DVD-9 $2.50 $.95 $.90 • Sleeve $.15 $.10 $.07 • Assembly & Shrink Wrap $.13 $.13 $.13 ROUGH ESTIMATES, NOT ACTUAL!153 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  154. 154. Replication Royalties • Always use a licensed replicator that pays DVD royalties , as this can open both your company and your client to potential lawsuits – Royalties are approximately $.18 per replicated disc • Beware of super-lowball replication quotes154 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  155. 155. 1 Day for 2 hr. Days Movie Weeks Days Months Weeks 6 to 10 weeks 1 -2 Months In an average, perfect world 2 - 12 Weeks Weeks 1 Day for 2 hr. Movie155 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  156. 156. Lunch Break 1.5 hours - please be back by 1.45pm Fun, Samples and $$$$ to follow156 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  157. 157. Sample DVDs • The Last Minute unique special features • Sinbad 3D models to DVD-Video • Ice Age DVD-ROM • Living Through photo book • The Confession multi-angle movie • Live…and Alone Music DVD • Algebra’Scool educational157 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  158. 158. Commercial Sales and Distribution • License va. Distribution vs. Indie Sales • Exciting new markets are emerging and untapped – Women, Children Hispanics, Games, Urban, Music • Unique new development and distribution models • What DVD means to a filmmaker – Sandi DuBowski in Filmmaker, Vol.12#2 • Sample financial breakdowns158 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  159. 159. New Markets, New $$$ • Direct-to-DVD market is $2 billion and growing fast • TV shows and miniseries have been a gold mine • Less money at theatres = big increases in DVD sales • Women on average with everyone else using DVD • Hispanics have higher DVD rate than average in U.S. • HD-DVD coming soon - Brad Collar to discuss159 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  160. 160. New Markets, New $$$ Warren Lieberfarb mentioned recently “…that more important than capacity (concerning HD-DVD) is wheter the high-def disc also offers interactive gamelike functionality. That’s something that would entice consumers to update their DVD libraries (and hardware), especially in the area of children’s…”160 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  161. 161. DVD Inspires New Business Models • Gold Circle offers to divvy up 100% of DVD royalties in exchange for talent to waive high fees for theatrical161 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  162. 162. DVD Provides New Distributon Models Cynthia Rhea, SVP of Marketing, HBO Home Video DVD is an “overnight sensation”. It’s a “big deal” she continues, “because the medium is crossing over from logical-sounding places like bookstores to gas stations and convenience stores, selling to impulse buyers at an attractive margin.”162 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  163. 163. What DVD Means To Filmmakers • By Sandi DuBowski from Filmmaker, Vol.12#2 – Extending the story – Audience feedback via ROM and Web – As a fundraising tool – As a Master Class – Better Making-Ofs – License shorts and existing films – Explore the DVD as a new Platform – Get educated to produce the best DVD – Have deliverables (assets) prepare as soon as possible – Utilize DVD for press and publicity163 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  164. 164. International DVD • What it takes to reach the whole world – PAL and NTSC – Subtitles – Content localization – Video / Audio format conversions – Authoring a second version – Packaging164 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  165. 165. PAL and NTSC • DVD still uses PAL and NTSC video standards – Cannot be on same side of DVD • Can be on opposite sides of DVD-10 or DVD-17165 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  166. 166. Subtitles • Subtitles are often included only for Main Program • Common configuration for Europe is EFIGS – English, French, Italian, German, Spanish • User can preset DVD player to search for preferred subtitle (and other language settings) if available166 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  167. 167. Process For International • Decide on which countries and how many versions – SKU - Stock Keeping Unit - ID for each disc and package • Localize Content – Menus, Subtitles, Audio, VAM • Video and Audio Format Conversions – Video via Alchemist Ph.C TX • Audio follows video if on tape – Audio at qualified house if Surround or separate • Author International Version(s) – Create new DVD(s), often from scratch due to additions / changes • Packaging Changes (as needed)167 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  168. 168. Region Coding 1. North America 2. Europe, Middle East, South Africa, Japan 3. Southeast Asia and Taiwan 4. Central and South America, Mexico, Australia, New Zealand 5. Russia, Africa 6. China 7. Airlines and Ships168 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  169. 169. Region Coding • Set by Author before output to DLT169 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  170. 170. DVD Marketing Presented by Brian Ring170 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  171. 171. Table of Contents • DVD Business Overview • Media Environment • DVD-based Marketing171 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  172. 172. Brian L. Ring • President, DVDMarketer LLC & New Biz Dev, Comchoice  DVDMarketer LLC is a market research publisher focused on the use of DVD as marketing tool. 1st report published Jan 04: four separate research initiatives. www.DVDMarketer.com  Comchoice is a leading DVD production and marketing services company • Strategy Consulting, Business and Corporate Development, Content Licensing, Marketing Research, Venture Capital, Digital Media • Psychology BA, UC Berkeley; MBA, U Penn/Wharton • Strategic Decisions Group; Sony Pictures Entertainment; PricewaterhouseCoopers; Universal Music Group; various startups172 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  173. 173. 28 DVDs sold more than 5MM units in 2003 Rapid Growth in DVD-Video Software Shipments 1,200 DVD-Video Shipments CAGR = 79.8% 1,000 800 (MMs) 600 400 200 0 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 DVD Shipments 98 182 364 685 1,023 • Buy rate of 17 DVDs per DVD HH has remained remarkably stable. • The analogous number for VHS is 6. Source: Digital Entertainment Group173 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  174. 174. DVD players will be in over 2/3rds US HH Rapid Growth in DVD Player Shipments 35.0 CAGR = 75.6% DVD Player Shipments 30.0 25.0 20.0 (MMs) 15.0 10.0 5.0 0.0 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Player Shipments 3.6 9.9 16.7 25.1 33.7 • 17MM DVD players sold in Q4 2003 alone, a 29% period-to-period increase. • Approximately 37% of DVD HHs have more than one player. Source: Digital Entertainment Group174 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  175. 175. DVD Penetration: The # behind the #s Console DVD DVD Rom Expanded Overall 46% 29% 63% $75K - $99K 63% 45% 82% 18-24 62% 37% 84% 25-34 66% 34% 83% With Kids 61% 37% 81%175 27.03.04 @ AFI Source: CENTRIS DVD Master Class
  176. 176. Broadband is coming! • VHS HHs rose by 4MM in 2002 to 97MM • DVD Recorders will drive new growth • HD DVD will drive new growth • PVRs will integrate DVD recorders • Billions in broadband investment have yielded 21MM HHs. (Memo: 69MM) Consumer proposition is confused: $30/month for 170kbps? • What about South Korea? South Koreas national backbone consists of 13,670 miles of optical fiber. In 2001 Verizon laid 20,500 miles of optical fiber in West Virginia alone. Population density in Seoul is roughly twice that of New York City. • The Storage Paradox: My buddy’s music collection… • DVD: simple to understand; simple to use; lots of storage with more coming; small form factor; cheap to replicate and distribute176 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  177. 177. Puzzle: Name the company 1-Jan-08 1-Jan-07 1-Jan-06 Total Revenue $272,243 $152,806 $75,912 Cost of Revenue $148,360 $78,136 $49,907 Gross Profit $123,883 $74,670 $26,005 Gross Margin 46% 49% 34%177 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  178. 178. Puzzle: Name the company • On a busy day, this company distributes 5MM Gigabytes/day. This represents half of the entire bandwidth capacity of the U.S. Internet • This company has more than 18,000 movie titles. This represents 6 times the amount of a typical neighborhood video store. • Customers of this company rent roughly 97 percent of all of the 18,000 titles in their library.178 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  179. 179. The Answer179 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  180. 180. Table of Contents • DVD Business Overview • Media Environment • DVD-based Marketing180 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  181. 181. Video Is Critical To National Advertisers National Advertisers Budgets (Bs) National Advertiser Budgets: Consumer Media Projected 2003 Four TV Networks $15.5 35% Spot TV $10.6 Cable TV $14.1 Syndication TV $3.5 Radio $4.4 Magazines $11.8 65% Newspapers $7.3 Video Media Subtotal All Other Consumer Media • National, consumer media only. Local not included. • Other media not included: Direct mail; Yellow pages; Internet; Outdoor Source: Robert J. Coen, SVP Universal McCann; Does not include a range of other181 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  182. 182. Media Facts • Proliferating media channels have fragmented audiences • Video drives commerce: the Barry Diller vision. TV retail growing at 6.2% CAGR vs. 4.5% for general retail.  “Video creates richer experience; Detailed explanation; Highly visual; Call to action; Entertaining; Credibility from personality” • Consumers are adopting on-demand media consumption behaviors. • “Digital video production costs are rapidly declining.”  Except now it is actually happening. • TV advertising is facing a direct challenge in DVRs.  SAT Question: Napster : Music just like ______ : TV Advertising  How many in the room have ______?182 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  183. 183. AVOD & Branded Entertainment Exhibit Q9 Advertising Agency Survey • 9. Please rate each of the following statements on a scale from Definitely Disagree to Definitely Agree. n=109 Consumers are willing to watch informative advertising clips, TV shopping clips, and product demonstration videos 6% 11% 59% 25% on a voluntary, on-demand basis, if they can control the experience and the videos are relevant to them. Eventually, advertiser-produced content, or “branded entertainment”, will be at least as effective for marketers as a 22% 5% 51% 22% 30-second spot. Source: DVDMarketer LLC 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Definitely Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Definitely Agree • 84% agree that consumers will participate in AVOD behavior • 73% agree that branded entertainment and advertainment will be at least as effective for marketers as a 30-second spot.183 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  184. 184. Table of Contents • DVD Business Overview • Media Environment • DVD-Based Marketing184 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  185. 185. Companies Interested In DVD Exhibit Q11 Advertising Agency Survey • 11. How interested are you, if at all, in each of the following integrated marketing opportunities that a DVD- based marketing campaign can provide? n=94 The ability to control the entire DVD campaign Top 2 Box including programming, messaging, and 48% 29% 77% distribution tactics. The ability to exclusively sponsor a TV-style Top 2 Box program on the DVD so that messages, ad spots, 48% 29% 77% and/or overlay graphics are placed without clutter The ability to distribute product demonstration Top 2 Box shopping and informational videos in an on- 49% 24% 73% demand "product catalog" on DVD. The ability to distribute full-screen video content, Top 2 Box including advertainment, on a user-friendly 49% 20% 69% platform with a huge installed-base. The ability to distribute advertiser-produced Top 2 Box games, including enhanced DVD, PC, and console 43% 23% 66% games, on a marketing-driven DVD. 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Source: DVDMarketer LLC Somewhat interested Very interested185 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  186. 186. Sponsored Content Examples • BMW: BMW Films “The Hire”  Bundled with Vanity Fair; 750K • Sony Pictures: Hellboy Preview  Free at Best Buy counter tops; 500K • CBS: Sneak Peak for Fall Lineup  Blockbusters and Entertainment Weekly magazine; 3MM • TiVo: 20-minute Celebrity driven infomercial  Participating retailers; 500K • General Mills: Columbia Tristar content  Cereal boxes; 8MM • Mountain Dew: And1 Streetball DVD Series, Urbanworks  Traditional distribution/sales model186 27.03.04 @ AFI Source: DVDMarketer LLC DVD Master Class
  187. 187. Charts, Data and Resources • Comchoice Installed Base and U.S. HH Data • DVD Demystified by Jim Taylor • DVDSP2 Complete Guide by Bruce Nazarian187 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  188. 188. The Future of DVD Presented by Brad Collar188 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  189. 189. Outlook on HD-DVD Technology Brad Collar Director, Digital Distribution Technology Warner Bros. Technical Operations March 27th, 2004189 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  190. 190. Agenda • Wish-List for HD-DVD • HD-DVD Format Concept • Two Camps – Blu-ray – DVD Forum • Audio/Video Codec Candidates • Timing of HD-DVD190 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  191. 191. Wish-List for HD-DVD • A single format – Playable on both CE and PC products • Sufficient viewing time – Enough capacity on a single disc to accommodate feature length theatrical motion pictures and associated bonus material – Multiple options to allow cost effective disc manufacturing over a wide range of total viewing times191 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  192. 192. Wish-List for HD-DVD • Superior picture quality – Support for image resolutions up to 1920x1080 – Capable of a quality superior to other sources of consumer high definition content – Multiple aspect ratios – Playback device able to output multiple TV standards from a single source on a disc192 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  193. 193. Wish-List for HD-DVD • Player compatibility with legacy standard DVD video and DVD audio discs • Renewable copy protection – Based on published cryptographic algorithms and revocable devices – Optional watermark – No unprotected outputs193 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  194. 194. Wish-List for HD-DVD • Advanced authoring features – Capability to support SD and HD content on the same disc – Multiple languages for soundtracks, menus, and sub-titles – Multi-channel lossy and lossless audio compression formats – Seamless video/network/ROM integration – Support for streaming audio, sub-titles, or metadata over a network connection – Capability to mix disc-based and network based audio streams – Multi-story and multi-angle support with few restrictions on content – Graphics capability which supports vector animation, fonts, and screen savers – Persistent storage capable of storing game scores, etc.194 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  195. 195. Wish-List for HD-DVD • Effective enforcement of compliance for playback device, content, and physical media – More widely available content authoring and verification tools • Robust and secure region playback control195 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  196. 196. Wish-List for HD-DVD • Mandatory player connectivity to the Internet – Publisher’s option for advanced interactivity with internet-based content, as well as disc-based content – User experience should be controlled by content when disc is loaded • Mandatory player support for network controlled playback options – Network-based authorization for copy(s) – Network-based authorization of disc bonus features196 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  197. 197. How Critical is Network Connectivity? • To provide consumers a clear and compelling step-up from today’s DVD: Connectable players support key features, e.g. deliver new content, extended usage rules and e-commerce. • To provide consumers the ability to integrate HD-DVD products into a home network. • The step-up experience should be consistent in CE and PC environments, i.e. not 10 ft. versus 2 ft. experiences. • Without mandatory connectivity capability, a baseline approach will attract baseline discs and excite fewer sales.197 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  198. 198. HD-DVD Format Concept HD-DVD Video Player HD Copy Protection HD Video 2.0 (includes SD content and addresses Wish List) SD-DVD Video Player CSS SD Video 1.0 (eDVD option) Blue Blue DVD5 DVD9 DVD18 (single layer) (dual layer)198 27.03.04 @ AFI Internet Connection DVD Master Class
  199. 199. HD-DVD Format Concept Current SD-DVD Future HD-DVD HD Movie Blue (dual layer) +bonus material Blue (single layer) SD Movie+bonus material HD Movie DVD-9 HD/DVD-9 SD Movie199 DVD-5 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  200. 200. What is WB’s vision for HD-DVD? Current DVD HD-DVD Home Network Current HD-DVD Player DVD Player Internet Internet200 27.03.04 @ AFI SD TV DVD Master Class HD TV
  201. 201. Two Camps • Blu-ray Disc Founders – Operating outside DVD Forum – Closed consortium, but engaging studios for input • DVD Forum – Physical format proposed by Toshiba and NEC (AOD = Advanced Optical Disc), now known as HD-DVD – Application currently under development • Warner Bros engaged in both efforts201 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  202. 202. Blu-ray Disc Founders Proposal Blue Laser =405nm 0.85NA lens 0.4mm separation 0.1mm Dual Layer option Cartridge required 1.1mm substrate thickness• Technology Features – 0.1mm thickness cover layer – 1.1mm thickness substrate – 0.85 NA objective lens• Capacity for Pre-recorded Media – 25GB single layer202 – 50GB dual layer 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  203. 203. DVD Forum Proposal (HD-DVD) Blue Laser =405nm 0.65NA Lens 1mm separation 0.6mm Dual Layer option 0.6mm substrate thickness • Technology Features – 0.6mm thickness cover layer – 0.6mm thickness substrate – 0.65 NA objective lens • Capacity for Pre-recorded Media – 15 GB single layer203 – 30 GB dual layer 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  204. 204. Selecting a Physical Media • Blu-ray – Larger data capacity than HD-DVD – Currently using only MPEG-2 in application layer, which will fit roughly 140 minutes on a single layer, 25GB disc – Reduction of cover layer to 0.1mm makes discs more susceptible to damage compared to HD-DVD • HD-DVD – DVD Forum to select advanced compression scheme to enable longer playing time on 15GB and 30GB discs • Example: 12 Mbps average data rate (audio/video/subtitles) yields run-time of 166 minutes on single layer, 15GB disc – Keeping current 0.6mm cover layer • Studios still evaluating which physical format is most cost effective204 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  205. 205. Video Compression Codec Candidates • MPEG-2 – Standardized in 1994 – Used in current DVD (needed for legacy support) • AVC (a.k.a. MPEG-4 Part 10, H.264) – Same quality at 40-50% of MPEG-2 bitrate – Standardized in ISO/ITU in December, 2003 – Licensing terms still being worked out • Microsoft Windows Media 9 – Same quality at 40-50% of MPEG-2 bitrate – Standardizing in SMPTE as VC-9 – Some companies claim Microsoft doesn’t own all of the intellectual property in VC-9205 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  206. 206. Audio Compression Codec Candidates • Dolby Digital – used in current DVD • DTS – used in current DVD • Dolby Digital Plus (DD+) – Allows for higher/lower data rates – 32 kbps – 3 Mbps • DTS++ – Allows for higher/lower data rates – 64 kbps – 3 Mbps • HE AAC – More efficient than DD+ or DTS++ – No support in legacy A/V receivers • MLP (Meridian Lossless Packing) – Currently used for DVD Audio – Only lossless candidate206 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  207. 207. The Two Camps and the Codecs • Blu-ray – MPEG-2 for video compression – Dolby Digital audio codec as mandatory – DTS audio codec as optional – Basically, same as today’s DVD • DVD Forum – Feb, 2004: Provisionally adopted MPEG-2, AVC, and WM-9 for video compression – Mandate for at least one lossless and at least one lossy audio codec – Most likely will choose DD+ and MLP207 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  208. 208. Timing of HD-DVD • Blu-ray HD-DVD recorders already being sold in Japan • HD-DVD Launch Criteria – Technology readiness • Copy protection is the gating factor – Number of HDTVs deployed with copy protected inputs – Market factors • Best Guess on studio launch – 2006208 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class
  209. 209. QUESTIONS and ANSWERS209 27.03.04 @ AFI DVD Master Class

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