I N T R O D U C T I O NGestalt is a psychology term which means“unified whole”. It refers to theories of visualperception developed by German psychologists in the1920s. These theories attempt to describe how peopletend to organize visual elements into groups orunified wholes when certain principles are applied.
Law of P r o x i m i t yThe closer objects are toeach other, the more like-ly they are to be perceivedas a group (Ehrenstein, 2004)L a w o f S y m m e t r yObjects must be balancedor symmetrical to be seenas complete or “whole”.
L a w o f S i m i l a r i t yObjects that are similar, with likecomponents or attributes are morelikely to be organised together.Law of Common FateObjects with a common move-ment, that move in the same di-rection, at the same pace , at thesame time are organised as a group
L a w o f C l o s u r eIn perception there is the tenden-cy to complete unfinished or par-tially obscured objects. Kanizsa’striangle (right) is one of the mostrecognisable examples of this.Law of F i g u r e GroundViewers will perceive an ob-ject (figure) and a surface(ground) even in shapes aregrouped together. This lawalso defines use of contrast.
Law of ContinuationObjects will be groupedas a whole if they are co-linear, or follow a direction.Law of SimplicityThis is the law that states thatpeople will visualise accordingto the simplest way of groupingitems – and the effort to simplifycomplex items is unconscious.
Law of Focal PointIt’s about the idea thata point of interest, somethingemphasised or just different willcatch the viewers attention.L a w o f P r ä g n a n zPrägnanz means, in simpleterms, “good form” and refersto organising shapes to simpleforms. Figures are seen astheir simple elements in-stead of complicated shapes.