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Bm Unit 2.5 Motivation
Bm Unit 2.5 Motivation
Bm Unit 2.5 Motivation
Bm Unit 2.5 Motivation
Bm Unit 2.5 Motivation
Bm Unit 2.5 Motivation
Bm Unit 2.5 Motivation
Bm Unit 2.5 Motivation
Bm Unit 2.5 Motivation
Bm Unit 2.5 Motivation
Bm Unit 2.5 Motivation
Bm Unit 2.5 Motivation
Bm Unit 2.5 Motivation
Bm Unit 2.5 Motivation
Bm Unit 2.5 Motivation
Bm Unit 2.5 Motivation
Bm Unit 2.5 Motivation
Bm Unit 2.5 Motivation
Bm Unit 2.5 Motivation
Bm Unit 2.5 Motivation
Bm Unit 2.5 Motivation
Bm Unit 2.5 Motivation
Bm Unit 2.5 Motivation
Bm Unit 2.5 Motivation
Bm Unit 2.5 Motivation
Bm Unit 2.5 Motivation
Bm Unit 2.5 Motivation
Bm Unit 2.5 Motivation
Bm Unit 2.5 Motivation
Bm Unit 2.5 Motivation
Bm Unit 2.5 Motivation
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Bm Unit 2.5 Motivation


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IB Business and Management (Standard Level) …

IB Business and Management (Standard Level)
All material taken from the IB Business and Management Textbook:
"Business and Management", Paul Hoang, IBID Press, Victoria, 2007

Published in: Business
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  • 1. Unit 2.5 MotivationLesson 1: Theories of motivationpp. 269-276.
    IB Business and Management
  • 2. 1. Think about it…
    President Jefferson (1743-1826) once said, “I’m a great believer in luck, and I find the harder I work, the more luck I have.”
    What did he mean by this?
    What motivates you to do something?
    Are you easily motivated?

  • 3. 2. Focus Questions
    What are the several theories of motivation?
    What are the differences between intrinsic and extrinsic needs and rewards?
    What are the benefits of increased worker motivation?
    Are there any negative aspects to poor worker motivation?

  • 4. 3a. Motivation
    As a manager / leader, your main goal is to inspire and motivate your workforce to complete tasks that are set out by you.
    So you need to think about how you are going to promote or instill in your staff the desire, effort, and passion to complete a task with enthusiasm.
    You are going to have to figure out what drives your employees.
    Remember what we talked about in earlier Units and in Unit 2.1?
    People are the most valuable and expensive asset of any company.
    It only makes senses to get the most out of your human resources, doesn’t it?
    So what are some of the benefits of a motivated workforce? ...
  • 5.
  • 6.
  • 7. 3d. Motivation
    Can also be classified as intrinsic or extrinsic.
    People can be motivated by both factors.
    Intrinsic motivation:
    When you engage in an activity out of your own desire.
    Because you find them challenging, stimulating, or satisfying.
    Extrinsic motivation:
    When you participate in an activity because of the benefits and rewards associated with the activity.
    The rewards maybe:
    Tangible: wages, salaries, bonuses, YOUR grade or marks 
    Intangible: recognition or praise; the happy face sticker I put on your test paper and phrases such as, Good job! Excellent work!...oh wait wrong class. :P

  • 8. 4. Motivation in Theory
    You are probably thinking…oh great some dead guy’s thoughts on motivation.
    Yes, it is true, but YOU as a manager in a company will need some knowledge and understanding of how your employees or staff think and what motivates them and even finding out what really motivates you.
    Because at the end of the day, or at the beginning, even you have a boss or someone to answer to and they will have to motivate you!
    That’s your need to know 
  • 9. 4b. Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856-1915)
    Supported the use of piece-rate payment system.
    Wrote a book on “The Principles of Scientific Management (1911).
    He assumed that people were motivated by money.
    He also believed that higher productivity could be obtained by setting output and efficiency targets related to pay.
    He viewed the duty of the manager to decided how each person’s task should be completed.
    Supported tasks based on division of labour and specialization in the production process.
    He suggested that man try to do as little as possible.
    That managers need to plan, direct and control their workforce. …
  • 10. 4c. Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856-1915)
    He also introduced differentiated piecework.
    A payment system where a work would receive pay based on a standard level of output and receive another rate if they exceeded that level.
    This was his incentive scheme that reward those who were productive workers.
    He recommended that workers should be scientifically selected for jobs, based on their abilities.
    His ideas were very popular in 1920’s, Ford and McDonald’s would use them. McDonald's still used them today. …
  • 11. 4d. Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856-1915)
    He has been criticized for ignoring the non-physical contributions of workers.
    That can be defined: labour input as the mental and physical human effort used in the production process.
    So how easy is it to measure this?
    It is not easy at all to measure the “output” of certain professionals.
    For example, if you all get accepted into an Ivy League school, does that make me a great teacher, a productive employee of the school?

  • 12. 4e. Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856-1915)
    He has also ignored the non-financial factors.
    Due to a highly educated workforce, people do not prefer to be bosses around, but would like a say in how things are done at work.
    His theory can also lead to repetitive and monotonous tasks.
    This will lead to job dissatisfaction rather than motivation.
    Can you think of some other companies or countries who might use Taylor's theories?
    Do you think his theories are still being practiced today? Can you give examples?
  • 13. 5a. Abraham Maslow (1908-1970)
    Maslow focused on the psychological (emotional and mental) needs of workers.
    He believed people are motivated by more than just money.
    He argued that these needs (see right pyramid) must be met to motivate people.
    Called the Hierarchy of needs (1943).

  • 14. 5b. Abraham Maslow (1908-1970)
    He also suggested that the needs at the lower level must be met before people could progress higher level needs.
    Let’s think about it…would it be feasible for a company to aim to motivate all workers up the hierarchy?
    Which workers would you want to motivate the most? And at which levels in the hierarchy?

  • 15. 5c. Abraham Maslow (1908-1970)
    Some criticize Maslow on how difficult it is to measure the level of needs.
    How can a business measure esteem or love issues of an employee?
    He also assumed that everyone is motivated in the same pre-determined order of his model (see right).
    And what motivated the people who have achieved self-actualization?
    What drives Bill Gates or Donald Trump?
    What motivates these kinds of people to keep on working?

  • 16. 6a. Douglas McGregor
    Created the Theory X and Theory Y (1960) to represent the different assumptions managers have about their employees.
    His theory was that the beliefs managers have about worker attitudes directly influences their management style.
    McGregor’s theory focuses on manager’s attitudes, not on a motivational theory.

  • 17. 6b. Douglas McGregor
    Theory X explains the negative management attitude about the workforce.
    You see the workers as lazy, avoiding work.
    You see that they need to be given direction and clear instructions.
    You adopt an authoritarian management style.
    Emphasis is on output and productivity.
    You will follow Taylor’s scientific management approach.

  • 18. 6c. Douglas McGregor
    Theory Y managers take a more positive approach.
    You assume employees are able to achieve objectives on their own.
    You know workers can gain satisfaction from work and are able to take on responsibility.
    He also suggested that workers will be less motivated if there is a lack of challenge in a job.
    Theory Y managers take a democratic and decentralized approach in their style.
    So, adopt the Theory Y approach!!! 

  • 19. US Army General George S. Patton (1885-1945)
    “Never tell people how to do things. Tell them what to do and they will surprise you with their ingenuity.”
  • 20. 7a. Prof. Frederick Herzberg (1923-2000)
    Focuses on what causes satisfaction and dissatisfaction at work.
    These fall under his Hygiene factors (see on the right).
    These meet people’s basic needs.
    A pay raise will not motivate an employee in the long run.

  • 21. 7b. Prof. Frederick Herzberg (1923-2000)
    Are factors which lead to the psychological growth of the employee.
    Will increase worker satisfaction and performance.
    Suggested that firms motivate employees by using a democratic management style, provide training,
    Three Key areas in worker motivation:
    Job enlargement: variety in what workers do.
    Job enrichment: more complex and challenging tasks.
    Job empowerment: delegating decision-making power to workers.

  • 22. 7c. Prof. Frederick Herzberg (1923-2000)
    Movement and Motivation:
    Movement: when someone does something because they need to.
    Motivation: when someone does something because they want to.
    He believed that people are motivated by being responsible for their work.
    That work itself can be rewarding.
    Hmmm…lets think about this shall we…so I give you all a big project to do, it takes you 2 months to complete and you present it and I say to you, “great work”, and give you no mark or grade for your effort.
    Would you feel motivated?
    What motivates you?
  • 23. 7d. Prof. Frederick Herzberg (1923-2000)
    So as a manager you need to make sure your employees are motivated.
    But remember, not all employees are motivated the same way.
    What works to motivate them today, may not work tomorrow.
    Critics of Herzberg:
    His two factor theory does not apply to many occupations.
    Especially where job enrichment and job empowerment are not a feature. i.e. at a factory.
    Also, some employees do not want job enrichment, they do not want the extra responsibility.
    His research also ignored the role of the team working in motivating the workforce.

  • 24. Unit 2.5 MotivationLesson 2: Motivation in practicepp. 280-294.
    IB Business and Management
  • 25. 1. Focus Questions
    What are the differences between financial and non-financial motivation?
  • 26. 2. An overview:
    Financial motivation:
    A way for companies to motivate workers by using some form of monetary rewards.
    Non-financial motivation:
    Non-monetary factors that motivate people by offering psychological and intangible benefits.

  • 27.
  • 28.
  • 29. 5a. Team Building Models
    The Adair Model:
    Three parts to effective team work.
    Tasks must be challenging.
    Team must work collectively.
    Team caters for the needs of each member.
    An idea situation where team leaders strive to accomplish challenging tasks, build teams and develop individuals.
    You as the manager or team leader will be dealing with group dynamics.
    The range of individual problem-solving skills and experience.
    You will need to reinforce the importance of every member on your team.

  • 30. 5b. Team Building Models
    The Belbin Model:
    Looks at the behavior of managers from all over the world.
    They were put in groups and psychometric test were conducted.
    The finds were as follows:
    Nine patterns of behavior or team role: (see more info on pp.288-289)
  • 31. End