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Bm 4.2 Marketing Planning
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Bm 4.2 Marketing Planning

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B Business and Management (Standard Level) …

B Business and Management (Standard Level)
All material taken from the IB Business and Management Textbook:
"Business and Management", Paul Hoang, IBID Press, Victoria, 2007

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  • 1. IB Business & Management Unit 4.2 Marketing Planning Lesson 1: The Marketing Mix pp. 455-464 Lesson 1: The Marketing Mix pp. 455-464 Lesson 1: The Marketing Mix pp. 455-464
  • 2. 1. Think about it ...
    • “ You generally hear that what a man doesn’t know doesn’t hurt him, but in business what a man doesn’t know does hurt” - E. St. Elmo Lewis (1872-1948)
      • What does this quote mean to you ?
  • 3. 2. Focus Questions
    • What is marketing planning?
    • What is the marketing mix?
    • Are there any ethics in marketing? Should there be? Why or Why not?
    • What is a marketing audit? What do they examine? ...
  • 4. 3a. Marketing Planning
    • What is marketing planning ?
      • It is a process whereby devising marketing objectives, while using appropriate marketing strategies to achieve these goals.
      • Requires the collection & analysis of information (market research) on existing and potential customers.
    • So, how does one achieve a marketing objective? Can you name some marketing objectives?
      • Sales growth? How would you achieve this objective?
        • This is the role of the marketing planning :) The Marketing Department...you are not the manager of...what are you doing to do to meet this objective?
          • How would you go about this?...in groups come up with a mini-plan.
  • 5. 3b. Marketing Planning
    • Here is a typical marketing planning process:
      • Marketing Audit - conduct market research. Why?
      • Marketing objectives - what is your goal or target? The audit will tell you.
      • Marketing strategies - this is the plan and use of the marketing mix (4P’s) & ethics to achieve the objectives.
      • Monitoring & review - continual process of checking and assessing. Did the plan work? Why or why not? How can we improve?
      • Evaluation - examine the extent to which the firm had succeeded in achieve these objectives. ...
  • 6. 4a. The Marketing Mix
    • What is the marketing mix?
      • It is the heart of marketing planning.
      • used to review and develop marketing strategy.
      • Also know as the FOUR P’s
        • Product: the good or service being marketed to meet the NEEDS and WANTS of a customer.
        • Price: how much the customer is charged.
        • Place: where the product is sold.
        • Promotion: process of informing, reminding, and persuading customers to BUY your product.
  • 7. 4b. The Marketing Mix- Product
    • 1. A product can be a physical good or an intangible service .
      • Can you name some examples?
    • What is the one purpose products serve ?
      • to fulfil the NEEDS or WANTS of the customer.
    • What differentiates one product from another ?
      • the customer benefits of purchasing that product.
        • Why do you go to Wendy’s to purchase a Baconator?
        • What are the benefits for you to go to Wendy’s and eat a meal there?
        • Why do you buy Nike Air? (brand image? packaging? functions, after-sales service?)
    • Several kinds of products; two major kinds are:
      • Producer products: raw materials, machinery, and components.
      • Consumer products: sold to end-user...that’s you :)
  • 8. 4c. The Marketing Mix- Price
    • 2. Pricing is one of the hardest decisions in the marketing mix. Why?
      • What if the product is over-priced? (customer feels ripped off)
      • What if the product is under-priced? (customer thinks product is of poor quality)
    • Is there a balance ? Yes, economists define this as equilibrium price .
      • This is where buyers and sellers agree on a price for the product.
      • Buys want a price to reflect value for money and sellers want a price that exceeds their cost of production to earn what?
        • PROFITS!!!
    • Pricing decisions depend on many factors :
      • Demand: the higher the demand, the higher the price will be.
      • Supply: the lower the supply, the higher the price will be.
      • Business objectives: charities / non-profits vs. profit seeking firms.
      • Competition: high competition, similar pricing.
      • Costs of production: higher the costs, higher the price tends to be.
      • Corporate image: Lamborghini vs Ford cars :)
  • 9. 4d. The Marketing Mix- Place
    • 3. Place is used to describe the distributing products to customers.
      • Can also refer to channels of distribution, retail stores or other intermediaries used to get a firm’s product to the customer.
    • The channels start at the factory, who sells to the wholesalers.
    • The wholesalers buy in bulk and sold to the retailers.
    • The retailers sell the product to the customers.
    • Obviously the fewer intermediaries, the lower the price.
    Factory Wholesalers Retailers Consumers
  • 10. 4e. The Marketing Mix- Promotion
    • 4. Promotion refers to the strategies used to attract customers to a firm’s products.
    • Can be above the line or below the line . What does this mean, you ask? :)
      • Above the line: promotional activities that use TV, newspaper, and radio.
      • Below the line: uses packaging, sponsorship, and direct mail.
    • All business will use a combination of above and below the line when promoting their products.
      • Think of some examples of where you have seen your favourite product being advertised.
    • Marketing of Services - Extra 3 P’s :
      • 1. People (CRM-Customer Relations Management):
        • highly motivated and competent staff is likely to deliver good customer service.
      • 2. Process:
        • methods and procedures used to give clients the best customer service.
      • 3. Physical evidence:
        • the image portrayed by a business.
        • Looks do count when marketing a product.
  • 11. 4f. The Marketing Mix- Packaging
    • Packaging : refers to the ways a product is presented to the customer.
      • another part of product differentiation.
      • How are you going to make your product look unique? Desirable?
      • People’s moods are affected by things such as:
        • colour
        • texture
        • appearances
      • Wrapping services anyone?
    • What are the various functions that packaging can have on the marketing mix? Excellent test question :)
      • Has an impact on customer perceptions of a product or brand.
      • acts as a form of differentiation - free gift wrapping anyone?
      • protects against damage during transportation.
      • labelling informs your customer of the contents.
      • makes distribution easier.
      • can encourage impulse buying.
      • used to advertise the brand or the business.
    • One major drawback to packaging is the COST.
  • 12. 4g. The Marketing Mix- 8 P’s? Marketing Mix Packaging Process People Physical evidence Place Promotion Price Product
  • 13. 5a. Ethics of Marketing
    • Moral principles that guide business behaviour.
    • Unethical marketing behaviour exists when moral codes of practice are not adhered to.
      • What are bait-and-switch marketing techniques ?
        • are techniques which are considered unethical.
        • they are used to entice customers by advertising deals that are too good to be true.
        • Once customers are hooked on the deal (the bait), they discover that it is no longer offered and change to purchase another more pricey alternative (the switch).
      • So who uses these tactics?
        • Airlines companies
        • Mobile phone companies
        • Real Estate companies
    • Other dubious marketing tactics:
      • Health fraud
      • Get rich quick schemes
      • Travel fraud
      • Product misrepresentation
      • fear tactics - limited stock only
      • unsubstantiated claims - 4/5 prefer our products
      • Pester power - using children to pester parents into buying products.
      • Confusion marketing - swamping customers with excessive price information.
  • 14. 6. Marketing Audit
    • Is a review of the strengths and weaknesses of a firm.
    • Helps to identify the marketing opportunities and threats facing a business.
    • What internal and external issues will the audit examine ?
      • the business’s marketing objective and strategies
      • existing products and brands sold by the business.
      • the effectiveness of the firm’s recent marketing activities.
      • firm’s market share
      • competitor analysis
      • update on the demographic profile
    • Gives an overview of your current marketing situation.
    • Can also assist in creating a SWOT and a PEST Analysis.
  • 15. IB Business & Management Unit 4.2 Marketing Planning Lesson 2: Marketing Objectives pp. 468-476 Lesson 2: Marketing Objectives pp. 468-476 Lesson 2: Marketing Objectives pp. 468-476
  • 16. 7a. Marketing Objectives
    • These are the targets that the marketing department wants to achieve.
    • These objectives should be in-line with the firm’s overall objectives.
    • Marketing guru Philip Kotler states, “the objective of marketing is to create customer satisfaction in a profitable way”.
    • These targets can :
      • provide a sense of purpose.
      • allow progress to be monitored.
      • assist in the planning and development of market strategies.
  • 17. 7b. Marketing Objectives Marketing Objectives Include market development new product development product innovation high market standing increase market share market leadership product positioning consumer satisfaction diversification
  • 18. 7c. Marketing Objectives Constraints Marketing Objectives Constraints competitors state of the economy political environment legal environment finance costs of production size and status of the firm social issues time lags
  • 19. 8a. The Role of Market Research
    • Market research is used to gather the opinions, beliefs, and feelings of potential customers.
    • It serves to identify the NEEDS and WANTS of customers.
    • There are two major categories of market research :
      • Ad hoc market research : focuses on specific marketing problems or issues.
      • Continuous research : takes place on a regular ongoing basis.
    • The Role of Market Research :
      • gives business up-to-date information
      • see if current products meet the needs of the customers
      • to improve a firm’s marketing
      • assesses potential customer reactions
      • provides information about the competition
      • gives an idea of the future; future trends
    • Market research is usually carried out when a firm launches a new product.
    • Effective market research helps reduce risks of failure.
    • Drawbacks of market research :
      • Garbage in, garbage out (GIGO): unreliable or inaccurate data generates poor quality information.
      • Biased information can be unreliable.
      • Costs of good market research is very high.
  • 20. 8b. Primary Research
    • Primary research is new data gathered from first-hand sources.
    • Also know as field research, information directly collected from customers to identify their buying patterns and changes in behaviour.
    • What are the several methods of conducting primary research?
      • Questionnaires :
        • Self-completed questionnaires
        • Personal questionnaires
        • Postal questionnaires
        • Telephone questionnaires
          • Good questionnaires avoid bias, avoid jargon, include closed and open-ended questions.
      • Observations : watching how people behave and respond to different situations.
      • Experimentation : introduces marketing activities to a group of people to measure their responses and reactions.
      • Online surveys : using email or software programs
  • 21. 8c. Advantages & Disadvantages of Primary Research Advantages Disadvantages up to date time consuming relevance costly confidential and unique validity objectivity
  • 22. 8d. Secondary Research
    • Secondary research is also known as desk research, which involves collecting second hand data and information.
      • This means that the data has been gathered by others.
      • Tends to be cheaper and faster to collect.
    Advantages Disadvantages cheaper & faster to collect maybe out of date huge range of sources info may be inappropriate provides insight into trends widely available to the competition
  • 23. 8e. Qualitative Research
    • Market research can also be classified as qualitative or quantitative .
      • Qualitative market research involves getting non-numerical answers and opinions from respondents.
      • Used mostly in primary research.
      • main purpose is to understand the behaviour, attitudes, and perceptions of customers.
    • Two main types of qualitative research: focus groups and in-depth interviews .
      • Focus groups :
        • involve small discussion groups who share similar customer profile.
        • main goal is to get everyone to generate insightful information.
        • a drawback may be that only extroverts tend to take part in these groups.
        • another limitation is that participants want to get paid, so it can be costly.
        • another variation is called consumer panel .
          • small group within a business’s target market and are specialists rather than random people.
  • 24. 8f. Qualitative Research
    • The second type of qualitative market research is in-depth interviews.
      • involve an interviewer and a customer having a one-on-one interview to find out more about the customer’s personal situation and opinions.
      • can be conducted face-to-face or over the phone.
      • these interviews can also include a range of non-quantifiable information, which prove to be difficult to analyze.
    Advantages Disadvantages better exploring the motivators and the de-motivators of customers information used does not represent the whole population can be rich in depth can be time consuming can be inexpensive need interview expertise respondents not under any pressure interviewer can be bias
  • 25. 8g. Quantitative Research
    • This research relies on a much larger sampling base.
    • It requires the gathering of factual and measurable data rather than people’s opinions.
    • Will involve the use of surveys and questionnaires to gather such data.
      • Closed question - allow respondents to choose from a given list of options.
      • Ranking or sliding scales - rank your favourite soft drink; strongly agree to strongly disagree.
    • Can also supply data such as market share, sales figures, and changes in consumer income.
    • Advantages for using this research is it is easier to analyze, but this method is not as flexible as using qualitative methods, as questions are all fixed.
  • 26. IB Business & Management Unit 4.2 Marketing Planning Lesson 3: Market Segmentation pp. 481-497 Lesson 3: Market Segmentation pp. 481-497 Lesson 3: Market Segmentation pp. 481-497
  • 27. 9a. Market Segmentation
    • Can be defined as the process of splitting a market into distinct groups of buyers in order to better meet their needs.
      • For example: Can you name the different markets that exist to meet YOUR needs and wants?
    • A segment refers to a group of customers with similar characteristics.
      • Such as age, gender, similar wants and needs.
    • Targeting means that each distinctive market segment can have its own marketing mix .
    • Consumer profile :
      • are the characteristics of customers and consumers in different market such as:
        • age
        • gender
        • income
        • purchasing habits
    • Main methods of market segmentation are based on :
      • demographic factors
      • geographic factors
      • psychographic factors
  • 28. 9b. Segmentation by Demographics Segment by demographics Marital status Race and Ethnicity Gender Age groupings Religion Language Income Socio- econ.
  • 29. 9c. Segmentation by Geographic & Psychographic Factors
    • They come in two broad categories:
      • 1. Location : different areas and regions of a country may have different cultures and attitudes.
      • 2. Climate : the weather in an area can have a large impact on business activities.
    • Segmentation by Psychographic Factors :
      • are considered to be the emotions and lifestyle of customers, such as habits, hobbies, interests, and values.
        • Status
        • Values
        • Culture
        • Hobbies and interests
    • Advantages of Segmentation :
      • better understanding of customers
      • increase sales
      • growth opportunities
      • gives support to product differentiation
    • How to ensure successful segmentation? Use DAMAS :
      • Differential: must be unique
      • Actionable: suitable products to cater to each segment
      • Measurable: size and purchasing power of each segment must be quantifiable
      • Accessible: reach customers in a cost effective way
      • Substantial: each segment must be large enough to generate profits
  • 30. 10a. Targeting
    • Once markets have been segments, the next stage is targeting.
    • T argeting refers to :
      • the market segment that a business wishes to sell to.
      • there are three main targeting strategies that a business can use:
        • 1. niche marketing
        • 2. Mass marketing (undifferentiated marketing)
        • 3. Mass marketing (differentiated marketing)
    • Niche Marketing :
      • Also know as concentrated marketing.
      • targets a very specific and well-defined market segment.
        • Can you name some of these well-defined market segments?
  • 31. 10b. Targeting Advantages of Niche Marketing Disadvantage of Niche Marketing better marketing focus very small markets less competition small market size = no economies of scale become highly specialized highly successful markets may attract new competition
  • 32. 10c. Targeting
    • Undifferentiated Marketing :
      • also know as mass marketing or market aggregation.
      • this strategy ignores targeting individual market segments.
      • a large number of different market segments are targeted to maximize sales volume.
    Advantages Disadvantages huge economies of scales high entry barriers no tailed marketing mixes fierce competition caters to larger markets = larger profits lack of focus mass marketing can be wasteful
  • 33. 10d. Targeting
    • Differentiated Marketing :
      • also know as selective marketing or multi-segment marketing.
      • this strategy tailors a marketing mix to each market segment.
      • will use positioning maps (p. 488) to identify how customers think and feel.
    Advantages Disadvantages customers enjoy a satisfying experience it is costly risks are spread out can not exploit economies of scale can drain a firm’s resources and confuse customers
  • 34. 11a. Positioning
    • Marketing positioning :
      • is a tool that ranks different products, services, or firms in relation to others in the market.
      • Three stages of positioning :
        • 1. Identify - the competitive advantages of the product.
        • 2. Decide - which aspects of these strengths should be marketed.
        • 3. Implement - desired positioning by using the right marketing mix.
    • Corporate Image :
      • plays a vital part in the success of a business.
      • Can improve corporate image through CSR (Unit 1.3)
      • Seek a unique selling point (USP) or a unique selling proposition, how your product stands out from those of your competitors.
    • Three competitive strategies :
      • 1. Cost leadership - aim to excel as low cost suppliers of products.
      • 2. Differentiation - produce distinct products by rival firms.
      • 3. Focus - pay close attention to a specific market segment.
  • 35. 11b. Positioning
    • Position (perception) Maps :
      • is a visual tool that shows the customers’ perception of a product or brand in relation to others.
        • Customers perceptions using price and quality :
          • Premium brands - high quality products, high priced; BMW...
          • Economy brands - low quality, reasonably priced; Ford...
          • Bargain brands - high quality, reasonably priced...
          • Cowboy brands - poor quality, highly priced...
    • Use of position maps :
      • used to identify gaps in a firm’s product portfolio.
      • used for targeting strategies.
      • can inform a business of a need for reposition their products.
    Price High Low High Low Premium brands Cowboy brands Bargain brands Economy brands
  • 36. 12a. Development of Marketing Strategies & Tactics
    • So what are all these tactics and strategies?
    • Marketing tactics are short term plans and strategies are medium to long-term plans.
    • Marketing tactics include:
      • Promotional tactics
      • High-pressure sales tactics
      • Dubious marketing tactics
      • Bargain brands
      • Short-term price reductions
    • Marketing tactics are used to achieve the marketing strategies:
      • Market research
      • Product planning
      • Implementation
    • In developing a marketing strategy, marketing managers may choose from the following:
      • Perception mapping (Unit 4.2)
      • Porter’s five forces analysis (Unit 4.2)
      • Porter’s generic strategies (Unit 4.2)
      • Ansoff matrix (Unit 1.7)
      • Boston matrix (Unit 4.3)
      • SWOT analysis and Force field analysis (Unit 1.8)
  • 37. 12b. Development of Marketing Strategies & Tactics
    • Remember a market strategy is carried out through an appropriate marketing mix.
    • Some argue that the marketing mix (the 4 P’s) should be examined through the eyes of the consumer.
      • Called the 4 C’s of marketing :)
        • Customer solution (PRODUCT)
        • Cost to the customer (PRICE)
        • Communication (PROMOTION)
        • Convenience (PLACE)
    • Execution of the marketing strategy should be done in a cost-effective way without overspending your budget.
  • 38. The End