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PECS Methodology in High Tech AAC
 

PECS Methodology in High Tech AAC

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Case study of Siobhan, a non-verbal communicator. Using Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) methodology, Siobhan has successfully transitioned from low-tech to high-tech Augmentative and ...

Case study of Siobhan, a non-verbal communicator. Using Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) methodology, Siobhan has successfully transitioned from low-tech to high-tech Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) systems.

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PECS Methodology in High Tech AAC PECS Methodology in High Tech AAC Presentation Transcript

  • Picture Exchange Communication System Methodology In High Tech AAC Devices
  • The following information was presented at the 25 th annual CSUN Technology & Persons with Disabilities Conference in Los Angeles in March, 2009. It does not provide training in Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) methodology, but instead is a case study. For PECS information and training, please contact Pyramid Educational Consultants, Inc. at pecs.com or 1-888-732-7462.
  • Because Slideshare processing makes this presentation non-ADA compliant please note the following: All of the videos are at: http://www.youtube.com/josephkoconnor They are not captioned. Sorry. If you want a copy of the PowerPoint file, please email us or DM at: http://twitter.com/blacktelephone Or use contact form at: http://www.blacktelephone.com/contact/
  • Session ID: AAC-1014 Title: Picture Exchange Communication System Methodology in AAC Devices Speakers: Donna Banzhof, Joseph Karr O'Connor Date: Thursday, March 19, 2009 Start Time: 10:40 AM End Time: 11:40 AM Location: Renaissance - International A
  • Donna Banzhof, M.Ed. Pyramid Consultant Senior PECS Supervisor & Trainer 1-888-732-7462 (toll free) [email_address] http://www.pecs.com Joseph Karr O'Connor (Siobhan's Dad) Manager, University Web Communications California State University, Northridge 1-818-677-7971 [email_address] http://www.youtube.com/josephkoconnor
  • We will discuss…
    • Review of today’s purpose
    • Brief history of Siobhan
    • Brief history of PECS
    • Objective 1: Why start with PECS before transitioning?
    • Objective 2: Demonstrate how to apply PECS methodology to high tech AAC.
    • Objective 3: Supporting Siobhan as she grows and learns.
  • Purpose of Presentation
    • When a recommended AAC device arrives, where do you begin?
    • How do you introduce the client to a new way of communicating when there is no foundation on which to build?
    • Why is Siobhan laughing so hard?
        • Video: “Since You Were A Fish” http://tinyurl.com/dmro8k
  • Brief history of Siobhan
    • Age: 16 years old
    • Diagnosis: Cri du Chat Syndrome (or 5P-) www.fivepminus.org
    • Non-verbal, poor balance (ataxic), loose and floppy (hypotonic), with developmental delays in all areas.
  • Brief history of Siobhan
    • Started PECS when 4 years old.
      • Video http://tinyurl.com/b9sp27
    • Communication consisted primarily of all-purpose sounds and/or taking an adult’s hand to desired object/activity.
    • Spontaneous communication extremely limited, occurring exclusively with familiar adults.
  • Brief history of Siobhan Why transition to High Tech AAC (HTAAC)?
  • Brief history of Siobhan
    • Siobhan resists all direct efforts to make her communicate, but responds well to Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) reinforcer-based routines.
    • Putting Siobhan's interests first results in communication, using PECS methodology ensures her success.
  • Pyramid Educational Consultants
    • Founded in 1992 by Lori Frost and Andy Bondy
      • To provide training to professionals and families of individuals with disabilities
      • To ensure high-fidelity implementation of PECS
    • Exclusive home of PECS (Picture Exchange Communication System) and the Pyramid Approach to Education
  • What is PECS?
    • Development began in 1985
    • Training protocol based on B.F. Skinner’s Verbal Behavior (1957)
    • Taught within a broad-spectrum applied behavior analysis protocol
    • Originally developed for children on the Autism Spectrum, but now used across ages and diagnostic categories
  • PECS is Evidence Based Practice
    • Over 40 published articles
    • 31 data-based or case studies
    • 12 articles - descriptive
    • Articles generated in USA, UK, Wales, New Zealand, Greece, Japan, Australia, France, Peru
  • How widespread is PECS? "The most widely used intervention was PECS, with almost all of the participants mentioning it, even those who did not use any other intervention in their program." Stahmer, A., Collings, N. & Palinkas, L. (2005). Early Intervention Practices for Children With Autism: Descriptions From Community Providers. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Studies , 20, 66-79.
  • What is AAC?
    • Augmentative Communication
      • Any device, method or system used to supplement speech
    • Alternative Communication
      • Any device, method or system used for communication when speech has not developed or has been lost
    • PECS can be both!
  • The Pyramid Approach to Education The “how” of teaching Data © Pyramid Educational The “why” of behavior The science of learning Teaching Strategies Error Correction Generalization Effective Lessons Powerful Reinforcers Functional Activities Contextually Inappropriate Behaviors Functional Communication
  • The Pyramid and PECS © Pyramid Educational Functional Activities Students engaged in functional activities have something to communicate! Reinforcement The first lesson in PECS is requesting a reinforcer, so we must identify a powerful reinforcer before beginning Functional Communication PECS begins by teaching requesting- the communication skill associated with access to a powerful reinforcer Contextually Inappropriate Behaviors Communication skills could be potential Functionally Equivalent Alternative Behaviors (FEABs)
  • Functional Communication
    • “ Functional communication is behavior (defined in form by the community) directed to another person who in turn provides related direct or social rewards” (Bondy & Frost, 2001).
    © Pyramid Educational
  • Functional Communication
    • Two broad functions of communication
      • Requests - direct reinforcement
      • Comments - social reinforcement
    • Two ways to begin teaching communication
      • Spontaneous vs.
      • Responsive
  • Pyramid Principles for Teaching Functional Communication Decisions PECS Modality Pictures Communicative function to teach first Requesting Approach to spontaneity From beginning
  • Objective 1
    • Why it is so much easier to start clients off with a paper based PECS system and then transition them to high tech AAC devices?
      • PECS, a low tech AAC, relatively low training and device costs
      • High tech AAC relatively high training and device costs
    • PECS: low tech AAC
    • Paperbased system
    • Student learns how to communicate first
    • PECS requires use in social context, must exchange a symbol with someone
    • No device distractions or buttons to push
    • High tech AAC
    • Requires power
    • Student must learn how to navigate device first
    • Device can be used without interacting with someone
    • Excessive button push can lead to miscommunication
    Objective 1 Why it is so much easier to start clients off with a paper based PECS system and then transition them to high tech AAC devices?
  • Objective 1
    • Why it is so much easier to start clients off with a paper based PECS system and then transition them to high tech AAC devices?
      • PECS:
        • Only need “powerful R+” to start
        • Teaches HOW to communicate
        • First skill = spontaneous requesting
  • Objective 1
    • Why it is so much easier to start clients off with a paper based PECS system and then transition them to high tech AAC devices?
      • PECS:
        • Systematically teaches:
          • Discrimination training,
          • Sentence structure,
          • Expanding sentences by using attributes,
          • Question answering,
          • Commenting
        • Incorporates systematic error correction procedures
  • Objective 2
    • We will demonstrate that Picture Exchange Communication System methodology, when properly applied to high tech AAC devices, and following the principles of evidence-based practice (EBP), is the perfect basis from which to proceed.
    • Problem: evidence showed error with “I like” vs “I want.”
      • Error correction video: http://tinyurl.com/brp6kp
  • Objective 2
    • We will demonstrate that Picture Exchange Communication System methodology, when properly applied to high tech AAC devices, and following the principles of evidence-based practice (EBP), is the perfect basis from which to proceed.
    • Problem: Siobhan making placement errors returning icons to communication book.
    • Solution: Simplify mainpage (works for the Web too!)
  • Objective 2
    • FAIL! Communication book with complicated mainpage
  • Objective 2
    • WIN! Communication book with simple mainpage
  • Objective 2
    • Dynavox MT4 with simple mainpage
  • Objective 2
    • Dynavox DynaMyte with simple mainpage
  • Objective 2
    • Elements to consider
    • Maintain skills
      • Spontaneity
      • Persistence and travel
      • Sentence structure
    • Continue to expand vocabulary and communication skills
  • Why use both?
    • Pros of PECS
    • Easier for Siobhan to carry
    • Good in noisy environments http://tinyurl.com/ao7llv
    • Does not need repair http://tinyurl.com/c5lhpq
    • Can be used at the pool http://tinyurl.com/cpnh3q
    • Pros of HTAAC
    • Voice is appealing to people unfamiliar with AAC
    • Incorporate “stories” about her weekend or day http://tinyurl.com/d66v2g
    • Can be responded to when someone is driving http://tinyurl.com/cpwunx
  • Objective 3
    • What it takes to support Siobhan as she continues to grow and learn and what it took to get her and keep her communicating.
    • Dedicated effort by Siobhan, parents, friends, teachers, aides, SLPs, consultants, and others… regardless of media (PECS, HTAAC).
  • Objective 3
    • What it takes to support Siobhan as she continues to grow and learn and what it took to get her and keep her communicating.
      • Communication planning across the day
      • Assessing Siobhan’s routines
      • Sabotaging known routines
      • Teaching new skills and related items needed in the routines
  • Communication Across the Day Activity Expressive Communication Receptive Communication Feeding Gaynor “ I want help” Follow schedule Meal time Request desired food item Request help WAIT Retrieve requested item After school Request activity Request snack Respond to “what did you do today” Follow schedule WAIT Understanding “no” Follow directions
  • Siobhan with PECS
    • PECS strategies increased frequency and quality of spontaneous communication.
      • “ Living Room Derby” video: recorded over continuous 31 minute period on September 10 th , 2008 ending at 8:32 p.m.
      • Siobhan initiated 35 communicative exchanges, all for the pleasure of interaction. Siobhan is doing this for fun! (She’s also doing this because Dad was sitting down:-)
      • 4 minute edited piece contains 22 interactions.
      • http://tinyurl.com/bsjsn5
  • Siobhan with PECS
    • Communicates in various settings and with various communicative partners
      • “ Orders Taco” video http://tinyurl.com/ao7llv
    • Communicates in the classroom
      • “ Siobhan PECS 2004” video http://tinyurl.com/cjtwb3
  • Siobhan with MT4 or Dynamite
    • Able to invent clever substitutes
      • “ Today” video http://tinyurl.com/dfjw7c
    • She makes jokes
      • “ Hamburger” http://tinyurl.com/bthjou
    • She has conversations
      • “ I Like Circus” http://tinyurl.com/bhnvfy
  • Siobhan Using Picture Schedule
    • Schedule shows what she’s doing in order – no surprises means peaceful transitions
      • “ Morning Schedule” http://tinyurl.com/bwky8q
  • Conclusion
    • Having a functional communication system allows someone to express herself
    • Communication training should be begin requesting items that are interesting to that person
    • Using a low tech AAC system, such as PECS, to begin provides a foundation to teaching a person “HOW” to communicate
    • When transitioning from a low tech to a high tech system make sure the system is taught, previous skills are maintained and communication continues to be expanded