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Black Sea Environment (Kideys/Myroshnychenko)

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  • Good Morning. Dear Ministers, Ladies and Gentlemen, Thanks to Ukranian government for including “environment” in the agenda of this economical forum; this is a clear indication of valuing the Black Sea ecosystem by the Ukranian government. Therfeore, I am also grateful to the host country for giving me opportunity of speaking on the extraordinary Black Sea ecosystem and for their hospitality in this historical city.
  • Black Sea has world’s largest volume of anoxic waters. The reasons for it: the Water Exchange (a) between BS-Med (b) between surface and deep waters
  • T he B l ack Sea catchments more than 2 millions km2. So modeling the full catchment will be the biggest data and processing challenge that the enviroGRIDS project will face.
  • A brief overview of the basic institutional structure of the Commission on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution established under the Bucharest Convention. The Commission on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution The Permanent Secretariat 7 Advisory Groups + ad hoc Advisory Group on the WFD and Joint Danube Black Sea Technical Working Group (not shown) Formation and nominations of other groups is possible –with a decision of the Black Sea Commission. Regional Activity Centers in the 6 Black Sea countries and 6 National focal points in each country (on shipping, pollution monitoring and assessment, land based sources, integrated coastal zone management, fisheries and marine living resources, and information and data management in the Permanent Secretariat).
  • There are many many examples of cooperation activities
  • The se are first two regional (Delta) exercise s, A major milestone and investment in the region’s preparedness for oil spill accidents
  • With UNDP, WWF, CocaCola
  • Her iki donemin toplam butcesi 2. 36 milyon Euro Projede birde Bulgar vatandasi calisiyor Buna ilave olarak danismanlik yada hizmet alimi seklindede calisiyoruz
  • Transcript

    • 1. PRIORITIES OF THE BLACK SEA ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES PROTECTION The Black Sea Economic Forum 26-27 November 2010, Yalta, Ukraine Prof Dr Ahmet E. KIDEYŞ Executive Director Permanent Secretariat Commission on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution www.blacksea-commission.org
    • 2. Content • 1) The Black Sea ecosystem • 2) Regional Environmental Problems • 3) Regional Environmental Governance & Cooperation • 4) Current “State of Environment” • 5) Environmental Priorities Revisited
    • 3. 1) The Black Sea ecosystem Most interesting The youngest Noah’s flood? An extraordinary sea
    • 4. 1) The Black Sea ecosystem : Bathymetry & Anoxia (5.5 x105 km3; Zaitsev & Mamaev 1997) Salinity, (Temperature) 18%o 21-22%o (5-25oC) (8-9oC)
    • 5. 1) The Black Sea ecosystem: Comparative Fertility & Fish Landings of the Black Sea and Mediterranean Source: SeaWiFS Mediterranean Black Sea Area 2.5 0.5 (million km2) Productivity 385 882 (mgC·m²/day)
    • 6. 2) Regional Environmental Problems: from Transboundary Diagnostic Analyses 1996, 2007 • Eutrophication • Overfishing • Loss or change of biodiversity, including invasive species • Pollution including oil
    • 7. Eutrophication Large drainage area and nutrient-rich riverine input in the BS
    • 8. Impact of eutrophication
    • 9. Ref: Zaitsev Loss of biodiversity
    • 10. Invasive species: Mnemiopsis leidyi in the Black Sea in the late 1980s
    • 11. 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 1968 1970 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 Years 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Mnemiopsiswetweight(g/m2) IMPACT OF AN INVASIVE JELYFISH: Relationship between the decrease in Turkish anchovy catch (Ktons) and Mnemiopsis outburst About 300 K tons of anchovy catch vs 800 million tons of ML !! Kideys, Science 2000 More than 1 billion Euro damage to Fisheries economies in the BS
    • 12. Overfishing
    • 13. •Oil Pollution •The total amount of production is expected to increase approximately to 211 mta by 2010 with 154 mta actually going through the Black Sea and Turkish Straits (Oral 2008).
    • 14. 5 ship sunk 8 sailors dead Volgoneft-139 1.300 tons of heavy fuel + 6800 tons technical sulfur Kerch Oil Spill, (11th Nov 2007) 180 km of coast line damaged, more than 5000 birds perished
    • 15. Extreme Wave Prior to Kerch Accident, (11th Nov 2007) Strong wind upto 35 m/sec
    • 16. Drifter (click for movie) Strong currents of the Black Sea (ref: State of Environment Report 2008)
    • 17. Drifter (click for movie) Strong currents of the Black Sea calls for “regional approach” (ref: State of Environment Report 2008) • Sea possess no physical borders! • Most marine problems are transboundary and require collective action • Environment, the easiest area of cooperation
    • 18. 3) Regional Environmental Governance & Cooperation
    • 19. Regional governance in the wider Black Sea area • Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC) and its related bodies (since 25 June 1992): – primarily to promote economic and trade activities in the broader Black Sea region – 6 BS coastal countries plus Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Greece, Serbia and Moldova
    • 20. The Convention on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution The first regional environmental agreement signed by all Black Sea coastal countries (i.e. Bulgaria, Georgia, Romania, Russian Federation, Turkey and Ukraine) 23 Feb 1993 1 Oct 1993 10 Nov 1993 16 Nov 1993 29 Mar 1994 14 Apr 1994 •Signed in 21 April 1992, Bucharest, Romania (hence Bucharest Convention) The Regional Legal Framework solely on marine environment:
    • 21. Protocols to the convention Pollution related • Land based sources • Cooperation in emergency situations • Dumping And • Black Sea Biodiversity and Landscape Conservation Protocol (not in force yet)
    • 22. •Signed 31 October 1996 (commemorated as the Black Sea Day) • adopted by all Black Sea countries •Updated in April 2009; The Strategic Action Plan for the Rehabilitation and Protection of the Black Sea The Legal Framework:
    • 23. Black Sea Commission (BSC), Oct 2000 •BSC is the regional governing body of the Bucharest Convention Premises of the Permanent Secretariat in Istanbul EC, BSEC, ICPDR have observer status in the Black Sea Commission
    • 24. BSC has been very active during last years Strategic Action Plan revised Protocol on Land-Based Sources of Pollution revised ...... Ministerial Meeting, Sofia, 17 Apr 2009
    • 25. • Environmental Safety of Shipping - Starting the Port State Control, Contingency Plan; Regular drills of communication officers, DELTA exercise in Turkey and Romania, EU- MONINFO Project • Fisheries and Other Marine Living Resources - assessment methodologies, Fish list, Fisheries Indicators, LBD Legal document on fisheries; • Conservation of Biodiversity – Related Protocol, Development of its Annexes, Conservation Plan for Marine Mammals, Development of Marine protected areas, habitat mapping; • Land-based Sources of Pollution Management – Updating the LBSA Protocol, Hot spots, Close work with ICPDR for nutrients input. • Pollution Monitoring and Assessment -BSIMAP, Harmonization, Bathing Water, Marine Litter. Development of indicators. • Integrated Coastal Zone Management -Development of ICZM Strategy, PEGASO Project BSC: Strategic Action Plan Implementation
    • 26. EC- DG Environment / EMSA / JRC ICPDR EEA BSEC UNDP / UNEP / GEF Other sister conventions Private sector NGOs etc. Success is due to increased cooperation
    • 27. Examples of Cooperation (with EC):
    • 28. Cooperation with EC, e.g. MONINFO Project (Monitoring and Information System for Reducing Oil Pollution) Ship B Ship A Possible Oil Slick Detected Satellite Acquisition Time UTC ENVISAT 2010-09-25 07:54:53.983 Satellite scene coordinates 44°36'45"N / 031°48'03"E 43°53'35"N / 036°53'38"E 41°07'24"N / 031°01'21"E 40°24'29"N / 035°50'14"E Number of detected oil slicks Frame ID 4 20100920006 Comments N/A
    • 29. Examples of cooperation:  Oil spill preparedness exercises in Sep 2007, Aug 2009, next in Georgia in 2011
    • 30. Examples of cooperation (with UNDP, WWF, CocaCola): Black Sea Education Box
    • 31. Examples of cooperation (with ICPDR): Chemical spill accident in Hungary
    • 32. Examples of cooperation (with Scientific Community): Biannual Black Sea Conferences 2008 Jointly with BS-SCENE PROJECT, Sofia INSTITUTE OF OCEANOLOGY GEF UNDP - BSERP BALKAN ENVIRONMENT ASSOCIATION TUDAV ISTANBUL UNIVERSITY BRITISH EMBASSY TURKISH GOVERNMENT UNDER THE AUSPICES of Ministry of Environment and Water Bulgaria Bulgarian Academy of Sciences Next Conference will be in Istanbul during 1-4 Nov 2011
    • 33. Examples of cooperation (with all partners and NGOs): International Black Sea Day 31 Oct 2010, Trabzon Turkey  Eight panels on the Black Sea environment  Black Sea Medals ceremony  The "Black Sea Education Box“  Black Sea songs concert  Miscelleanous NGO activities  Private companies exhibitions on emergency response  Poster presentations  Underwater photography exhibition  Etc..
    • 34. 4) Current “State of Environment”
    • 35. Black Sea Integrated Monitoring and Assessment Programme (BSIMAP) • Implemented since 2001. • Build on established national monitoring programmes • The main purpose of the BSIMAP is to provide data for the state of the environment (SOE) reporting, impact assessments of major pollutant sources, and for transboundary diagnostic analysis (TDA).
    • 36. 4) Current “State of Environment” Mandatory parameters Frequency Optional parameters Frequency T° 4 pH (site-specific) Salinity 4 BOD5 (site-specific) O2 (saturation and dissolved) 4 TOC 4 TSS (filter 0.45 µm) 4 H2S 4 Secchi 4 P (PO4) 4 P total 4 N (NH4) 4 N (NO3) 4 N (NO2) 4 N, Total 4 SiO4 4 Problem: Eutrophication. Sampling media: Water BSIMAP monitoring requirements
    • 37. 4) Current “State of Environment” 2008 – State of the Environment of the Black Sea Report 61 scientists have prepared detail description of all components of the Black Sea ecosystem
    • 38. 4) Current “State of Environment” : No more mass mortalities due to hypoxia
    • 39. Nutrient loads from Danube phosphate loads from the Danube River was halved compared to the previous 5 year period, thanks to the efforts of the Danube countries, the EU, International Commission for the Protection of the Danube River (ICPDR), and the DABLAS Task Force 4) Current “State of Environment”: Nutrient inputs are decreasing
    • 40. 4) Current “State of Environment”: Biodiversity increasing Algal diversity in Zernov’s Phyllophora field (ref: SoE Report of the Black Sea Commission, 2008).
    • 41. 4) Current “State of Environment”: Ecosystem efficiency increasing 1967 1972 1977 1982 1987 1992 1997 2002 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 PhitoplanktonBiomass,mgm-3 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 SmallPelagicFishstock,kt 0 I II III IV V VI Periods: Pristine Eutrophication Crisis Post- End of the 1990s- Q-factor: 1.45 1.25 0.70 0.45 0.20 0.51 1.00 Phytoplankton Biomass SPF stock: measured and calculated Phy top lankton Biomass and Small P elagic Fish Stock in the Black Sea crisis beginning of the 2000s From Prof Shulman, Trabzon 2010
    • 42. Next examples: Climate change, Ballast water management, Oil spill management 5) Environmental Priorities Revisited
    • 43. Air Temperature 0,60 ± 0,20 oС higher than average value of the XX century by 2000 0,74 ± 0,18 oС higher by 2005 5 5,5 6 6,5 7 7,5 8 8,5 9 9,5 10 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 TemperatureCIL 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 TemperatureUQL T-CIL Т-UQL Линейный (T- CIL) Линейный (Т- Data of Hydrophysics lab SB IORAS (2010) Sea Temperature Around 0.5 oС increase in 20 years 5) Environmental Priorities Revisited: Climate Change
    • 44. Exotic (Atlantic-Mediterranean) fishes registered in the Black Sea during last decade Micromesistius poutassou Sarpa salpa Syngnathus acus Gobius xanthocephalus Gobius cruentatus Parablennius incognitus Sphyraena pinguis 5) Environmental Priorities Revisited: Climate Change
    • 45. Nodularia spumigena – toxic blue-green algae (biomas 8 kg*m-3). Microcystis aeruginosa – blue-green algae Dneper-Bug liman Odessa Bay Nodularia spumigena Microcystis aeruginosa Spirulina laxissima Very high water temperature in summer up to 31 oC in July 2010 in NW BS 5) Environmental Priorities Revisited: Climate Change + Ballast waters?
    • 46. Appearence of new alien species Chrysaora hysoscella 2009 Bolinopsis vitrea 2009 From Prof Alexandrov, Trabzon 2010 5) Environmental Priorities Revisited: Climate Change + Ballast waters?
    • 47. SAP2009 Promote ratification of the Ballast Water Management Convention in the Black Sea Harmonise Ballast Water procedures Odesa Ballast Meeting, July 2010 5) Environmental Priorities Revisited: Ballast waters Management
    • 48. Total volume of BW discharge – 100 mln t/year 5) Environmental Priorities Revisited: Ballast waters Management
    • 49. MONINFO Project (Monitoring and Information System for Reducing Oil Pollution) START : 01 January 2009 END : 31 December 2011 EU Co-funded, Total Budget: 2.36 Million Euro Three Work Packages: • WP1. Information System development • WP2. Monitoring System development • WP3. Capacity Building 5) Environmental Priorities Revisited: Dealing better with Oil spills
    • 50. Correlation with ship’s location (AIS) data for detecting the polluter Satellite reception (within 30 min) Ship B Ship A Modeling of currents 5) Environmental Priorities Revisited: Dealing better with Oil spills MONINFO project
    • 51. MONINFO SATELLLITE SUMMARY: Month # Images # Detections # Reports August 7 27 2 September 7 23 4 October 7 9 0 Total 21 59 6 4 BS users – Bulgaria/Georgia/Romania/Turkey 21 Images = 59 Detections + 6 Feedback Reports 0 Anomalies; 0 Cancellations High: 5 Medium: 21 Low: 33 27% 5% 10% 2% 56% Spill Location 1 2 3 4 5 N/A: 33 Romania: 1 Georgia: 3 Turkey: 16 Bulgaria: 6 Waiting for Ukraine and Russia to join to this free service... 5) Environmental Priorities Revisited: Ballast waters Management
    • 52. HELCOM AIS serverNorth Sea AIS server Mediterranean AIS server STIRES server Black Sea Server Northern N.Atlantic server Groenland Feroe. IslandCanada with Oil spills – Regional AIS
    • 53. THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENION • www.blacksea-commission.org