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Black Sea Environment (Kideys/Myroshnychenko)






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  • Good Morning. Dear Ministers, Ladies and Gentlemen, Thanks to Ukranian government for including “environment” in the agenda of this economical forum; this is a clear indication of valuing the Black Sea ecosystem by the Ukranian government. Therfeore, I am also grateful to the host country for giving me opportunity of speaking on the extraordinary Black Sea ecosystem and for their hospitality in this historical city.
  • Black Sea has world’s largest volume of anoxic waters. The reasons for it: the Water Exchange (a) between BS-Med (b) between surface and deep waters
  • T he B l ack Sea catchments more than 2 millions km2. So modeling the full catchment will be the biggest data and processing challenge that the enviroGRIDS project will face.
  • A brief overview of the basic institutional structure of the Commission on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution established under the Bucharest Convention. The Commission on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution The Permanent Secretariat 7 Advisory Groups + ad hoc Advisory Group on the WFD and Joint Danube Black Sea Technical Working Group (not shown) Formation and nominations of other groups is possible –with a decision of the Black Sea Commission. Regional Activity Centers in the 6 Black Sea countries and 6 National focal points in each country (on shipping, pollution monitoring and assessment, land based sources, integrated coastal zone management, fisheries and marine living resources, and information and data management in the Permanent Secretariat).
  • There are many many examples of cooperation activities
  • The se are first two regional (Delta) exercise s, A major milestone and investment in the region’s preparedness for oil spill accidents
  • With UNDP, WWF, CocaCola
  • Her iki donemin toplam butcesi 2. 36 milyon Euro Projede birde Bulgar vatandasi calisiyor Buna ilave olarak danismanlik yada hizmet alimi seklindede calisiyoruz

Black Sea Environment (Kideys/Myroshnychenko) Presentation Transcript

  • 1. PRIORITIES OF THE BLACK SEA ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES PROTECTION The Black Sea Economic Forum 26-27 November 2010, Yalta , Ukraine Prof Dr Ahmet E. KIDEY Ş Executive Director Permanent Secretariat Commission on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution www.blacksea-commission.org
  • 2. Content
    • 1) The Black Sea ecosystem
    • 2) Regional Environmental Problems
    • 3) Regional Environmental Governance & Cooperation
    • 4) Current “State of Environment”
    • 5) Environmental Priorities Revisited
  • 3. 1) The Black Sea ecosystem
    • Most interesting
    • The youngest
    • Noah’s flood?
    An extraordinary sea
  • 4. 1) The Black Sea ecosystem : Bathymetry & Anoxia (5.5 x10 5 km 3 ; Zaitsev & Mamaev 1997) Salinity , (Temperature) 18% o 21-22%o (5-25 o C) (8-9 o C)
  • 5.
    • The Black Sea ecosystem : Comparative Fertility & Fish Landings of the Black Sea and Mediterranean
    Source: SeaWiFS Mediterranean Black Sea Area 2.5 0.5 (million km 2 ) Productivity   385 882 (mgC·m²/day)  
  • 6. 2) Regional Environmental Problems: from Transboundary Diagnostic Analyses 1996, 2007
    • Eutrophication
    • Overfishing
    • Loss or change of biodiversity, including invasive species
    • Pollution including oil
  • 7. Eutrophication Large drainage area and nutrient-rich riverine input in the BS
  • 8. Impact of eutrophication
  • 9. Ref: Zaitsev Loss of biodiversity
  • 10. Invasive species: Mnemiopsis leidyi in the Black Sea in the late 1980s
  • 11. IMPACT OF AN INVASIVE JELYFISH: Relationship between the decrease in Turkish anchovy catch (Ktons) and Mnemiopsis outburst About 300 K tons of anchovy catch vs 800 million tons of ML !! Kideys, Science 2000 More than 1 billion Euro damage to Fisheries economies in the BS
  • 12. Overfishing
  • 13.
    • Oil Pollution
    • The total amount of production is expected to increase approximately to 211 mta by 2010 with 154 mta actually going through the Black Sea and Turkish Straits (Oral 2008).
  • 14. 5 ship sunk 8 sailors dead Volgoneft-139 1.300 tons of heavy fuel + 6800 tons technical sulfur Kerch Oil Spill, (11 th Nov 200 7 ) 180 km of coast line damaged , more than 5000 birds perished
  • 15. Extreme Wave Prior to Kerch Accident , (11 th Nov 200 7 ) Strong wind upto 35 m/sec
  • 16. Drifter (click for movie) Strong c urrents of the Black Sea (ref: State of Environment Report 2008)
  • 17.
    • S ea possess no physical borders!
    • Most marine problems are transboundary and require collective action
    • Environment, the easiest area of cooperation
    Drifter (click for movie) Strong c urrents of the Black Sea calls for “regional approach” (ref: State of Environment Report 2008)
  • 18. 3) Regional Environmental Governance & Cooperation
  • 19. Regional governance in the wider Black Sea area
    • Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC) and its related bodies (since 25 June 1992):
      • primarily to promote economic and trade activities in the broader Black Sea region
      • 6 BS coastal countries plus Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Greece, Serbia and Moldova
  • 20. The Convention on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution The first regional environmental agreement signed by all Black Sea coastal countries (i.e. Bulgaria, Georgia, Romania, Russian Federation, Turkey and Ukraine) 23 Feb 1993 1 Oct 1993 10 Nov 1993 16 Nov 1993 29 Mar 1994 14 Apr 1994
    • Signed in 21 April 1992, Bucharest, Romania (hence Bucharest Convention)
    The Regional Legal Framework solely on marine environment:
  • 21. Protocols to the convention
    • Pollution related
    • Land based sources
    • Cooperation in emergency situations
    • Dumping
    • And
    • Black Sea Biodiversity and Landscape Conservation Protocol  (not in force yet)
  • 22.
    • Signed 31 October 1996 (commemorated as the Black Sea Day)
    • adopted by all Black Sea countries
    • Updated in April 2009 ;
    The Strategic Action Plan for the Rehabilitation and Protection of the Black Sea The Legal Framewor k:
  • 23. Black Sea Commission (BSC) , Oct 2000
    • BSC is the regional governing body of the Bucharest Convention
    Premises of the Permanent Secretariat in Istanbul EC , BSEC, ICPDR ha ve observer status in the Black Sea Commission
  • 24. BSC has been very active during last years Strategic Action Plan revised Protocol on Land-Based Sources of Pollution revised ...... Ministerial Meeting, Sofia, 17 Apr 2009
  • 25.
    • Environmental Safety of Shipping - Starting the Port State Control , Contingency Plan ; Regular drills of communication officers, DELTA exercise in Turkey and Romania , EU-MONINFO Project
    • Fisheries and Other Marine Living Resources - assessment methodologies, Fish list, Fisheries Indicators, LBD Legal document on fisheries;
        • Conservation of Biodiversity – Related Protocol, Development of its Annexes , Conservation Plan for Marine Mammals , Development of Marine protected areas , habitat mapping ;
    • Land-based Sources of Pollution Management – Updating the LBSA Protocol , Hot spots, Close work with ICPDR for nutrients input.
    • Pollution Monitoring and Assessment - BSIMAP, Harmonization , Bathing Water, Marine Litter. Development of indicators.
    • Integrated Coastal Zone Management - Development of ICZM Strategy , PEGASO Project
    BSC: Strategic Action Plan Implementation
  • 26.
      • EC - DG Environment / EMSA / JRC
      • ICPDR
      • EEA
      • BSEC
      • UNDP / UNEP / GEF
      • Other sister conventions
      • Private sector
      • NGOs etc.
    Success is due to increased cooperation
  • 27. Examples of Cooperation (with EC):
  • 28. Cooperation with EC, e.g. MONINFO Project ( Monitoring and Information System for Reducing Oil Pollution ) Ship B Ship A
  • 29. Examples of cooperation:
    • Oil spill preparedness exercise s in Sep 2007 , Aug 2009, next in Georgia in 2011
  • 30. Examples of cooperation (with UNDP, WWF, CocaCola): Black Sea Education Box
  • 31. Examples of cooperation (with ICPDR): Chemical spill a ccident in Hungary
  • 32. Examples of cooperation (with Scientific Community): Biannual Black Sea Conference s 2008 Jointly with BS-SCENE PROJECT , Sofia INSTITUTE OF OCEANOLOGY GEF UNDP - BSERP BALKAN ENVIRONMENT ASSOCIATION TUDAV ISTANBUL UNIVERSITY BRITISH EMBASSY TURKISH GOVERNMENT UNDER THE AUSPICE S of Ministry of Environment and Water Bulgaria Bulgarian Academy of Sciences Next Conference will be in Istanbul during 1-4 Nov 2011
  • 33. Examples of cooperation (with all partners and NGOs): International Black Sea Day 31 Oct 2010, Trabzon Turkey
    • Eight panels on the Black Sea environment
    • Black Sea Medals ceremony
    • The "Black Sea Education Box“
    • Black Sea songs concert
    • Miscelleanous NGO activities
    • Private companies exhibitions on emergency response
    • Poster presentations
    • Underwater photography exhibition
    • Etc..
  • 34. 4) Current “State of Environment”
  • 35. Black Sea Integrated Monitoring and Assessment Programme (BSIMAP)
    • Implemented since 2001.
    • Build on established national monitoring programmes
    • The main purpose of the BSIMAP is to provide data for the state of the environment (SOE) reporting, impact assessments of major pollutant sources, and for transboundary diagnostic analysis (TDA).
  • 36. 4) Current “State of Environment” Problem: Eutrophication . Sampling media: Water BSIMAP monitoring requirements Mandatory parameters Frequency Optional parameters Frequency T° 4 pH (site-specific)   Salinity 4 BOD5 (site-specific)   O2 (saturation and dissolved) 4 TOC 4 TSS (filter 0.45 µm) 4 H2S 4 Secchi 4     P (PO4) 4     P total 4     N (NH4) 4     N (NO3) 4     N (NO2) 4     N, Total 4     SiO4 4    
  • 37. 4) Current “State of Environment” 2008 – State of the Environment of the Black Se a Report 61 scientists have prepared detail description of all components of the Black Sea ecosystem
  • 38. 4) Current “State of Environment” : No more mass mortalities due to hypoxia
  • 39. 4) Current “State of Environment”: Nutrient inputs are decreasing Nutrient loads from Danube phosphate loads from the Danube River was halved compared to the previous 5 year period, thanks to the efforts of the Danube countries, the EU, International Commission for the Protection of the Danube River (ICPDR), and the DABLAS Task Force
  • 40. 4) Current “State of Environment”: Biodiversity increasing Algal diversity in Zernov’s Phyllophora field ( ref: SoE Report of the Black Sea Commission , 2008).
  • 41. 4) Current “State of Environment”: Ecosystem efficiency increasing From Prof Shulman, Trabzon 2010
  • 42. Next examples: Climate change, Ballast water management, Oil spill management 5) Environmental Priorities Revisited
  • 43. A ir T emperature 0,60 ± 0,20 o С higher than average value of the XX century by 2000 0,74 ± 0,18 o С higher by 2005 Data of Hydrophysics lab SB IORAS (2010) Sea Temperature Around 0.5 o С increase in 20 years 5) Environmental Priorities Revisited: Climate Change
  • 44. Exotic (Atlantic-Mediterranean) fishes registered in the Black Sea during last decade Micromesistius poutassou Sarpa salpa Syngnathus acus Gobius xanthocephalus Gobius cruentatus Parablennius incognitus Sphyraena pinguis 5) Environmental Priorities Revisited: Climate Change
  • 45. Nodularia spumigena – toxic blue-green algae (biomas 8 kg*m -3 ). Microcystis aeruginosa – blue-green algae Dneper-Bug liman Odessa Bay Nodularia spumigena Microcystis aeruginosa Spirulina laxissima Very high water temperature in summer up to 31 o C in July 2010 in NW BS 5) Environmental Priorities Revisited: Climate Change + Ballast waters?
  • 46. Appearence of new alien species Chrysaora hysoscella 2009 Bolinopsis vitrea 2009 From Prof Alexandrov, Trabzon 2010 5) Environmental Priorities Revisited: Climate Change + Ballast waters?
  • 47. SAP200 9
    • Promote ratification of the Ballast Water Management Convention in the Black Sea
    • Harmonise Ballast Water procedures
    Odesa Ballast Meeting, July 2010 5) Environmental Priorities Revisited: Ballast waters Management
  • 48. Total volume of BW discharge – 100 mln t/year 5) Environmental Priorities Revisited: Ballast waters Management
  • 49. MONINFO Project ( Monitoring and Information System for Reducing Oil Pollution )
    • START : 01 January 2009
    • END : 31 December 201 1
    • EU Co-funded, Total Budget: 2.36 Million Euro
    • Three Work Packages:
    • WP1. Information System development
    • WP2. Monitoring System development
    • WP3. Capacity Building
    5) Environmental Priorities Revisited: Dealing better with Oil spills
  • 50. Correlation with ship’s location ( AIS ) data for detecting the polluter Satellite reception (within 30 min) Modeling of currents 5) Environmental Priorities Revisited: Dealing better with Oil spills MONINFO project Ship B Ship A
  • 51. MONINFO SATELLLITE SUMMARY: 4 BS users – Bulgaria/Georgia/Romania/Turkey 21 Images = 59 Detections + 6 Feedback Reports 0 Anomalies; 0 Cancellations Waiting for Ukraine and Russia to join to this free service... 5) Environmental Priorities Revisited: Ballast waters Management Month # Images # Detections # Reports August 7 27 2 September 7 23 4 October 7 9 0 Total 21 59 6 High: 5 Medium: 21 Low: 33
  • 52. HELCOM AIS server North Sea AIS server Mediterranean AIS server STIRES server Black Sea Server Northern N.Atlantic server Groenland Feroe. Island Canada 5) Environmental Priorities Revisited: Dealing better with Oil spills – Regional AIS
  • 53. THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENION www.blacksea-commission.org