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History of indıgo.

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denim , denim washing , wintage denim , denim book , indigo , indigo dye , indigo dyeing , stone washing , enzyme , history of jeans , history of jeans , indigo dyeing , stone washing , enzyme , enzyme washing , garment processing

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    History of indıgo. History of indıgo. Document Transcript

    • d   n  m   o   k   1 e   i   b   o  DENIMIST  2011   DNMSTDENIMDESINGFASHIONARTLIFE   DB DENIM BOOK D E N I M I S T
    • DB DENIM B O O K DENIMIST T U R K E Y  Since   decades   Denimist   has   developed   know-­‐how   in   denim   finishing   prior   to  garment   manufacturing   and   also   in   jeans   washing.   Our   customers   derive  benefit   from   this   experience.For   the   fabric   production   we   offer   finishing  chemicals   which   provide   the   demanded   fabric   properties   such   as   good  sewability,   stiffness,elasticity   and   handle.   The   other   field   of   our   activity   is   the  recommendation   of   laundring   Procedures   for   ready-­‐made   clothing   such   as  trousers,  jackets  or  skirts,  shirts.  In   doing   so   we   have   learned   that   many   errors   may   occur   in   this   complicated  production   process.  The   laundry,   the   last   step   in   the   sequence   of     producers,   is  faced   to   difficulties   which   are   caused   by   previous   inaccuracies.   Therefore,   a  good   cooperation   among   the   steps   of   jeans   manufacturing   is   required   to   avoid  problems.  Fabric  producer,  garment  manufacturer  and  laundries  have  to  work  together   to   obtain   the   desired   end   result.   By   means   of   our   contacts   on   both  sides  of  the  production  process  we  are  able  to  make  our  contribution.  The   technical   stuff   of   Denimist     is   always   ready   to   help   our   customers   with  eventual   problems   and   to   modify   production   procedures   according   to   the  respective   requirements.  Through   our   numerous   contacts   which   we   have   got  with  denim  producers,  garment  manufacturers  and  laundries  during  the  years  we  support  the  team  work  among  all  sections  of  the  jeans  chain  and  make  our  know-­‐how    available  to  all  of  the  parties  concerned    
    • DBDENIM B O O KHistory  of  Natural  Indigo  A   variety   of   plants   have   provided   indigo   throughout   history,   but   most   natural  indigo  is  obtained  from  those  in  the  genus  Indigofera,  which  are  native  to  the  tropics.   In   temperate   climates   indigo   can   also   be   obtained   from   woad   (Isatis  tinctoria)  and  dyers  knotweed  (Polygonumtinctorum).    The   primary   commercial   indigo   species   in   Asia   was   true   indigo   (Indigofera  tinctoria,   also   known   as   Indigofera   sumatrana).   In  Central   and   South  America  the   two   species   Indigofera   suffruticosa   (Anil)   and   Indigofera   arrecta   (Natal  indigo)  were  the  most  important.    The  plants  of  the  genus  Indigofera  produce  a  much  stronger  dye  that  those  of  the   Isatis   (woad)   family;   however,   dyer’s   woad   is   much   more   easily   cultivated  and  therefore  more  widely  used  than  Indigofera,  which  needs  a  tropical  climate.  Isatis  tinctoria  grows  up  to  approximately  1.50  m  in  height  and  can  be  harvested  three  times  a  year.  Preparation  of  indigo  dye  with  Indigofera  tinctoria.  A   variety   of   plants   have   provided   indigo   throughout   history,   but   most   natural  indigo  is  obtained  from  those  in  the  genus  Indigofera,  which  are  native  to  the  tropics.   In   temperate   climates   indigo   can   also   be   obtained   from   woad   (Isatis  tinctoria)  and  dyers  knotweed  (Polygonumtinctorum).    The   primary   commercial   indigo   species   in   Asia   was   true   indigo   (Indigofera  tinctoria,   also   known   as   Indigofera   sumatrana).   In  Central   and   South  America  the   two   species   Indigofera   suffruticosa   (Anil)   and   Indigofera   arrecta   (Natal  indigo)  were  the  most  important.    The  plants  of  the  genus  Indigofera  produce  a  much  stronger  dye  that  those  of  the   Isatis   (woad)   family;   however,   dyer’s   woad   is   much   more   easily   cultivated  and  therefore  more  widely  used  than  Indigofera,  which  needs  a  tropical  climate.  Isatis  tinctoria  grows  up  to  approximately  1.50  m  in  height  and  can  be  harvested  three  times  a  year.  
    • DB DENIM B O O KFour  months  after  planting  the  seeds  the  leaves  of  the  indigo  plant  start  turning  dark   green   which   indicates   good   quality   dye.   The   plants   are   cut   off   and   made  into  small  bundles.The  leaves  are  then  soaked  in  a  large  earthenware  jar  filled  with   water   and   left   to   be   fermented   in   order   to   convert   the   glycoside   indican  which  is  naturally  present  in  the  plant  to  the  blue  dye  indigotin.    The   precipitate   from   the   fermented   leaf   solution   is   mixed   with   a   strong   base  such   as   lye,   pressed   into   cakes,   dried,   and   powdered.  The   powder   is   then   mixed  with   various   other   substances   to   produce   different   shades   of   blue   and  purple.Four   months   after   planting   the   seeds   the   leaves   of   the   indigo   plant   start  turning  dark  green  which  indicates  good  quality  dye.  The  plants  are  cut  off  and  made  into  small  bundles.The  leaves  are  then  soaked  in  a  large  earthenware  jar  filled   with   water   and   left   to   be   fermented   in   order   to   convert   the   glycoside  indican  which  is  naturally  present  in  the  plant  to  the  blue  dye  indigotin.     DENIMIST
    • DBDENIM B O O KThe   precipitate   from   the   fermented   leaf   solution   is   mixed   with   a   strong   base  such   as   lye,   pressed   into   cakes,   dried,   and   powdered.  The   powder   is   then   mixed  with  various  other  substances  to  produce  different  shades  of  blue  and  purple.  Indigofera  Tinctoria  in  History  The  name  indigo  comes  from    the    Roman        term    indicum,    which    means    a  product      of    India.This    is    somewhat    of    a    misnomer    since    the    plant    is    grown  in    many    areas      of    the    world,    including     Asia,    Java,    Japan,    and     Central  America.    Another     ancient       term     for     the     dye     is     nil     from     which     the    Arabic  term    For    blue,    al-­‐nil,    is    derived.    The      English    word    aniline    comes    from    the  same    source.    The     color     indigo,     often     associated     with     political     power     or     religious     ritual,  has       held     a     Significant     Place     in     many     world     civilizations     such     as  Mesopotamia,    Egypt,          Greece,    Rome,    Mesoamerica,    Iran,    and    Africa    for  thousands    of    years.    In    the      excavation    of    Thebes    an    indigo    Garment    dating  from    c.    2500    B.C.    was    found,    for      example      example        furthermore,    the    Hindu    god  Krishna    is    most    often    depicted    in    blue,      human    Sacrifices    were       DENIMIST
    • DBDENIM B O O Koften   painted   blue     in     ancient       mayan     culture,     and     the       Virgin     Mary     is    regularly   imagined   draped     in     blue   clothes     in  Christian     art.     In       Mesopotamia,    a     Neo   -­‐Babylonian   cuneiform     tablet   of     the     7th     century   BC           gives     a     recipe    for    the  dyeing    of  wool,    where    lapis-­‐colored  wool    (uqnatu)    is          Produced    by    repeated    immersion    and    airing    of  the    cloth.      The    dye    is    first    mentioned    in    a    written    source    for    Western    Europe    in    The      histories     of   Herodotus     writing     around     450     B.C.),     who     described     its     use     in  the  mediterranean    area.  The    Romans    used        merchants.  Indigo     plant     used     to     be       planted     in     Khuzestan     and     other    Southernregions    of  Iran    too.    It    was    at    the  time  of  the  Crusades,  however,    that  indigo    became    one   of     the     valued     “spices”     That     Italian     merchants     acquired     in    Cyprus,  Alexandria   and     Baghdad.  These     cities     were     themselves     end   points     for    caravans    from    the  Far    East.    But    the    trade    in    indigo    dye    only    became    a    Commercial     force     after   1498     with     the     opening       of     the     sea     route     to     India  this   is   not   to   say   that   Europeans   had   no  Other  Way   of   obtaining   deep   blue   dye.  The  woad  plant,  native  to  northern  Italy,  southern  France,  And  parts  of  England    and   Germany,  yielded  indigo-­‐colored  dye  from  its  leaves,  but  it  was  inferior  to  that  Obtained  from  the  indigo  plant.  This   is   not   to   say   that   Europeans   had   no   other  Way   of   obtaining   deep   blue   dye.  The  woad  plant,  native  to  northern  Italy,  southern  France,  And  parts  of  England  and   Germany,  yielded  indigo-­‐colored  dye  from  its  leaves,  but  it  was  inferior  to  that   obtained   from   the   indigo   plant   quite   naturally,   the   woad   -­‐growers   of  Europe   (both   peasants   and   princes)   sought   to   protect   their   industry   against   the  influx  of  affordable  indigo  in  the  16th  century.  In  1598  indigo  was  prohibited  in  France   and   parts   of   Germany,   and   dyers   had   to   swear,   often   on   the   pain   of  death,  that  they  would  not  use  that  dye.    Nevertheless,  in  the  17th  century  indigo  became  one  of  the  chief  articles  of  trade  of   both   the   Dutch   and   the   British   East   India  Companies.     Dauril  Alden   argues  that,   in   fact,   the   indigo   supplies   in   India   were   not   sufficient   to   meet   the  European   demand   in   the   17th   century   and   that   is   why   indigo   cultivation   was  taken  up  in  the  New  World  as  well.    
    • DBDENIM B O O KIn   Japan,   indigo   became   especially   important   in   the   Edo   period   ,,   also   called  Tokugawa  period,  is  a  division  of  Japanese  history  running  from  1603  to  1868)  when   it   was   forbidden   to   use   silk,   so   the  Japanese   began   to   import   and   plant  cotton.   It   was   difficult   to   dye   the   cotton   fiber   except   with   indigo.   Many   years  later   the   use   of   indigo   is   very   much   appreciated   as   a   color   for   the   summer  Kimono  Yukata,   as   the   blue   sea   and   the   nature   are   recalled   on   this   traditional  clothing.  An   indigenous   variety   of   indigo   began   to   be   cultivated   by  Spanish   overseers   on  the   plantations   of   Honduras   and   the   Pacific   slopes   of   Central   America   in   the  1560s.   The   indigo   plant   was   known   to   early   Guatemalan   colonialists   by   the  Nahuatl   word   xiquilite,   and   the   dye   was   known   to   contemporaries   as  “Guatemalan  Indigo.”  M.  De  Beauvais  Raseau,  writing  about  indigo  cultivation  in   the   Eighteenth  Century,   stated   that   the   Native  Americans   also   knew   about  extracting  from  the  plant.     DENIMIST
    • DBDENIM B O O KThey  called  it  “Tlauhoylimihuitl”  and  used  it  to  darken  their  hair.  It  seems  that  indigo  production  continued  to  increase  throughout  the  17th  century  in  the  New  World.   The   French   colony   of   Saint   Domingo   eventually   became   the   major  producer  of  indigo,  and  this  dye  was  also  of  the  best  quality.  The  English  gained  their   first   indigo-­‐producing   colony   in   this   part   of   the   world   in   1655   when   they  captured  Jamaica   DENIMIST Engraving  of  an  indigo  plantation  in  the  French  West  Indies,  1760s   This   engraving   shows   slaves   engaged   in   various   jobs   associated   with   indigo   production.  The   steps   are   identified   by   number   in   the   engraving;   an   accompanying   explanation   in   the   text   in   French   describes   each   number.   For   example,   no.   8,  slave  who  carries  the  indigo  plants  into  the  storage  tank  or  steeping  trough;  no.  9,  slave  who  agitate/stir  the  indigo   plants  in  the  steeping  trough  with  baskets  attached  to  the  end  of  poles);  no.  10,  indigo  plants.   M.  Chambon,  Le  commerce  de  l’Amerique  par  Marseille  (Avignon,  1764),  I:365.  
    • DB DENIM B O O KHowever,   it   is   unclear   how   important   New  World   indigo   was   in   the   worldwide  indigo   market,   as   prices   fluctuated   and   so   did   production   numbers.   By   1740  sugar  had  replaced  indigo  as  the  main  crop  of   Jamaica,  but,  on  the  other  hand,  this  was  also  the  beginning  of  the  indigo  boom  in   South  Carolina  it  seems  that  “Guatemalan   indigo”   did   not   enjoy   as   high   a   reputation   in   Europe   as   indigo  from   Asian   countries.   In   1746,   when   “A   Friend   to   Carolina”   wrote   his   tract  encouraging   the   cultivation   of   indigo   in   South   Carolina   he   emphasized   the  necessity   of   establishing   a   superior   product:   “All   Kinds   [of   indigo   dyes]   are  better   or   worse,   as   they   are   neat   or   pure;   for   those   who   make   it   in  America,  often  maliciously  mix  it  with  Sand  and  Dirt,  but  the   Cheat  is  easily  discovered;  as  Indigo  that  is  fine  and  pure  will  burn  like  Wax,  and,  when  burnt,  the  Earth  or  Sand  will  remain.”  He  pointed  out  that  in  the    Americas  indigo  dye  was  o6en  made  with  the  stems  and  branches  of  the  plant  instead  of  just  with  the  leaves.  He  felt  that  this  too  might  be  detrimental  to  its  quality   -­‐   “But   one   ought   to   have   the   Leisure   and   PaHence   of   the   Indians,   to  undertake   such   a   Work   [stripping   the   leaves],   and   have   Workmen   as   cheap   as  they   are   in   that   Country.”   He   pointed   out   that   in   the   Americas   indigo   dye   was  o6en   made   with   the   stems   and   branches   of   the   plant   instead   of   just   with   the  leaves.    He  felt  that  this  too  might  be  detrimental  to  its  quality  —  “But  one  ought  to  have  the   Leisure   and   PaHence   of   the   Indians,   to   undertake   such   a   Work   [stripping   the  leaves],  and  have  Workmen  as  cheap  as  they  are  in  that  Country.”    Raseau,  who  was  captain  of  the  miliHa  on  Saint  Domingo  prior  to  1770,  discusses  the  history  of  indigo  in  all  the  regions  of  the  world  where  it  could  be  grown.    He   gives   various   methods   that   were   employed   for   extracHng   the   dye   and   then  goes  into  greater  detail  on  indigo  producHon  in  South  and  Central  America.  His  wonderful   liXle   book   contains   diagrams   of   the   plants,   the   process   of   making  indigo   dye,   as   well   as   the   ideal   plantaHon.   Indigo   plantaHons   did   not   require  much  labor  except  during  July,  August  and  September  when  the  plants  were  cut,  fermented  and  the  dye  was  extracted.  Because   it   was   thought   that   the   Indians   were   parHcularly   suscepHble   to   the  diseases  that  bred  around  the  fermentaHon  vats,  plantaHon  owners  claimed  that  
    • DB DENIM B O O Kthey  did  most  of  the  field  work,  while  Black  slaves  extracted  the  dye.  In  reality,  the   division   of   labor   was   probably   not   so   strict     parHcularly   since   Black   slaves  were  in  relaHvely  short  supply  and  were  o6en  more  expensive  to  hire  than  the  Indians.John   Stedman   in   his   "NarraHve   of   five   years"   expediHon   described   the  extracHon   of   the   dye   throughly.   Stedman   was   invited   to   view   the   process   of  making  indigo  dye  at  the  plantaHon  of  the  governor  of  Surinam  and  he  gives  the  following  account  of  it  :  When  all  of  the  verdure  is  cut  off,  the  whole  crop  is  Hed  in   bunches,   and   put   into   a   very   large   tub   with   water,   covered   over   with   very  heavy   logs   of   wood   by   way   of   pressers:   thus   kept,   it   begins   to   ferment;   in   less  than  18  hours  the  water  seems  to  boil,  and  becomes  of  a  violet  or  garter  blue  colour,   extracHng   all   the   grain   or   colouring   maXer   from   the   plant;   in   this  situaHon.  The   liquor   is   drawn   off   into   another   tub,   which   is   something   less,   when   the  remaining   trash   is   carefully   picked   up   and   thrown   away;   and   the   very   noxious  smell  of  this  refuse  it  is  that  occasions  the  peculiar  unhealthiness  which  is  always  incident  to  this  business  Being   now   in   the   second   tub,   the   mash   is   agitated   by   paddles   adapted   for   the  purpose,  Hll  by  a  skillful  maceraHon  all  the  grain  separates  from  the  water,  the  first   sinking   like   mud   to   the   boXom,   while   the   laXer   appears   clear   and  transparent   on   the   surface:   this   water,   being   carefully   removed   Hll   near   the  coloured   mass,   the   remaining   liquor   is   drawn   off   into   a   third   tub,   to   let   what  indigo   it   may   contain   also   seXle   in   the   boXom;   a6er   which,   the   last   drops   of  water  here  being  also  removed,  the  sediment  or  indigo  is  put  into  proper  vessels  to   dry,   where   being   divested   of   its   last   remaining   moisture,   and   formed   into  small,  round,  and  oblong  square  pieces,  it  is  become  a  beauHful  dark  blue,  and  fit  for  exportaHon.    The   best   indigo   ought   to   be   light,   hard,   and   sparkling."   These   blocks   of   indigo  were  what  was  so  highly  prized  on  the  European  market.    Demand   for   indigo   dramaHcally   increased   during     the   industrial   revoluHon,   in  part   due   to   the   popularity   of   Levi   Strausss   blue   denim   jeans.   The   natural  extracHon   process   was   expensive   and   could   not   produce   the   mass   quanHHes  required  for  the  burgeoning  garment  industry.  In  1865  the  German  chemist      
    • DB DENIM B O O KJohann  Friedrich  Wilhelm  Adolf  von  Baeyer  began  working  with  indigo.    His   work   culminated   in   the   first   synthesis   of   indigo   in   1880   from   o-­‐nitrobenzaldehyde   and   acetone   upon   addiHon   of   dilute   sodium   hydroxide,  barium  hydroxide,  or  ammonia  and  the  announcement  of  its  chemical  structure  three  years  later.  BASF  developed  a  commercially  feasible  manufacturing  process  that   was   in   use   by   1897.   In   1905   Baeyer   was   awarded   the   Nobel   Prize   for   his  discovery.   DENIMIST Workers  in  the    indigo  factory  wearing  denim  work  clothes,  1930s   Jenny  Balfour-­‐Paul,  Indigo  (London:  Bri-sh  Museum  Press,  1998),  85.  
    • DBDENIM B O O K DENIMIST“Indigo  Manufacture  in  India,”  from  The  Graphic,  1887  “Views   from   the   Illustrated   London   News   and   The   Graphic,”   South   Asia  study   resources   compiled   by   Frances   PritcheK,   hKp://www.  columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritcheK/00routesdata/1800_1899/dailylife_drawings/ilnviews/ilnviews.html  
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