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garment processing

  1. 1. d   n  m   o   k   5 e   i   b   o  DENIMIST  2011   DNMSTDENIMDESINGFASHIONARTLIFE   DB DENIM BOOK D E N I M I S T
  2. 2. DB DENIM B O O K DENIMIST T U R K E Y  Since   decades   Denimist   has   developed   know-­‐how   in   denim   finishing   prior   to  garment   manufacturing   and   also   in   jeans   washing.   Our   customers   derive  benefit   from   this   experience.For   the   fabric   production   we   offer   finishing  chemicals   which   provide   the   demanded   fabric   properties   such   as   good  sewability,   stiffness,elasticity   and   handle.   The   other   field   of   our   activity   is   the  recommendation   of   laundring   Procedures   for   ready-­‐made   clothing   such   as  trousers,  jackets  or  skirts,  shirts.  In   doing   so   we   have   learned   that   many   errors   may   occur   in   this   complicated  production   process.  The   laundry,   the   last   step   in   the   sequence   of     producers,   is  faced   to   difficulties   which   are   caused   by   previous   inaccuracies.   Therefore,   a  good   cooperation   among   the   steps   of   jeans   manufacturing   is   required   to   avoid  problems.  Fabric  producer,  garment  manufacturer  and  laundries  have  to  work  together   to   obtain   the   desired   end   result.   By   means   of   our   contacts   on   both  sides  of  the  production  process  we  are  able  to  make  our  contribution.  The   technical   stuff   of   Denimist     is   always   ready   to   help   our   customers   with  eventual   problems   and   to   modify   production   procedures   according   to   the  respective   requirements.  Through   our   numerous   contacts   which   we   have   got  with  denim  producers,  garment  manufacturers  and  laundries  during  the  years  we  support  the  team  work  among  all  sections  of  the  jeans  chain  and  make  our  know-­‐how    available  to  all  of  the  parties  concerned    
  3. 3. DBDENIM B O O KGARMENT  PROCESSING  This  technical  guide  in  hand  shall  support  the  practical  man  to  solve  problems  on  the  spot  and  to  replyt  to  the  most  frequent  questions.  Besides  this  guide  we  refer   to   our   technical   leaflets   which   provide   detailed   information   about   the  mentioned  products.  A   few   years   ago   garment   treatment   was   related   to   the   washing   of   blue   and  black   denim.   Nowadays,   a   much   more   extensive   treatment   of   garments   is  carried  out  in  the  laundries,  e.g.  dyeing,  wrinkle-­‐free  finish,  coating  by  spraying  etc.  
  4. 4. DBDENIM B O O KTherefore,  it  is  also  called  garment  processing.  Because  denim  fashion  was  the  beginning  of  today´s  garment  treatment  and  especially   because   jeans   washing   is   still   the   most   part   of   the   treated   garments  we  present  some  worth  knowing  items  about  denim.    Denim  Fashion  Denim  –  this  word  derives  from  „Serge  de  Nimes“,  a  coarse  cotton  fabric  which  was  manufactured  in  the  Provence  during  the  previous  century.  The   designation   denim   fabric   is   used   for   fabrics   on   the   market   containing   a  dyed  warp  yarn  and  a  greige  white  cotton  filling.  The  warp  yarn  may  be  dyed  with  sulphur,pigment  or  reactive  dyestuffs.  However,  indigo-­‐dyed  blue  denim  is  dominating.  As  a  rule  the  warp  yarn  is  dyed  on  continuous  dyeing  machines  in  form  of  a  warp  or  cable.  
  5. 5. DB DENIM B O O KThe  continuous  dyed  yarn  is  usually  dried  in  one  step  and  afterwards,  the  sizing  process  follows  immediatelly.  For  sizing  of  the  coarse  cotton  yarns  which  are  usually   used   for   denim   fabrics   sizing   agents   based   on   modified   starch   are  preferred.      Often   these   sizing   agents   contain   additional   omponents   like   acrylates   in   order  to  reduce  dust  problems  and  waxes  to  improve  the  lubrication  effect.  After  weaving  the  denim  fabric  is  finished.  In  finishing  the  sought  after  stiff  hand  which  eases  garment  making  of  this  material  needs  to  be  provided.  In  addition  chemicals  are  applied  which  improve  the  sewability.  By  mechanical  means  the  necessary  fabric  stability  and  the  shrinkage  properties  must  be  adjusted  to  prevent  shrinkage  in  the  following  jeans  washing  process.  Finishing  is  usually  carried  out  on  continuous  ranges  comprising  a  singe,  a  padder,  a  can  dryer  and  a  sanforizing  unit.    On  a  can  dryer  the  fabric  is  dried  to  approximately  20  %  residual  moisture.  With  this  humidity  the  fabric  is  stabilized  on  the  following  sanforizing  unit.  Then,  a  fabric  finished  in  this  way  comes  to  cutting  and  sewing  and  finally  to  laundring.  
  6. 6. DBDENIM B O O KTargets  of  Jeans  Washing  Besides  the  handle  and  softness  to  improve  the  wear  comfort  of  the  previously  very  stiff  fabric  the  improvement  of  the  optical  appearance  of  the  ready-­‐made  garment   is   the   most   important   target   of   jeans   washing.   Stone-­‐wash,   Moon-­‐wash,   Used   Look   or   Rodeo-­‐wash,   to   name   a   few   fashion   trends,   require  considerable   know-­‐how   from   the   laundry   but   also   from   the   textile   auxiliary  supplier  as  its  partner.    The   avoidance   of   problems   like   Uneveness   Crease   marks,   streaks   and   spots  Reduced   tensile   and   tear   strength   Staining   on   white   parts   of   the   cloth   Poor  handle   Too   high   shrinkage   Rust   formation   on   metal   parts   (corrosion)   Poor  contrast  between  warp  and  weft  colour  changes  of  indigo-­‐dyed  textiles  caused  by   radicals   like   ozone   and   nitrogen   oxides   in   the   air   and   others   more   is   very  exacting  of  the  jeans  washing  to  obtain  high  quality  and  good  reproducibility.  Ecological   compatibility   is   the   latest   aim   of   jeans   laundering   which  nowadaysgains   greater     importance,   especially   in   regard   to   bleaching.  Hypochlorite-­‐free  bleaching  may  be  an  answer  for  it.  The   chapters   3   contain   details   about   the   required   processing   steps   which   are  necessary  to  achieve  the  requested  qualities.  Chapter  4  contains  suggestions  for  the  treatment  which  may  be  an  orientation  in  jeans  processing  
  7. 7. DBDENIM B O O KMain  Process  In  The  Laundry  •  Pre-­‐treatment  •  Stone  And  /  Or  Enzyme  Wash  •  Effect  Adjustment  •  Bleaching  •  Colour  Adjustment    •  Finishing  Handle  Adjustment  Pre-­‐Treatment  This  step  is  the  basic,  but  most  important  part  of  washing.  Related  to  the  final  target   We   have   to   take   the   correct     prevention   in   this   part.   This   process   has   3  main   targets;   removing     the   impurities   coming   from   the   fabric,   desizing   of  weaving  fabrics  and  Decreasing    the  crease    risk  on  the  garment    removing  the  impurities:    Either  from  the  cotton  or  from  the  manufacturing  period  garment  can  contain  some   impureties.   These   impurities   can   be   based   on   oil,   alkaline   or   acidic  chemicals   and   all   of   them   can   cause   several   problems   in   the   next   steps   of    washing.   In   this   step   a   professional   laundry   man   has   to   decide   about   the   risk  and  he  has  to  use  the  suitable    auxiliaries  to  remove  these    impurities.    
  8. 8. DB DENIM B O O KDESIZING  All  of  the  weaved  fabrics  contains  size  on  them.  During  the  weaving  processes  there  can  be  two  main  problems;  one   is   breaking   of   the   yarn   because   of   high   friction   and   second   is   dust  formation.  Size   is   the   solution   of   these   problems,   because   sizes   are   making   a  floppy   film   on   surface   and   improves   the   tensile   strength   and   directly   causes  better  efficiency.  tensile  strength  and  directly  causes  better  efficiency    However,  this  size  becomes  a  problem  so  it  must  be  remove  in  washing.  There  are  several  types  of  size  are  available  in  the  market.  But  they  can   divided  in  two  groups-­‐water   soluble   sizes   (CMC   or   PVA   based   sizes)   and   dissolvable   sizes   in  water  (starch  based   Sizes)   Starch  based  sizes  still  are  used  widely  and  have  the  biggest   market   share   because   of   their   cheap   prices   and   easy   purchase  conditions.    There  are  4  methods  to  remove  the  size;    1.  Washing  With  High  Alcalines  2.  Washing  With  High  Acids  3.  Washing  With  Oxidative  Chemicals  4.  Enzymatic  Desizng  With  Alfa-­‐amylases  First  three  methods  are  difficult  ,  risky  and  expensive  method  at  laundry  business  because  of    this  nearly  all  of  the  market  prefers  enzymatic  desizing.  The  liquor  to  goods  ratio  is  usually  between  5  :  1  and  8  :  1.  Depending  on  the  machine  and  jeans  quality  a  lower  machine  loading  may  be  required  if  the  washed  garment  shows    streaks.    Usually,  the  jeans  are  loaded  with  the  left  side  turned  outside.  Especially,  jeans  which  are  sensitive  to  formation  of  washing  marks,  e.g.goods  which  have  been  in  stock  for  a  long  time,  may  require  steaming  (topping)  or  turning  the  garments  inside  out  to  obtain  washing  results  without  streaks.  
  9. 9. DBDENIM B O O KDesizing  Recipe  0,5  -­‐  1  g/l    Denilase  TITAN  (amylase  enzyme)  0,5  -­‐  1  g/l    Deniwet    ZEN  (wetting    agent)    0,5  -­‐  1  g/l    Denispers    DISPER  (dispersing  agent)  Temp  :  55-­‐60  °C  pH  :  6,5  -­‐  7  Tıme    :  10  min    Drain  -­‐  Rinsing  -­‐    50-­‐60  °C  de    2  min  Drain  -­‐  Rinsing        20-­‐25  °C  de    2  min    Prevention  of  creases:  One  of  the  main    problems  in  laundry  business  is  creases.    We  can    separatecreases  into  4  groups    related  to  their  reasons;  Mechanic  based  creases:  these  are  the    creases    related  to  the  ratio  of  water,      loading    capacity    and  rotation  speed  of    drum.  Chemical  reaction  based  creases  :  These    are  the    creases  related  to  the  wetting      time  of    fabric    or    unevenness  auxiliary    applications  Fabric  based  creases:    These  are  the  creases  come  from  the  production  of  the  fabric  
  10. 10. DB DENIM B O O KWetting  Dispersing  Agent  Deniwet  ZEN  •  Used  in  desizing  process.    •  Must  rapidly  wet  out  jean.  •  Prevents  white  lines  caused  by  rigid  creases.  •  Permits  penetration  of  amylase  to  fully  desize.  •  Prevents  back  staining  of  loose  indigo  onto  weft  yarns  and  pockets.   Also  used  in  stone  wash  /  after  washing  to  reduce  back  staining.    
  11. 11. DBDENIM B O O KAnti  Back-­‐Staining  Agent  Denispers  ABC  Conc  Denispers  DCD  Conc  Denispers  DISPER  •  Re-­‐deposition   of   loose   indigo,   or   indigo   dyed   short   fibres,   removed     during   desizing,  stone-­‐washing  or  enzyme  washing.    •  Re-­‐deposited  Indigo,  reduces  the  contrast  between  warp  and  undyed  weft    •  Re-­‐deposited  indigo  stains  pockets  and  labels  •  Re-­‐deposited  indigo  is  more  prone  to  Ozone  and  yellowing            Back-­‐staining  is  UNDESIREABLE  in  denim  washing  
  12. 12. DB DENIM B O O KAntı-­‐Creasıng  Agent  Deniwet  CURVE  •         Prevents  crease  formation  during  the    •         Washing    procsess.  •         Increases  the  loading  capacity  of  the      •         Washing  machine  •         Reduses  the  stone  spots  risk  during  the    •         Stone  wash      procsess  
  13. 13. DB DENIM BOOKHead  Office   :   Kazimiye  Mah.  Karadeniz  Cad.  Kiliçoğlu  Al@n  Evler  No:  37/5/21    Çorlu  /  Tekirdağ  /  TURKEY   Ph:  90  282  673  62  40      Fax  :  90  282  673  59  75  Factory   :   Motor  Yerleri  Mevkii  E-­‐5  Uzeri  Ulaş  /  Corlu  /  Tekirdag  /  TURKEY    Pakistan   :   Plot  No:  2/C  Lane  No:  3  Itehad  Coom  Phase  –  VI  D.H.A  Karachi  /  PAKISTAN   Ph:  92-­‐21-­‐37820980  –  35348720    Cell  :  92-­‐300-­‐214430  Bangladesh   :   Road  36  ,  House  15,  F4,  Gulshan  2,  Dhaka  /BANGLADESH   Cell:  8801741393879