1. d n m o k 5 e i b o DENIMIST 2011 DNMSTDENIMDESINGFASHIONARTLIFE DB DENIM BOOK D E N I M I S T
2. DB DENIM B O O K DENIMIST T U R K E Y Since decades Denimist has developed know-‐how in denim ﬁnishing prior to garment manufacturing and also in jeans washing. Our customers derive beneﬁt from this experience.For the fabric production we oﬀer ﬁnishing chemicals which provide the demanded fabric properties such as good sewability, stiﬀness,elasticity and handle. The other ﬁeld of our activity is the recommendation of laundring Procedures for ready-‐made clothing such as trousers, jackets or skirts, shirts. In doing so we have learned that many errors may occur in this complicated production process. The laundry, the last step in the sequence of producers, is faced to diﬃculties which are caused by previous inaccuracies. Therefore, a good cooperation among the steps of jeans manufacturing is required to avoid problems. Fabric producer, garment manufacturer and laundries have to work together to obtain the desired end result. By means of our contacts on both sides of the production process we are able to make our contribution. The technical stuﬀ of Denimist is always ready to help our customers with eventual problems and to modify production procedures according to the respective requirements. Through our numerous contacts which we have got with denim producers, garment manufacturers and laundries during the years we support the team work among all sections of the jeans chain and make our know-‐how available to all of the parties concerned
3. DBDENIM B O O KGARMENT PROCESSING This technical guide in hand shall support the practical man to solve problems on the spot and to replyt to the most frequent questions. Besides this guide we refer to our technical leaﬂets which provide detailed information about the mentioned products. A few years ago garment treatment was related to the washing of blue and black denim. Nowadays, a much more extensive treatment of garments is carried out in the laundries, e.g. dyeing, wrinkle-‐free ﬁnish, coating by spraying etc.
4. DBDENIM B O O KTherefore, it is also called garment processing. Because denim fashion was the beginning of today´s garment treatment and especially because jeans washing is still the most part of the treated garments we present some worth knowing items about denim. Denim Fashion Denim – this word derives from „Serge de Nimes“, a coarse cotton fabric which was manufactured in the Provence during the previous century. The designation denim fabric is used for fabrics on the market containing a dyed warp yarn and a greige white cotton ﬁlling. The warp yarn may be dyed with sulphur,pigment or reactive dyestuﬀs. However, indigo-‐dyed blue denim is dominating. As a rule the warp yarn is dyed on continuous dyeing machines in form of a warp or cable.
5. DB DENIM B O O KThe continuous dyed yarn is usually dried in one step and afterwards, the sizing process follows immediatelly. For sizing of the coarse cotton yarns which are usually used for denim fabrics sizing agents based on modiﬁed starch are preferred. Often these sizing agents contain additional omponents like acrylates in order to reduce dust problems and waxes to improve the lubrication eﬀect. After weaving the denim fabric is ﬁnished. In ﬁnishing the sought after stiﬀ hand which eases garment making of this material needs to be provided. In addition chemicals are applied which improve the sewability. By mechanical means the necessary fabric stability and the shrinkage properties must be adjusted to prevent shrinkage in the following jeans washing process. Finishing is usually carried out on continuous ranges comprising a singe, a padder, a can dryer and a sanforizing unit. On a can dryer the fabric is dried to approximately 20 % residual moisture. With this humidity the fabric is stabilized on the following sanforizing unit. Then, a fabric ﬁnished in this way comes to cutting and sewing and ﬁnally to laundring.
6. DBDENIM B O O KTargets of Jeans Washing Besides the handle and softness to improve the wear comfort of the previously very stiﬀ fabric the improvement of the optical appearance of the ready-‐made garment is the most important target of jeans washing. Stone-‐wash, Moon-‐wash, Used Look or Rodeo-‐wash, to name a few fashion trends, require considerable know-‐how from the laundry but also from the textile auxiliary supplier as its partner. The avoidance of problems like Uneveness Crease marks, streaks and spots Reduced tensile and tear strength Staining on white parts of the cloth Poor handle Too high shrinkage Rust formation on metal parts (corrosion) Poor contrast between warp and weft colour changes of indigo-‐dyed textiles caused by radicals like ozone and nitrogen oxides in the air and others more is very exacting of the jeans washing to obtain high quality and good reproducibility. Ecological compatibility is the latest aim of jeans laundering which nowadaysgains greater importance, especially in regard to bleaching. Hypochlorite-‐free bleaching may be an answer for it. The chapters 3 contain details about the required processing steps which are necessary to achieve the requested qualities. Chapter 4 contains suggestions for the treatment which may be an orientation in jeans processing
7. DBDENIM B O O KMain Process In The Laundry • Pre-‐treatment • Stone And / Or Enzyme Wash • Eﬀect Adjustment • Bleaching • Colour Adjustment • Finishing Handle Adjustment Pre-‐Treatment This step is the basic, but most important part of washing. Related to the ﬁnal target We have to take the correct prevention in this part. This process has 3 main targets; removing the impurities coming from the fabric, desizing of weaving fabrics and Decreasing the crease risk on the garment removing the impurities: Either from the cotton or from the manufacturing period garment can contain some impureties. These impurities can be based on oil, alkaline or acidic chemicals and all of them can cause several problems in the next steps of washing. In this step a professional laundry man has to decide about the risk and he has to use the suitable auxiliaries to remove these impurities.
8. DB DENIM B O O KDESIZING All of the weaved fabrics contains size on them. During the weaving processes there can be two main problems; one is breaking of the yarn because of high friction and second is dust formation. Size is the solution of these problems, because sizes are making a ﬂoppy ﬁlm on surface and improves the tensile strength and directly causes better eﬃciency. tensile strength and directly causes better eﬃciency However, this size becomes a problem so it must be remove in washing. There are several types of size are available in the market. But they can divided in two groups-‐water soluble sizes (CMC or PVA based sizes) and dissolvable sizes in water (starch based Sizes) Starch based sizes still are used widely and have the biggest market share because of their cheap prices and easy purchase conditions. There are 4 methods to remove the size; 1. Washing With High Alcalines 2. Washing With High Acids 3. Washing With Oxidative Chemicals 4. Enzymatic Desizng With Alfa-‐amylases First three methods are diﬃcult , risky and expensive method at laundry business because of this nearly all of the market prefers enzymatic desizing. The liquor to goods ratio is usually between 5 : 1 and 8 : 1. Depending on the machine and jeans quality a lower machine loading may be required if the washed garment shows streaks. Usually, the jeans are loaded with the left side turned outside. Especially, jeans which are sensitive to formation of washing marks, e.g.goods which have been in stock for a long time, may require steaming (topping) or turning the garments inside out to obtain washing results without streaks.
9. DBDENIM B O O KDesizing Recipe 0,5 -‐ 1 g/l Denilase TITAN (amylase enzyme) 0,5 -‐ 1 g/l Deniwet ZEN (wetting agent) 0,5 -‐ 1 g/l Denispers DISPER (dispersing agent) Temp : 55-‐60 °C pH : 6,5 -‐ 7 Tıme : 10 min Drain -‐ Rinsing -‐ 50-‐60 °C de 2 min Drain -‐ Rinsing 20-‐25 °C de 2 min Prevention of creases: One of the main problems in laundry business is creases. We can separatecreases into 4 groups related to their reasons; Mechanic based creases: these are the creases related to the ratio of water, loading capacity and rotation speed of drum. Chemical reaction based creases : These are the creases related to the wetting time of fabric or unevenness auxiliary applications Fabric based creases: These are the creases come from the production of the fabric
10. DB DENIM B O O KWetting Dispersing Agent Deniwet ZEN • Used in desizing process. • Must rapidly wet out jean. • Prevents white lines caused by rigid creases. • Permits penetration of amylase to fully desize. • Prevents back staining of loose indigo onto weft yarns and pockets. Also used in stone wash / after washing to reduce back staining.
11. DBDENIM B O O KAnti Back-‐Staining Agent Denispers ABC Conc Denispers DCD Conc Denispers DISPER • Re-‐deposition of loose indigo, or indigo dyed short ﬁbres, removed during desizing, stone-‐washing or enzyme washing. • Re-‐deposited Indigo, reduces the contrast between warp and undyed weft • Re-‐deposited indigo stains pockets and labels • Re-‐deposited indigo is more prone to Ozone and yellowing Back-‐staining is UNDESIREABLE in denim washing
12. DB DENIM B O O KAntı-‐Creasıng Agent Deniwet CURVE • Prevents crease formation during the • Washing procsess. • Increases the loading capacity of the • Washing machine • Reduses the stone spots risk during the • Stone wash procsess