Enzymes book


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Enzymes book

  1. 1. d   n  m   o   k   6 e   i   b   o  DENIMIST  2011   DNMSTDENIMDESINGFASHIONARTLIFE   ENZYME DB DENIM BOOK D E N I M I S T
  2. 2. DB DENIM B O O K DENIMIST T U R K E Y  Since   decades   Denimist   has   developed   know-­‐how   in   denim   finishing   prior   to  garment   manufacturing   and   also   in   jeans   washing.   Our   customers   derive  benefit   from   this   experience.For   the   fabric   production   we   offer   finishing  chemicals   which   provide   the   demanded   fabric   properties   such   as   good  sewability,   stiffness,elasticity   and   handle.   The   other   field   of   our   activity   is   the  recommendation   of   laundring   Procedures   for   ready-­‐made   clothing   such   as  trousers,  jackets  or  skirts,  shirts.  In   doing   so   we   have   learned   that   many   errors   may   occur   in   this   complicated  production   process.  The   laundry,   the   last   step   in   the   sequence   of     producers,   is  faced   to   difficulties   which   are   caused   by   previous   inaccuracies.   Therefore,   a  good   cooperation   among   the   steps   of   jeans   manufacturing   is   required   to   avoid  problems.  Fabric  producer,  garment  manufacturer  and  laundries  have  to  work  together   to   obtain   the   desired   end   result.   By   means   of   our   contacts   on   both  sides  of  the  production  process  we  are  able  to  make  our  contribution.  The   technical   stuff   of   Denimist     is   always   ready   to   help   our   customers   with  eventual   problems   and   to   modify   production   procedures   according   to   the  respective   requirements.  Through   our   numerous   contacts   which   we   have   got  with  denim  producers,  garment  manufacturers  and  laundries  during  the  years  we  support  the  team  work  among  all  sections  of  the  jeans  chain  and  make  our  know-­‐how    available  to  all  of  the  parties  concerned    
  3. 3. DB DENIM B O O KWHAT  ARE  ENZYMES  Enzymes   are   proteins.   Like   other   proteins,   enzymes   consist   of   long   chains   of  amino   acids   held   together   by   peptide   bonds.  They   are   present   in   all   living   cells,  where   they   perform   a   vital   function   by   controlling   the   metabolic   processes  whereby   nutrients   are   converted   into   energy   and   fresh   cell   material.  Furthermore,  enzymes  take  part  in  the  breakdown  of  food  material  into  simpler  compounds.  Some  of  the  best  known  enzymes  are  those  found  in  the  digestive  tract   where   pepsin,   trypsin   and   peptidases   breakdown   proteins   into   amino  acids,   lipases   split   fats   into   glycerol   and   fatty   acids,   and   amylases   breakdown  starch  into  simple  sugars.  
  4. 4. DBDENIM B O O KEnzymes  are  basically  biocatalysts.  Enzymes  are  capable  of  performing  these  tasks   because,   unlike   food   proteins   such   as   egg   albumin,   gelatine   or   soya  protein,   they   help   to   catalyze   reactions.   This   means   that   by   their   mere  presence,  and  without  being  consumed  in  the  process,  enzymes  can  speed  up  chemical  processes  that  would  otherwise  run  very  slowly,  if  at  all  ENZYME  PROPERTIES  1.  Enzymes  are  specific  Contrary  to  inorganic  catalysts  such  as  acids,  bases,  metals  and  metal  oxides,  enzymes   are   very   specific.   In   other   words,   each   enzyme   can   breakdown   or  synthesize  one  particular  compound.  In  some  cases,  they  limit  their  action  to  specific   bonds   in   the   compound   with   which   they   react.   Most   proteases,   for  instance,  can  breakdown  several  types  of  protein,  but  in  each  protein  molecule  only  certain  bonds  will  be  cleaved  depending  on  which  enzyme  is  used.    2.  Enzymes  are  very  efficient  catalysts  For  example,  the  enzyme  catalase,  which  is  found  abundantly  in  the  liver  and  in  the  red  blood  cells,  is  so  efficient  that  in  one  minute  one  enzyme  molecule  can  catalyze  the  breakdown  of  five  million  molecules  of  hydrogen  peroxide  to  water  and  oxygen.  3.  Origin  -­‐  natural  source  Enzymes  are  present  in  all  biological  systems.  They  come  from  natural  systems  and  when  they  are  degraded,  the  amino  acids  of  which  they  are  made  of  can  be  readily  absorbed  back  into  nature.    4.  Enzymes  work  only  on  renewable  raw  material    Fruits,   cereals,   milk,   fats,   meat,   cotton,   leather   and   wood   are   some   typical  candidates   for   enzymatic   conversion   in   industry.   Both   the   usable   products   and  the  waste  of  most  enzymatic  reactions  are  non-­‐toxic  and  readily  broken  down.  
  5. 5. DB DENIM B O O KHOW  ENZYMES  WORK  In   enzymatic   reactions,the   molecule   at   the   beginning   of   the     process   is   called  substrate  .  While   this   molecule   is   changed   into   the   final   molecule   called   substate   its   self-­‐  structure  doesn’t  change.As  long  as  the  enzymes  keep  their  activation,this    reactions  repeats.      The  relation  between  the  ezyme  and  the  substrate  is  similar  with  the  lock-­‐key  relation.  Just  like  1  key  opens  1  door  lock,there  is  1  specific  enzyme  for  1  substrate.E.g.  catalaze   enzymes   are   for   peroxide   and   do   not   damage   tocellulose   while  breaking   peroxide.Cellulases   also   do   not   damage   peroxide   while   breaking  cellulose.    
  6. 6. DB DENIM B O O KCRITICAL  POINTS  OF  USING  ENZYMES  •  There  are  some  parameters  to  be  cautious    •  About  enzymatic  processes.  •     Ph  •     Temperature  •     Time  •     Inactivators  such  as  heavy  metals  
  7. 7. DB DENIM B O O KNEED  OF  ENZYMES  IN  THE  TEXTILE  INDUSTRY    The   textile   processing   industry   is   classified   into  Textile   Fabric   Processing   and  Wet  Garment  Processing  to  give  various  finishes  to  fabric  different  auxiliaries,  polymers,  dyes,  specialty  chemicals  are  being  used  abundantly.  These  chemical  sare  hazardous  in  nature.    Many  of  them  are  carcinogenic  and  very  dangerous  to  handle,  putting  life  at    risk.  Most  of  them  are  not  eco-­‐friendly.  Due  to  such  hazards,  the  government    and  regulatory  bodies  are  banning  textile  processing  using  such  chemicals  or    the  release  of  waste  liquor  into  nature.  The  use  of    enzymes  is  the  ONLY    feasible  solution  to  counteract  such  problems  faced  by    industrialists  today.  Enzymes  can  be  used  to  replace  hazardous  chemicals,  thus  saving  energy  and  preventing   pollution.   They   are   also   highly   specific,   which   means   fewer  unwanted   side   effects   and   creation   of   by-­‐products   in   the   production   process.  Enzymes  themselves  are  biodegradable,  so  they  are  readily  absorbed  back  into  nature.    The  advantages  of  enzymes  being  used  in  textile  industry  are  as  below:    •     Increasing  the  speed  of  reactions.  •     They  ensure  the  reactions  to  be  happening  in  mild  conditions.  •     Enzymes  provide  the  possibilities  of  the  control  of  the  processes.    •  Natural  and  biologically  degradeableç  ENZYMATIC  DESIZING  OF  COTTON  FABRIC    Although  many  different  compounds  have  been  used  to  size  fabric  over  the    years,  starch  has  been  the  most  common  sizing  agent  for  more  than  a  century    and  this  is  still  the  case  today,  though  use  of  PVA  and  gums  is  on  the  rise.  After    
  8. 8. DB DENIM B O O Kweaving,  the  size  must  be  removed  to  prepare  the  fabric  for  the  finishing  steps    of  bleaching  or  dyeing.  Enzymes  are  used  for  desizing  woven  fabrics  because  of    their  highly  efficient  and  specific  way  of  desizing  without  harming  the  yarn  .  As   an   example,   desizing   on   a   jigger   is   a   simple   method   where   the   fabric   from  one   roll   is   processed   in   a   bath   and   re-­‐wound   on   another   roll.   First,   the   sized  fabric   is   washed   in   hot   water   (80-­‐   95°C)   to   gelatinise   the   starch.  The   desizing  liquor  is  then  adjusted  to  pH  5.5-­‐7.5  and  a  temperature  of  60-­‐80°Cdepending  on  the   enzyme.  The   fabric   then   goes   through   an   impregnation   stage   before   the  amylase  is  added.  Degraded  starch  in  the  form  of  dextrins  is  then  removed  by  washing  at  90-­‐95°C  for  two  minutes.  The  jigger  process  is  a  batch  process.  By  contrast,  in  modern  continuous  high-­‐speed  processes,  the  reaction  time  for  the  enzyme  may  be  as  short  as  15  seconds.  De  sizing  on  pad  rolls  is  continuous  in  terms  of  the  passage  of  the  fabric.  However,  a  holding  time  of  2-­‐16  hours  at  20-­‐60°C   is   required   using   low-­‐temperature   alpha-­‐   amylases   before   the   size   is  removed   in   washing   chambers.   With   high-­‐temperature   amylases,   de   sizing  reactions   can   be   performed   in   steam   chambers   at   95-­‐100°C   or   even   higher  temperatures  to  allow  a  fully  continuous  process.  Denilase  TITAN  Denim  fabric  is  a  yarn  dyed  fabric  .  It  is  dyed  as  hank  Dyeing  and  then  weaved.      Sizes  are  applied  on  the  fabric  to  avoid  the  breaking  and  the  dusting  due  to  the    high  speed    and    friction  of  the  shuttle.      For  this  purpose  ,  synthetic  sizing  substances  are  used  such  as  CMC  or  starch    and    Its  derivatives.  The  crucial  point  of  washing  starts  from  here  because  for  a    crease-­‐free  and  abrasion-­‐free  washing  ,  the  sizing  Substances  must  be  taken  off.        This  process  is  easy  on  synthetic  sizing  substances  as  They  will  be  removed  by    Washing.But  when  starch  based  sizes  are  used,  The  situation  will  Be  changed  as    starch  is  Insoluble  in  water  and  must  Be  broken.  For  this  process  alfa  -­‐  amylase    enzymes  are    wildly  used.      
  9. 9. DBDENIM B O O KDe  sizing  enzymes  are  obtained  from  bacterias  and  sensitive  to  pH  and      temperature  .Otherwise  they  can  not  be  properly  activated.  Denılase  TITAN  can    arrange  its  pH  in  water  but  still  the  pH  of  the  bath  is  needed    to  be  arranged    Between  6-­‐7.5    Denılase  TITAN  is  effected  by  temperature  as    below.    In  this  point  there  is  a  very  crutial  point  which  is  to  be  very  careful  about    the  steaming  contacting  the  enzyme,otherwise  the  enzyme  loses  its  activation.      Denılase  TITAN  is  most  effective  at  the  temperature  of    55-­‐90°C  but  for  a    Controlled  process  the  recommended  temperature  is  55-­‐60°C.      Desizing  Recipe  0.5  -­‐  1  g/L    Denilase  TITAN  (  amylase  enzyme  )  0.5  -­‐  1  g/L    Deniwet    ZEN    (  wetting    agent  )    0.5  -­‐  1  g/L    Denispers  DISPER  (  dispersing    agent  )  Temp  :  55-­‐60  °C  pH  :  6.5  -­‐  7  Time    :  10  min    If   you   thınk   alfa   amylases   as   key   theır   lock   ıs   starch.   they   change   the   form   of  starchto  a  water  soluable  structure        The  maın  dıfference  at  alfa  amylases  ıs  temparature  stabılıty.  so  we  can  classıfy  alfa  amylases  as  termo-­‐stabıl  and  non-­‐termo  stabıl  groups.                                                                                      
  10. 10. DBDENIM B O O KENZYMES  FOR  DENIM  FINISHING  Most   denim   jeans   or   other   denim   garments   are   subjected   to   a   wash   treatment  to   give   them   a   slightly   worn   look.   In   the   traditional   stonewashing   process,   the  blue   denim   is   faded   bythe   abrasive   action   of   lightweight   pumice   stones   on   the  gar-­‐   ment   surface,   which   removes   some   of   the   dye.   However,   too   much  abrasion  can  damage  the  fabric,  particularly  hems  and  waistbands.    This  is  why  denim  finishers  today  use  cellulases  to  accelerate  the  abrasion  by  loosening   the   indigo   dye   on   the   denim.   Since   a   small   dose   of   enzyme   can  replace   several   kilograms   of   stones,   the   use   of   fewer   stones   results   in   less  damage   to   garments,   less   wear   on   machines,   and   less   pumice   dust   in   the  working   environment.   Productivity   canalso   be   increased   through   laundry  machines  containing  few-­‐  er  stones  but  more  garments.    
  11. 11. DB DENIM B O O KWith  a  stone-­‐free  process,  the  need  for  the  removal  of  dust  and  small  stones  from   the   fin-­‐   ished   garment   is   reduced.   There   is   also   no   sediment   in   the  wastewater,  which  can  otherwise  block  drains  The   mode   of   action   of   cellulases   is   shown   in   Figure   3.   Denim   garments   are  dyed   with   indigo,   which   adheres   to   the   surface   of   the   yarn.   The   cellulase  molecule   binds   to   an   exposed   fibril(bundles   of   fibrils   make   up   a   fibre)   on   the  surface  of  the  yarn  and  hydrolyses  it,  but  leaving  the  interior  part  of  the  cotton  fibre  intact.   When  the  cellulases  partly  hydrolyse  the  surface  of  the  fibre,  the  indigo  is  partly  removed  and  light  areas  are  created.    Both  neutral  cellulases  acting  at  pH  6-­‐8  and  acid  cellulases  acting  at  pH  4-­‐6  are  used   for   the   abrasion   of   denim.   There   are   a   number   of   cellulases   available,  each   with   its   own   spe-­‐   cial   properties.  These   can   be   used   either   alone   or   in  combi-­‐   nation   in   order   to   obtain   a   specific   look.   Practical,   ready-­‐to-­‐   use  formulations  containing  enzymes  are  available.    Application   research   in   this   area   is   focused   on   preventing   or   enhancing  backstaining   depending   on   the   style   required.   Backstaining   is   defined   as   the  redeposition  of  released  indigo  onto  the  garments.      This  effect  is  very  important  in  denim  fin-­‐  ishing.  Backstaining  at  low  pH  values  (pH   4-­‐6)   is   relatively   high,   whereas   it   is   significantly   lower   in   the   neutral   pH  range.   Neutral   cellulases   are   therefore   often   used   when   the   objective   is  minimal  backstaining      Enzymes  have  opened  up  new  possibilities  in  denim  finishing  by  increasing  the  variety   of   finishes   available.   For   example,   it   is   now   possible   to   fade   denim   to   a  greater  degree  without  running  the  risk  of  damaging  the  garment.The  denim  industry  is  driven  by  fashion  trends.    The  various  cellulases  available  for  modifying  the  surface  of  denim  give  fashion  designers   a   pallet   of   possibilities   for   creating   new   shades   and   finishes.   The  combination  of  new  looks,  lower  costs,  shorter  treatment  times  and  less  solid  waste  has  made  abrasion  with  enzymes  the  most  widely  used  fading  process  today.   Incidentally,   since   the   denim   fabric   is   always   sized,   the   complete  process  also  includes  desizing  of  the  denim  gar-­‐  ment.    
  12. 12. DB DENIM B O O KCELLULASES  FOR  THE  BIOPOLISHING  OF  COTTON  FABRIC  AND  LYOCELL  Cotton  and  other  natural  and  man-­‐  made  cellulosic  fibres  can  be  improved  by  an   enzymatic   treatment   called   Biopolishing.   The   main   advantage   of   Bio-­‐  polishing  is  the  prevention  of  pilling.  Cellulases  hydrolyse  the  microfibrils  (hair  or  fuzz)  protruding  from  the  surface  of  yarn  because  they  are  most  susceptible  to   enzymatic   attack.   This   weakens   the   microfibrils,   which   tend   to   break   off  from  the  main  body  of  the  fibre  and  leave  a  smoother  yarn  surface.  A  ball  of  fuzz  is  called  a  pill  in  the  textile  trade.  These  pills  can  present  a  serious  quality  problem   since   they   result   in   an   unattractive,   knotty   appearance.   After  biopolishing,  the  fabric  shows  a  much  lower  pilling  tendency.    
  13. 13. DBDENIM B O O KOther  benefits  of  removing  fuzz  are  Cotton  and  other  natural  and  man-­‐  made  cellulosic   fibres   can   be   improved   by   an   enzymatic   treatment   called   Bio  polishing.  The   main   advantage   of   Bio-­‐   polishing   is   the   prevention   of   pilling.  Cellulases  hydrolyse  the  microfibrils  (hair  or  fuzz)  protruding  from  the  surface  of  yarn  because  they  are  most  susceptible  to  enzymatic  attack.  This  weakens  the  microfibrils,  which  tend  to  break  off  from  the  main  body  of  the  fibre  and  leave  a  smoother  yarn  surface.  A  ball  of  fuzz  is  called  a  pill  in  the  textile  trade.  These   pills   can   present   a   serious   quality   problem   since   they   result   in   an  unattractive,  knotty  appearance.    After   bio   polishing,   the   fabric   shows   a   much   lower   pilling   tendency.   Other  benefits   of   removing   fuzz   are   a   softer,   smoother   feel   and   superior   colour  brightness.   Unlike   conventional   softeners,   which   tend   to   be   washed   out   and  often  result  in  a  greasy  feel,  the  softness-­‐enhancing  effects  of  bio  polishing  are  washproof   and   non-­‐greasy.   For   cotton   fabrics,   the   use   of   bio   polishing   is  optional  for  upgrading  the  fabric.  However,  bio  polishing  is  almost  essential  for  the   new   polynosic     fibre   lyocell   (the   leading   make   is   known   by   the   trade   name  Tencel®).  Lyocell  is  made  from  wood  pulp  and  is  characterised  by  a  tendency  to  fibrillate  easily  when  wet.  In  simple  terms,  fibrils  on  the  surface  of  the  fibre  peel   up.   If   they   are   not   removed,   finished   garments   made   with   lyocell   will   end  up  covered.    
  14. 14. DB DENIM B O O Kin   pills.   This   is   the   reason   why   lyo   cell   fabric   is   treated   with   cellulases   during  finishing.   Cellulases   also   enhance   the   attractive,   silky   appearance   of   lyocell.  Lyocell  was  invented  in  1991  by   Courtaulds    Fibres  (now  Acordis,  part  of  Akzo  Nobel)  and  at  the  time  was  the  first  new  man-­‐made  fibre  created  in  30  years  CELLULOSE  ENZYMES  (    STONE  AND  ANTI-­‐PILLING  ENZYMES    )    They  are  used  for  making  the  surface  of  the  fabric  smoother  and    giving    stone  affect  on  denim  fabrics.  Cellulase   enzyme   is   not   only   a   single   enzyme   but   an   enzyme   which   is     working  on  polymeric  cellulose  molecule.  The  synergic  movement  of  these  2  cellulose  types   on   cotton   fibres     in   convenient   conditions   continues   till   the   cellulose   is  completely  soluble  in  water.    But   this   is   not   required   practically.   Perfect   control   in   applications   ensure  perfect  effects.  The  parameters  which  effect  the  desired  affects  are;machine  type  ,liquor  ratio  ,machine  rpm  ,the  hardness  of  the  water,deactivation  substances  in  water,  yarn  quality,structure  of  the  fabric,gsp  of  the  fabric.    NEUTRAL  CELLULOSE  ENZYMES  (  STONE  ENZYMES  )  Denilase  COLD  Denilase  HOT  Neutral  Cellulases  :  Active  at  pH  6-­‐8    •       Less  effective  than  Acid  cellulases  •       Less  bleeding  •       pH  6  -­‐  8.0  •  They  remove  the  indigo  by  effecting  the  surface  of  the  denim    •  They  break  the  fibres  on  the  surface  of  the    fabric    •  They  make  the  surface  of  the  fabric  lighter    
  15. 15. DBDENIM B O O KACID  CELLULASE(  BIOPOLISHING  )  Denipill  ANNY    Denipill  AP  CONC  Denipill  AP  Denipill  DP  100    Denipill  DP  200    They  are  used  for  getting  a  better  surface  on  the  fabric.They  have  different  names  in  different  application  points.  •       Anti  Pill  Wash      •       De-­‐pill  Wash  •       Flat  Wash  •       Biopolishing          •       Bioplolishing  processes  are  done  by  acid    cellulases.  •       Operating  between    ph  4.5  –  5.5      •       They  attack  on  cellulose  and  break  them  on  their  weakest  point.  •       Usually  in  liquid  form  and  buffer-­‐free.  •       Their  activation  must  be  ended  at  the  end    of  the  process;  By  using  alkali  or  increasing  the  temperature  over  70  ºC  Biofinish   is   becoming   more   popular   recently.The   advantages   of   this   process  are;better   handle,smooth   fabric   surface,softness,less   pilling,   a   brighter   fabric  surface.      If   this   process   is   done   after   dyeing,as   large   dyestuff   molecules   are   bound   to  cellulose   by   covalent   binds,the   efficiency   of   the   enzyme   falls   down   and   more  quantity   of   enzyme   must   be   used   to   get   the   same   affects   at   the   same   period   of  time.      
  16. 16. DB DENIM B O O KBiofinishing  can  cause  a  decrease  on  the  strength  and  weight  of  the  fabric.The  amount  of  the  strength  loss  of  the  fibers  during  enzymatic  process  are  as  below:    Lyocell  <  viscon  <  cotton  <  linen  Another   problem   for   the   tube   formed   fabrics   during   the   biopolishing   is   that  undesired   fibers   are   collected   inner   side   of   the   fabric   and   can   cause   some   other  problems  in  the    
  17. 17. DBDENIM B O O KLACCASE  ENZYME  Denilase  AMON  Denilase  AMON-­‐X  •       It  is  a  kind  of  enzymatic  bleaching  •       It  gives  lighter  shades  without  using  a    bleaching  agent.  •       Gives  grey  cast.  •       Gives  high  contrast.  No  strength  loss.  Indigo  dyestuff  becomes  soluble  in  water  by    oxydoreductase  (Denilase   AMON-­‐X)   and   can   be   removed   from   the   fabric   by   rinsing.   This  process  must  be  supported  by  the  mediator  which  is  inside  of  the  product.    pH   5.5   –   6.5   is   required   for   bleaching   and   doesn’t   cause   any   problem   on   the  leather  or  metallic  accsesories.    
  18. 18. DBDENIM B O O KBut   this   enzyme   is   specific   for   Indigo   dyestuff.Sulphur   and   reactive   dyestuffs  can  not  be  bleached  by  Denilase   AMON-­‐X  .As  the  enzyme  is  effective  for  the  dyestuff,the  strength  loss  of  the  fabric  is  nearly    Due  to  the  pH-­‐value  of  5.5  –  6.5  which  is  necessary  for  this  bleaching  process  stickers  made  of  leather  and  metal  are  treated  carefully  as  well  as  the  garment  itself.  Sulphur  and  reactive  dyestuffs   are   not   affected   by   this   bleaching   system.   It   is   specific   to   indigo  dyestuff.  This  means  there  is  no  attack  to  the  cotton  fibre  and  so  nearly  there  is  no  loss  in  tensile  strength.  Without  any  particular  after-­‐scouring  or  after-­‐bleaching  a  greyer  colour  shade  compared   to   other   bleaching   systems   –   especially   chlorine   bleaching   -­‐   is  obtained.    A  clearer  shade  may  be  achieved  by  after-­‐bleaching  with  hydrogen  peroxide.  It  is  essential  to  rinse  and  wash  after  bleaching.  Then,  a  softener  is  applied  on  the  garment  and  finished  as  normal  When   compared   with   other   bleaching   processes   (especially   chlorite   process),it  gives  a  greyer  cast  without  any  additional  washing  or  bleaching  processesIf  a  brighter   and   more   specific   cast   is   required,an   additional   process   with   peroxide  is  recommended.      Rinsing  and  washing  is  done  after  the  bleaching    and  then  softening  and  the  other  finishing  processes  are  applied.    Laccase  Enzymes  Recipe:  %  0,5  –  1  :    Denilase  AMON  -­‐X  pH.:5.5      Temperature  :    60  º  C  20  -­‐  25  min.  Drain  -­‐  Rinse  –  45  º  C  –  2  min  
  19. 19. DB DENIM BOOKHead  Office   :   Kazimiye  Mah.  Karadeniz  Cad.  Kiliçoğlu  Al@n  Evler  No:  37/5/21    Çorlu  /  Tekirdağ  /  TURKEY   Ph:  90  282  673  62  40      Fax  :  90  282  673  59  75   eyup@denimist.com.tr  Factory   :   Motor  Yerleri  Mevkii  E-­‐5  Uzeri  Ulaş  /  Corlu  /  Tekirdag  /  TURKEY   mustafa@denimist.com.tr    Pakistan   :   Plot  No:  2/C  Lane  No:  3  Itehad  Coom  Phase  –  VI  D.H.A  Karachi  /  PAKISTAN   Ph:  92-­‐21-­‐37820980  –  35348720    Cell  :  92-­‐300-­‐214430   tanveer@denimist.com.tr  Bangladesh   :   Road  36  ,  House  15,  F4,  Gulshan  2,  Dhaka  /BANGLADESH   Cell:  8801741393879   serkan@denimist.com.tr