d n m o k 6 e i b o DENIMIST 2011 DNMSTDENIMDESINGFASHIONARTLIFE ENZYME DB DENIM BOOK D E N I M I S T
DB DENIM B O O K DENIMIST T U R K E Y Since decades Denimist has developed know-‐how in denim ﬁnishing prior to garment manufacturing and also in jeans washing. Our customers derive beneﬁt from this experience.For the fabric production we oﬀer ﬁnishing chemicals which provide the demanded fabric properties such as good sewability, stiﬀness,elasticity and handle. The other ﬁeld of our activity is the recommendation of laundring Procedures for ready-‐made clothing such as trousers, jackets or skirts, shirts. In doing so we have learned that many errors may occur in this complicated production process. The laundry, the last step in the sequence of producers, is faced to diﬃculties which are caused by previous inaccuracies. Therefore, a good cooperation among the steps of jeans manufacturing is required to avoid problems. Fabric producer, garment manufacturer and laundries have to work together to obtain the desired end result. By means of our contacts on both sides of the production process we are able to make our contribution. The technical stuﬀ of Denimist is always ready to help our customers with eventual problems and to modify production procedures according to the respective requirements. Through our numerous contacts which we have got with denim producers, garment manufacturers and laundries during the years we support the team work among all sections of the jeans chain and make our know-‐how available to all of the parties concerned
DB DENIM B O O KWHAT ARE ENZYMES Enzymes are proteins. Like other proteins, enzymes consist of long chains of amino acids held together by peptide bonds. They are present in all living cells, where they perform a vital function by controlling the metabolic processes whereby nutrients are converted into energy and fresh cell material. Furthermore, enzymes take part in the breakdown of food material into simpler compounds. Some of the best known enzymes are those found in the digestive tract where pepsin, trypsin and peptidases breakdown proteins into amino acids, lipases split fats into glycerol and fatty acids, and amylases breakdown starch into simple sugars.
DBDENIM B O O KEnzymes are basically biocatalysts. Enzymes are capable of performing these tasks because, unlike food proteins such as egg albumin, gelatine or soya protein, they help to catalyze reactions. This means that by their mere presence, and without being consumed in the process, enzymes can speed up chemical processes that would otherwise run very slowly, if at all ENZYME PROPERTIES 1. Enzymes are speciﬁc Contrary to inorganic catalysts such as acids, bases, metals and metal oxides, enzymes are very speciﬁc. In other words, each enzyme can breakdown or synthesize one particular compound. In some cases, they limit their action to speciﬁc bonds in the compound with which they react. Most proteases, for instance, can breakdown several types of protein, but in each protein molecule only certain bonds will be cleaved depending on which enzyme is used. 2. Enzymes are very eﬃcient catalysts For example, the enzyme catalase, which is found abundantly in the liver and in the red blood cells, is so eﬃcient that in one minute one enzyme molecule can catalyze the breakdown of ﬁve million molecules of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen. 3. Origin -‐ natural source Enzymes are present in all biological systems. They come from natural systems and when they are degraded, the amino acids of which they are made of can be readily absorbed back into nature. 4. Enzymes work only on renewable raw material Fruits, cereals, milk, fats, meat, cotton, leather and wood are some typical candidates for enzymatic conversion in industry. Both the usable products and the waste of most enzymatic reactions are non-‐toxic and readily broken down.
DB DENIM B O O KHOW ENZYMES WORK In enzymatic reactions,the molecule at the beginning of the process is called substrate . While this molecule is changed into the ﬁnal molecule called substate its self-‐ structure doesn’t change.As long as the enzymes keep their activation,this reactions repeats. The relation between the ezyme and the substrate is similar with the lock-‐key relation. Just like 1 key opens 1 door lock,there is 1 speciﬁc enzyme for 1 substrate.E.g. catalaze enzymes are for peroxide and do not damage tocellulose while breaking peroxide.Cellulases also do not damage peroxide while breaking cellulose.
DB DENIM B O O KCRITICAL POINTS OF USING ENZYMES • There are some parameters to be cautious • About enzymatic processes. • Ph • Temperature • Time • Inactivators such as heavy metals
DB DENIM B O O KNEED OF ENZYMES IN THE TEXTILE INDUSTRY The textile processing industry is classiﬁed into Textile Fabric Processing and Wet Garment Processing to give various ﬁnishes to fabric diﬀerent auxiliaries, polymers, dyes, specialty chemicals are being used abundantly. These chemical sare hazardous in nature. Many of them are carcinogenic and very dangerous to handle, putting life at risk. Most of them are not eco-‐friendly. Due to such hazards, the government and regulatory bodies are banning textile processing using such chemicals or the release of waste liquor into nature. The use of enzymes is the ONLY feasible solution to counteract such problems faced by industrialists today. Enzymes can be used to replace hazardous chemicals, thus saving energy and preventing pollution. They are also highly speciﬁc, which means fewer unwanted side eﬀects and creation of by-‐products in the production process. Enzymes themselves are biodegradable, so they are readily absorbed back into nature. The advantages of enzymes being used in textile industry are as below: • Increasing the speed of reactions. • They ensure the reactions to be happening in mild conditions. • Enzymes provide the possibilities of the control of the processes. • Natural and biologically degradeableç ENZYMATIC DESIZING OF COTTON FABRIC Although many diﬀerent compounds have been used to size fabric over the years, starch has been the most common sizing agent for more than a century and this is still the case today, though use of PVA and gums is on the rise. After
DB DENIM B O O Kweaving, the size must be removed to prepare the fabric for the ﬁnishing steps of bleaching or dyeing. Enzymes are used for desizing woven fabrics because of their highly eﬃcient and speciﬁc way of desizing without harming the yarn . As an example, desizing on a jigger is a simple method where the fabric from one roll is processed in a bath and re-‐wound on another roll. First, the sized fabric is washed in hot water (80-‐ 95°C) to gelatinise the starch. The desizing liquor is then adjusted to pH 5.5-‐7.5 and a temperature of 60-‐80°Cdepending on the enzyme. The fabric then goes through an impregnation stage before the amylase is added. Degraded starch in the form of dextrins is then removed by washing at 90-‐95°C for two minutes. The jigger process is a batch process. By contrast, in modern continuous high-‐speed processes, the reaction time for the enzyme may be as short as 15 seconds. De sizing on pad rolls is continuous in terms of the passage of the fabric. However, a holding time of 2-‐16 hours at 20-‐60°C is required using low-‐temperature alpha-‐ amylases before the size is removed in washing chambers. With high-‐temperature amylases, de sizing reactions can be performed in steam chambers at 95-‐100°C or even higher temperatures to allow a fully continuous process. Denilase TITAN Denim fabric is a yarn dyed fabric . It is dyed as hank Dyeing and then weaved. Sizes are applied on the fabric to avoid the breaking and the dusting due to the high speed and friction of the shuttle. For this purpose , synthetic sizing substances are used such as CMC or starch and Its derivatives. The crucial point of washing starts from here because for a crease-‐free and abrasion-‐free washing , the sizing Substances must be taken oﬀ. This process is easy on synthetic sizing substances as They will be removed by Washing.But when starch based sizes are used, The situation will Be changed as starch is Insoluble in water and must Be broken. For this process alfa -‐ amylase enzymes are wildly used.
DBDENIM B O O KDe sizing enzymes are obtained from bacterias and sensitive to pH and temperature .Otherwise they can not be properly activated. Denılase TITAN can arrange its pH in water but still the pH of the bath is needed to be arranged Between 6-‐7.5 Denılase TITAN is eﬀected by temperature as below. In this point there is a very crutial point which is to be very careful about the steaming contacting the enzyme,otherwise the enzyme loses its activation. Denılase TITAN is most eﬀective at the temperature of 55-‐90°C but for a Controlled process the recommended temperature is 55-‐60°C. Desizing Recipe 0.5 -‐ 1 g/L Denilase TITAN ( amylase enzyme ) 0.5 -‐ 1 g/L Deniwet ZEN ( wetting agent ) 0.5 -‐ 1 g/L Denispers DISPER ( dispersing agent ) Temp : 55-‐60 °C pH : 6.5 -‐ 7 Time : 10 min If you thınk alfa amylases as key theır lock ıs starch. they change the form of starchto a water soluable structure The maın dıﬀerence at alfa amylases ıs temparature stabılıty. so we can classıfy alfa amylases as termo-‐stabıl and non-‐termo stabıl groups.
DBDENIM B O O KENZYMES FOR DENIM FINISHING Most denim jeans or other denim garments are subjected to a wash treatment to give them a slightly worn look. In the traditional stonewashing process, the blue denim is faded bythe abrasive action of lightweight pumice stones on the gar-‐ ment surface, which removes some of the dye. However, too much abrasion can damage the fabric, particularly hems and waistbands. This is why denim ﬁnishers today use cellulases to accelerate the abrasion by loosening the indigo dye on the denim. Since a small dose of enzyme can replace several kilograms of stones, the use of fewer stones results in less damage to garments, less wear on machines, and less pumice dust in the working environment. Productivity canalso be increased through laundry machines containing few-‐ er stones but more garments.
DB DENIM B O O KWith a stone-‐free process, the need for the removal of dust and small stones from the ﬁn-‐ ished garment is reduced. There is also no sediment in the wastewater, which can otherwise block drains The mode of action of cellulases is shown in Figure 3. Denim garments are dyed with indigo, which adheres to the surface of the yarn. The cellulase molecule binds to an exposed ﬁbril(bundles of ﬁbrils make up a ﬁbre) on the surface of the yarn and hydrolyses it, but leaving the interior part of the cotton ﬁbre intact. When the cellulases partly hydrolyse the surface of the ﬁbre, the indigo is partly removed and light areas are created. Both neutral cellulases acting at pH 6-‐8 and acid cellulases acting at pH 4-‐6 are used for the abrasion of denim. There are a number of cellulases available, each with its own spe-‐ cial properties. These can be used either alone or in combi-‐ nation in order to obtain a speciﬁc look. Practical, ready-‐to-‐ use formulations containing enzymes are available. Application research in this area is focused on preventing or enhancing backstaining depending on the style required. Backstaining is deﬁned as the redeposition of released indigo onto the garments. This eﬀect is very important in denim ﬁn-‐ ishing. Backstaining at low pH values (pH 4-‐6) is relatively high, whereas it is signiﬁcantly lower in the neutral pH range. Neutral cellulases are therefore often used when the objective is minimal backstaining Enzymes have opened up new possibilities in denim ﬁnishing by increasing the variety of ﬁnishes available. For example, it is now possible to fade denim to a greater degree without running the risk of damaging the garment.The denim industry is driven by fashion trends. The various cellulases available for modifying the surface of denim give fashion designers a pallet of possibilities for creating new shades and ﬁnishes. The combination of new looks, lower costs, shorter treatment times and less solid waste has made abrasion with enzymes the most widely used fading process today. Incidentally, since the denim fabric is always sized, the complete process also includes desizing of the denim gar-‐ ment.
DB DENIM B O O KCELLULASES FOR THE BIOPOLISHING OF COTTON FABRIC AND LYOCELL Cotton and other natural and man-‐ made cellulosic ﬁbres can be improved by an enzymatic treatment called Biopolishing. The main advantage of Bio-‐ polishing is the prevention of pilling. Cellulases hydrolyse the microﬁbrils (hair or fuzz) protruding from the surface of yarn because they are most susceptible to enzymatic attack. This weakens the microﬁbrils, which tend to break oﬀ from the main body of the ﬁbre and leave a smoother yarn surface. A ball of fuzz is called a pill in the textile trade. These pills can present a serious quality problem since they result in an unattractive, knotty appearance. After biopolishing, the fabric shows a much lower pilling tendency.
DBDENIM B O O KOther beneﬁts of removing fuzz are Cotton and other natural and man-‐ made cellulosic ﬁbres can be improved by an enzymatic treatment called Bio polishing. The main advantage of Bio-‐ polishing is the prevention of pilling. Cellulases hydrolyse the microﬁbrils (hair or fuzz) protruding from the surface of yarn because they are most susceptible to enzymatic attack. This weakens the microﬁbrils, which tend to break oﬀ from the main body of the ﬁbre and leave a smoother yarn surface. A ball of fuzz is called a pill in the textile trade. These pills can present a serious quality problem since they result in an unattractive, knotty appearance. After bio polishing, the fabric shows a much lower pilling tendency. Other beneﬁts of removing fuzz are a softer, smoother feel and superior colour brightness. Unlike conventional softeners, which tend to be washed out and often result in a greasy feel, the softness-‐enhancing eﬀects of bio polishing are washproof and non-‐greasy. For cotton fabrics, the use of bio polishing is optional for upgrading the fabric. However, bio polishing is almost essential for the new polynosic ﬁbre lyocell (the leading make is known by the trade name Tencel®). Lyocell is made from wood pulp and is characterised by a tendency to ﬁbrillate easily when wet. In simple terms, ﬁbrils on the surface of the ﬁbre peel up. If they are not removed, ﬁnished garments made with lyocell will end up covered.
DB DENIM B O O Kin pills. This is the reason why lyo cell fabric is treated with cellulases during ﬁnishing. Cellulases also enhance the attractive, silky appearance of lyocell. Lyocell was invented in 1991 by Courtaulds Fibres (now Acordis, part of Akzo Nobel) and at the time was the ﬁrst new man-‐made ﬁbre created in 30 years CELLULOSE ENZYMES ( STONE AND ANTI-‐PILLING ENZYMES ) They are used for making the surface of the fabric smoother and giving stone aﬀect on denim fabrics. Cellulase enzyme is not only a single enzyme but an enzyme which is working on polymeric cellulose molecule. The synergic movement of these 2 cellulose types on cotton ﬁbres in convenient conditions continues till the cellulose is completely soluble in water. But this is not required practically. Perfect control in applications ensure perfect eﬀects. The parameters which eﬀect the desired aﬀects are;machine type ,liquor ratio ,machine rpm ,the hardness of the water,deactivation substances in water, yarn quality,structure of the fabric,gsp of the fabric. NEUTRAL CELLULOSE ENZYMES ( STONE ENZYMES ) Denilase COLD Denilase HOT Neutral Cellulases : Active at pH 6-‐8 • Less eﬀective than Acid cellulases • Less bleeding • pH 6 -‐ 8.0 • They remove the indigo by eﬀecting the surface of the denim • They break the ﬁbres on the surface of the fabric • They make the surface of the fabric lighter
DBDENIM B O O KACID CELLULASE( BIOPOLISHING ) Denipill ANNY Denipill AP CONC Denipill AP Denipill DP 100 Denipill DP 200 They are used for getting a better surface on the fabric.They have diﬀerent names in diﬀerent application points. • Anti Pill Wash • De-‐pill Wash • Flat Wash • Biopolishing • Bioplolishing processes are done by acid cellulases. • Operating between ph 4.5 – 5.5 • They attack on cellulose and break them on their weakest point. • Usually in liquid form and buﬀer-‐free. • Their activation must be ended at the end of the process; By using alkali or increasing the temperature over 70 ºC Bioﬁnish is becoming more popular recently.The advantages of this process are;better handle,smooth fabric surface,softness,less pilling, a brighter fabric surface. If this process is done after dyeing,as large dyestuﬀ molecules are bound to cellulose by covalent binds,the eﬃciency of the enzyme falls down and more quantity of enzyme must be used to get the same aﬀects at the same period of time.
DB DENIM B O O KBioﬁnishing can cause a decrease on the strength and weight of the fabric.The amount of the strength loss of the ﬁbers during enzymatic process are as below: Lyocell < viscon < cotton < linen Another problem for the tube formed fabrics during the biopolishing is that undesired ﬁbers are collected inner side of the fabric and can cause some other problems in the
DBDENIM B O O KLACCASE ENZYME Denilase AMON Denilase AMON-‐X • It is a kind of enzymatic bleaching • It gives lighter shades without using a bleaching agent. • Gives grey cast. • Gives high contrast. No strength loss. Indigo dyestuﬀ becomes soluble in water by oxydoreductase (Denilase AMON-‐X) and can be removed from the fabric by rinsing. This process must be supported by the mediator which is inside of the product. pH 5.5 – 6.5 is required for bleaching and doesn’t cause any problem on the leather or metallic accsesories.
DBDENIM B O O KBut this enzyme is speciﬁc for Indigo dyestuﬀ.Sulphur and reactive dyestuﬀs can not be bleached by Denilase AMON-‐X .As the enzyme is eﬀective for the dyestuﬀ,the strength loss of the fabric is nearly Due to the pH-‐value of 5.5 – 6.5 which is necessary for this bleaching process stickers made of leather and metal are treated carefully as well as the garment itself. Sulphur and reactive dyestuﬀs are not aﬀected by this bleaching system. It is speciﬁc to indigo dyestuﬀ. This means there is no attack to the cotton ﬁbre and so nearly there is no loss in tensile strength. Without any particular after-‐scouring or after-‐bleaching a greyer colour shade compared to other bleaching systems – especially chlorine bleaching -‐ is obtained. A clearer shade may be achieved by after-‐bleaching with hydrogen peroxide. It is essential to rinse and wash after bleaching. Then, a softener is applied on the garment and ﬁnished as normal When compared with other bleaching processes (especially chlorite process),it gives a greyer cast without any additional washing or bleaching processesIf a brighter and more speciﬁc cast is required,an additional process with peroxide is recommended. Rinsing and washing is done after the bleaching and then softening and the other ﬁnishing processes are applied. Laccase Enzymes Recipe: % 0,5 – 1 : Denilase AMON -‐X pH.:5.5 Temperature : 60 º C 20 -‐ 25 min. Drain -‐ Rinse – 45 º C – 2 min