FORMULATING GOALS AND OBJECTIVESGoals are a way of putting into word the main purposes and intendedoutcomes of courses. They are general statements, but they are not vague.Goals must be explicit about what the students realistically should get out ofthe program within the constrains and resources of the course. They alsoprovide a map of what teachers need to assess. We don’t have to use jargon.They are relatively long termNote: Because of the unpredictability of happenings in the classroom, goalsshould be flexible enough to change, if they are not appropriate. i.e., “By theend of the course students will have developed the ability to use everydayexpressions to satisfy immediate needs in a variety of situations.”Objectives are statements about how the goals will be achieved. Main (orgeneral) objectives can be broken down into smaller specific objectives.Objectives are in a hierarchical relationship to goals. Teachers usually organizethree layers of goals and objectives. Each layer is more and more specific.Objectives are relatively short term. Objectives and goals should be in a cause-effect relationship. “If objective, then goal.”
Four-Part Scheme of Goal Broad and Objectives form the Goal Australian Language Levels Specific Specific Goal Goal General General General Objectives Objectives Objectives Specific Specific Specific Specific Specific Specific Specific Specific SpecificObjectives Objectives Objectives Objectives Objectives Objectives Objectives Objectives Objectives
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OF GOALS KASA ATASK PCAT Department of Language David Thomson Stern (1992) Teacher Education at the Awareness goals School for International Teacher goals Proficiency goals Training Attitude goals Cognitive goals Skill goals Affective goals Knowledge goals Knowledge goals Transfer goals Awareness goals Skill goals Attitude goals Denise Maksail-Fine LSSPMFred Genesee and John Upshur (1996) Listening goalsLanguage goals Speaking goalsStrategic goals Reading goalsSocio-affective goals Writing goalsPhilosophical goals Cross-cultural skill goalsMethod or process goals Cooperative learning skill goals
HOW KASA FRAMEWORK WORKSKnowledge goals address what students will know and understand (aboutlanguage, culture and society)Awareness goals address what students need to be aware of when learning alanguage, how the language works, others’ use of language, the strategies theyuse as learners and extra linguistic factors in communication.Skill goals address what students can do with the language. (Listening,speaking, reading, writing, as well as functions and tasks studentsaccomplishers through language)Attitude goals address the affective and values-base dimension of learning.
FORMULATING OBJECTIVESRobert Mager (1962 )Mager, based on the behaviorism and stimulus responsetheories of learning, suggests that Performance objectivesshould contain three components: performance, condition, andcriterion which describe what the learner will be able to do, thecircumstances in which the learners are able to do something,and the degree to which they are able to do something.Brown (1995) adds subject and measure, that is, who will beable to do something, and how the performance will be tested.“The most specific one can be, the more useful andcomprehensible the objective will be to others” Denise Maksail-Fine successfully used the way she conceptualized content as the framework for her goals and elements of the Mager/ Brown formula as the framework for her objectives.
GOALS, CONTENT AND SEQUENCINGIt is possible to plan or evaluate the content of courses by looking at Language,Ideas, Skills, or Text (Discourse).Even if the selection of content for a course is based on topics, themes orsituations, it is useful to check the language items that are covered to select themost useful ones.The way smaller goals and objectives are detailed will depend partly on the unitof progression for the course.The Units of ProgressionThe UP are the items that are used to grade the progress of the course.Long and Crookes (1993) call units of progression “Units of analysis” and arguethat their selection should be one of the starting points of curriculum design.The UP can be classified into two types: (1) Those that progress in a definiteseries, such as vocabulary levels, and (2) those that represent a field ofknowledge that could be covered in any order, such as topics.The order of items within a course is determined by pedagogical considerationsan constraints such as: learner’s interest, available resources, and recycling ofmaterial.
WHAT WILL THE PROGRESSION BE USED FOR?Units of Progression can be used for: Setting targets and paths to those targets Checking the adequacy of selection and ordering in a course Monitoring and reporting on learners’ progress and achievement in the course Note: although a course may seem to have several units of progression, there is usually one on which the others are dependent. We must study the changes in each lesson and what reoccurs in order to define which of the units of progression is the controller.
Starting point Type Units of Determinants of Progression ProgressionVocabulary Series Words Frequency levels Occurrence in taskGrammar Series Grammatical Frequency Constructions Acquisition stages ComplexityLanguage Use Field FunctionsIdeas Field Topics ThemesDiscourse Field Topic types GenreSituations and roles Field Situations RolesComponent Skills Series Sub-skills Order of complexityStrategies Field StrategiesOutcomes Field Real life outcomes Task outcomes
The sequencing of vocabulary in a course can be based on frequency levels. Onthe contrary, the sequencing of vocabulary should not be based on lexical setsgroups of synonyms or opposites. Tinkham (1993) “There should be the opportunity for learners to meet the same vocabulary in a variety of context and cross the four stands of a course.”Sequencing of Grammar items in a course would consist of “verb form frequencycount”. George (1963) suggests two stages. The stage 1 may be a course with1500 to 2000 words over roughly two years of five weekly periods of English.ImperativeDon’t + ImperativeSimple present (Actual and Natural)Verb + (to + Verb)Simple past (Narrative and Actual)Past participle
Stage 2 Simple past (Neutral and Habitual) Many courses use Past Perfect (from Simple past narrative) grammar as the major Verb + ing (in Free Adjuncts) unit of progression. Noun + to + verb However, the selection Simple present (Iterative and Future) and sequencing of the Verb + to + (Verb dominant) items gives no Verb + Noun + to + Verb consideration of the Noun + Preposition + Verb + ing value of learning Verb + ed (as Adjective in a Noun group) particular items. Verb + ing (as Adjective in a Noun group) Verb +ing (as noun) Infrequent items can be Can + Verb (immediately and characteristically able) usefully introduced in May + Verb (possibility and uncertainty) courses where they are ‘ll + Verb needed to be learned as Must + Verb (necessity from circunstances) memorized phrases.