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Is Auto the New Android?

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At LinuxCon NA 2012, Dave Gruber's session drew comparisons between software in the auto industry and the Android mobile OS, exploring what it would mean to port many of the apps that are on …

At LinuxCon NA 2012, Dave Gruber's session drew comparisons between software in the auto industry and the Android mobile OS, exploring what it would mean to port many of the apps that are on smartphone into cars.

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  • Why is Free and Open Software (FOSS) so important?Leading market research firms, including Forrester, Gartner, IDC, and the 451 Group identify innovation and development flexibility/agility as key objectives for development organizations, and that development organizations look to leverage FOSS as a key means by which they can achieve those goals. Black Duck is dedicated to enabling development organizations with FOSS as an integral part of a multi-source development process.
  • What initiatives are underway?While there are proprietary IVI platforms, like Microsoft’s CE IVI platform, QSS QNX IVI platform, Microltron (primarily in Japan), Android is being explored and tested for use by a few auto manufacturesLinux as a standalone, core platform GENIVI is the biggest, best organizedBuilding a stand-alone IVI system costs $20m - $50m 50/50 HW/SE ~200 man-years of effort~50% of SW costs could be eliminated by agreeing on a standard IVI platform Early requirements are mobile device connectivity to the auto, an arch for apps to be downloaded to the IVI head unit, and 3rd Internet radio.
  • Infotainment in the car has become important and a differentiator in the car-buying decisions. 70% of the code in a high end car is in the head unit driving infotainment.Development and validation costs continue to spiral upward as the amount of software required rockets.Companies like Apple with its powerful developer kit and app-store model, Google with its connected services, and Personal Navigation Device leaders like TomTom have created a situation where car drivers and passengers want to access the same functionality in their car. Historically, automotive infotainment solutions are based on small real-time operating systems that are extended in an attempt to support the required functionality. This is a continually evolving target that leaves the industry constantly playing catch up. The problem is compounded by the fact that the industry exists within its own little bubble. Each participating Tier 1 develops complete solutions, competing at every level in the architecture to deliver relatively low-volume bespoke devices. The scale of the task is reflected in the required investment levels. Costs in excess of 100 million Euros are not uncommon for the development of a new Tier 1 platform.
  • Consumer electronics are outpacing the auto industryAuto customers are frustratedIVI is progressing too slowly
  • Why is this all happening?Dev cycles are 3-4 years in the auto industryMillions of LOC in every car platformToo many layers to build and maintainNo standards to help supply change
  • Feature needs: Voice recognition, touch screen, 3D graphics, Heads-up display, gesture recognition, steering wheel controls, Text to speech.Connectivity - SD Cards, USB, Bluetooth, WiFi connections, What’s the right balance for what stays in the smart phone and what is in the head unit? This question remains.
  • As a mobile device itself, it must function as a master for communication with portable consumer devices and as a client for connection to the cloud. It must avoid driver distraction through its ease of use; it must have the speed and reliability of an embedded device, but the rich user functionality and ecosystem support of a PC. At the heart of the answer is the middleware. The middleware provides the hardware and software abstraction for the applications whilst providing the services upon which the applications depend.The automotive infotainment middleware solution must effectively merge the feature-rich aspects of consumer products whilst preserving the enhanced quality and robustness requirements of automotive.
  • US National Highway Traffic and Safety Administration, NHTSA
  • What initiatives are underway?While there are proprietary IVI platforms, like Microsoft’s CE IVI platform, QSS QNX IVI platform, Microltron (primarily in Japan), Android is being explored and tested for use by a few auto manufacturesLinux as a standalone, core platform GENIVI is the biggest, best organizedBuilding a stand-alone IVI system costs $20m - $50m 50/50 HW/SE ~200 man-years of effort~50% of SW costs could be eliminated by agreeing on a standard IVI platform Early requirements are mobile device connectivity to the auto, an arch for apps to be downloaded to the IVI head unit, and 3rd Internet radio.
  • What initiatives are underway?While there are proprietary IVI platforms, like Microsoft’s CE IVI platform, QSS QNX IVI platform, Microltron (primarily in Japan), Android is being explored and tested for use by a few auto manufacturesLinux as a standalone, core platform GENIVI is the biggest, best organizedBuilding a stand-alone IVI system costs $20m - $50m 50/50 HW/SE ~200 man-years of effort~50% of SW costs could be eliminated by agreeing on a standard IVI platform Early requirements are mobile device connectivity to the auto, an arch for apps to be downloaded to the IVI head unit, and 3rd Internet radio.
  • Based on GENIVI’s achievements and OEM adoption, membership is expected to grow significantly in the near future and continuously over the long term
  • A closer look at GENIVIGENIVI was launched to serve three primary purposes: 1. To provide the forum within which the required critical mass would be established. The product demand is necessary to kick start the approach and create momentum behind the alignment of the ecosystem. 2. To host the technical programs within which the open infotainment platform would be developed, maintained, and promoted and its users protected. 3. To establish a compliance program that would enable GENIVI-based products to be obtained from multiple open source and commercial sources.
  • GENIVI’s targeted stack components will be non-differentiating or ‘commodity’ features – typically middleware. Higher stack levels such as HMI and apps will be focal point of IVI competition
  • 80% of the GENIVI Platform components will be obtained through open source. 15% will be adapted from open source for automotive compliancy and 5% will be custom code developed by GENIVI
  • Slide highlights:- Deployment of the GENIVI model drives a significant reduction in code created specifically for a proprietary architecture. Example of above Proprietary or Classic to GENIVI Implementation comparison highlights this reduction from a member’s development experience.
  • What initiatives are underway?While there are proprietary IVI platforms, like Microsoft’s CE IVI platform, QSS QNX IVI platform, Microltron (primarily in Japan), Android is being explored and tested for use by a few auto manufacturesLinux as a standalone, core platform GENIVI is the biggest, best organizedBuilding a stand-alone IVI system costs $20m - $50m 50/50 HW/SE ~200 man-years of effort~50% of SW costs could be eliminated by agreeing on a standard IVI platform Early requirements are mobile device connectivity to the auto, an arch for apps to be downloaded to the IVI head unit, and 3rd Internet radio.

Transcript

  • 1. Is Auto The New Android?Dave GruberDirector of Developer ProgramsBlack Duck Software @black_duck_sw
  • 2. In This Session We Will:1. Explore the automotive opportunity2. Auto initiatives currently underway3. Compare and contrast the automotive platform with Android4. Explore how you can prepare to participate 2
  • 3. Automotive 101 3
  • 4. GlossaryInfotainment “Information-based media content or programming that also includes entertainment content in an effort to enhance popularity with audiences and consumers.”IVI “In-Vehicle-Infotainment”Headunit “the logical interface between the car and consumer space. Provides the user experience in the car.”OEM “the automaker” (GM, BMW, Ford, etc.)Tier 1 suppliers “companies that OEMs contract with to supply IVI units (Delphi, Alpine, etc)”Tier 2 suppliers “HW/SW companies providing components to Tier-1s” 4
  • 5. IVI HeadUnit – No Longer “Just a Car Radio” 5
  • 6. Automotive Trends – Things are Changing Value is shifting from manufacturing/assembly to Software – New “players” - IT and electronics companies IVI Head Unit evolves as a multiuser, social and Cloud access platform Balancing in-house development vs. strategic alliances with suppliers and competitors Emerging “Always-ON” IVI integration with social net’s – Road hazards, Traffic conditions, Police / radar alerts – Internet, iPhone/iPad, Car-to-car communications 6
  • 7. Industry Dynamics1. An insatiable customer appetite for functionality – Infotainment in the car has become important and a differentiator in the car-buying decisions2. Complexity and cost – Development and validation costs continue to spiral upward as the amount of software required rockets3. Aggressive competition from the consumer electronics 7
  • 8. Auto Customers are Frustrated! Consumer Electronics IVI vs.• $hundreds • $thousands• Latest • Out-of-date innovations immediately 8
  • 9. Why? consumerDev cycles auto Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 appsLife Cycle consumer auto Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Yr. 10-30Amount of SW Lines of CodeComplexity &Lack of standards 9
  • 10. Supply Chain Adds ComplexityTier 3Supplier Tier 2 Supplier CustomerTier 3 Tier 1Supplier Tier 2 Supplier CustomerTier 3 Supplier DealershipSupplier CustomerTier 3 Tier 2 Dealership CustomerSupplier Supplier Customer Tier 1 DealershipTier 3 Tier 2 OEMSupplier Supplier Supplier CustomerTier 3 Tier 2 Dealership CustomerSupplier Supplier CustomerTier 3 DealershipSupplier CustomerTier 3 Tier 2 Tier 1 Dealership CustomerSupplier Supplier SupplierTier 3 CustomerSupplier
  • 11. Headunit RequirementsToday’s needs: Speech recognition, touch screen, 3Dgraphics, heads-up display, gesture recognition, steeringwheel controls, text to speechConnectivity: SD Cards, USB, Bluetooth, WiFiconnections, satellite radioSoon: App stores, cloud services, social networking What’s the right balance?…for what stays in the portable consumer device versus what goes in the head unit? 11
  • 12. A Closer Look at the Auto PlatformThe head unit middleware must:  Communicate with portable consumer devices  Be a client for the cloud  Have the speed and reliability of an embedded device  Interface with auto-specific events  Provide the rich user functionality and ecosystem support of a PC  Avoid driver distraction through ease of use 12
  • 13. Driver Distraction Legislation is growing in most states with mobile device restrictions – US national Highway Traffic and Safety Administration Distractions cause accidents and death – Texting is on the top of the list! IVI therefore needs to respond – Entering a GPS location – only when stopped So what are the rules? – Studies are underway, best practices & guidelines will emerge soon 13
  • 14. Limiting Driver Distraction – The basics No eye candy Limit glances to 1-2 seconds (break down tasks into 2 second steps) Ensure static positioning (predictable) Limit menus Short total task duration (10-15 seconds) Limit/no reminder prompts Driver MUST be able to pause at any time in the task (without further prompting) 14
  • 15. What auto initiatives are underway? 15
  • 16. Platforms & ConnectivityProprietary IVI platforms – Microsoft’s CE IVI platform – QNX CAR 2 IVI platform – Microltron IVI (primarily in Japan)Device connectivity – MirrorLink, Car Connectivity Consortium (CCC) – FORD’s OpenXC – Renault ConnectOpen platform initiatives – Android is being explored and tested by a few OEMs – GENIVI is the largest, best organized  Certified GENIVI compliant implementations: Tizen, Mentor Graphics IVI, MontaVista IVI, Ubuntu Remix IVI and Wind River IVI 16
  • 17. GENIVIThe GENIVI Alliance is a non-profit industry alliancedriving the broad adoption of an (IVI) open-sourcedevelopment platform – Launched in March 2009 – Founded by BMW, Wind River, GM, PSA, Delphi, Magneti- Marelli, and Visteon – Members-only consortium at this time, but it seems inevitable that it will open up – Now 162 companies participating – Linux is the foundation – Basic building blocks are in place 17
  • 18. GENIVI Alliance Ecosystem Members13 OEMs, 20 Tier-1s, 18 Silicon Cos, 100+ SW/Tech Cos 18
  • 19. A Closer Look at GENIVIGENIVI was launched to serve three primary purposes: 1. Build critical mass/ecosystem 2. Establish the technical program/architecture 3. Implement a compliance program  supporting both open source & commercial 19
  • 20. GENIVI Targets Non-differentiating Layers HMI - Human Machine Interface OSV Apps Extensions Libs Open Source IVI Stack Open Source Kernel 20
  • 21. GENIVI Solution Stack Adopt – Adapt – CreateGOAL:Cut IVI Product GENIVI ReferenceDevelopment Reference HMIFrom 7+ yearsDown to <2! Reference Apps 5% GENIVI 15% Code GENIVI Platform 80% 15% adapted open source 5% custom Hardware 21
  • 22. Shell (bash) BIOS (Intel) Boot Loader (GRUB) Perl Interpreter GNU libc-2.5 Python Interpreter AutoSAR Initialisation Scripts Abstraction Layer Traffic Info Manager Macromedia Flash CE Device Manager Persistence Manager Browser Browser Core Engine App C/C++ API Bindings Nuance ASR Telephony Telephony Core App Nuance TTS platform HMI Layer X-Org SMS SMS Core App IEGD Drivers Kernel (linux-2.6.21) IP Stack v6 PIM PIM Core App Network Manager Hardware Design XXX XXX VMOST Client Library Socket Layer VMOST Dispatcher Core App Adaptation Code MOST FBlocks SMSC Net Services XXX XXX Core App WEB Server Audio Manager XXX XXX Core App Parrot Bluetooth Stack / Profiles Multimedia Player Application Helix Framework A/V Codecs Other IPC (D-BUS) Applications Integrated HMI for Non Applications Code created by the 1st tier. Evolution Framework Classic/Proprietary BSP Navigation partners pre-integrated in the 3D Engine MAP GraceNote CDDB Engine Licensed code from eco-system User interface logic and graphics Misc Libraries / Components Tier- OEM Tier-1 Package Product 1Plattform Commercial Shell (bash) BIOS (Intel) Boot Loader (GRUB) Perl Interpreter GNU libc-2.5 Python Interpreter AutoSAR Initialisation Scripts Abstraction Layer Traffic Info Manager Macromedia Flash CE Device Manager Persistence Manager Browser Browser Core Engine App C/C++ API Bindings Nuance ASR Telephony Telephony Core App Nuance TTS HMI Layer X-Org SMS SMS Core App IEGD Drivers Kernel (linux-2.6.21) IP Stack v6 PIM PIM Core App Network Manager Hardware Design XXX XXX VMOST Client Library Socket Layer VMOST Dispatcher Core App Adaptation Code MOST FBlocks SMSC Net Services XXX XXX IVI Implementation Model Comparison Core App WEB Server Audio Manager XXX XXX Core App Parrot Bluetooth Stack / Profiles Multimedia Player Application Helix Framework A/V Codecs Other IPC (D-BUS) GENIVI/Open Source Applications Integrated HMI for Non Applications Evolution Framework BSP Navigation User interface logic and graphics 3D Engine MAP GraceNote CDDB Engine Open Source Kernel / Open Source Misc Libraries / Components Code created for automotive compliance22 OIP OEM Tier-1 Package Package Package Opensourc Commercia
  • 23. Contrasting Android & Auto 23
  • 24. Contrasting Auto & Android - Similarities Mobile/Android AutoCompetition Apple vs. all Consumer elect vs. IVICollaboration Open Handset GENIVI alliance AllianceLeadership Google OEMs & ConsortiumsAudience Highly diverse Highly diverseExternal Cloud, auto, other Cloud, mobileInterfacesFunction Utility, social & Utility, social & entertainment entertainment 24
  • 25. Contrasting Auto & Android - Differences Mobile Android AutoOperating Connected or Multi-state:environment disconnected parked, in- motion, engine running or not.Apps & All apps = IVI vs. core (corepriorities (limited priority) has priority)Screens Generally small Mid-sizeConnectivity >95% connected <50% connectedUsage Almost none Distraction, in-restrictions motionSupply Chain Well defined Broad & complex 25
  • 26. HTML5 – Another Similarity HMI layer converging - shaping up to be the UI approach of choice Least/most common denominator Will allow apps to be deployed on both CE & IVI As an open standard, HTML5 avoids vendor lock-in Leverage CSS to brand for different platforms
  • 27. What the Auto Industry is Learning from Android Letting mass innovation drive requirements accelerates platform evolution Software is the differentiator Aggressively leveraging open source can reduce complexity and lower costs Leveling the playing field allows differentiation to occur higher up in the stack 27
  • 28. Getting Involved Early with GENIVI Members only BUT… supply chain is deep! With 160+ companies involved, ecosystem is big Companies outside of auto are involved GENIVI has already declared that they want to recruit an ecosystem where open source developers can participate “GENIVIs three tiered member program encourages companies of all sizes to participate, collaborate, and contribute to the success of our shared mission.” http://www.genivi.org/ 28
  • 29. Final Thoughts IVI is going to be big Could be 2-5 years to get to a where Android is today This is an opportunity worth watching closely Early participants will have first-mover advantage The auto industry needs help!! Keep your eye on GENIVITo learn more, read the OSS RevolutionizingAutomotive Supply Chains Whitepaper dgruber@blackducksoftware.com @davegruber5 29