DEVELOPMENT OF A WIRELESS SENSOR
NETWORK POWERED BY ENERGY
HARVESTING TECHNIQUES
Daniele Costarella

Develer – Campi Bisen...
November 6th, 2013

Energy Harvesting Workshop

Outline
•  Energy Harvesting Basics
•  What are the benefits? Where is it ...
November 6th, 2013

Common EH Systems

Energy Harvesting Workshop

3
November 6th, 2013

Energy Harvesting Workshop

4

Energy Harvesting Basics
•  Energy Harvesting is the process by which e...
November 6th, 2013

Energy Harvesting Workshop

5

Common EH Sources
Energy Source

Performance
(Power Density)

Notes

So...
November 6th, 2013

Energy Harvesting Workshop

6

Design challenges in conventional WSN
•  Sensor node has limited energy...
November 6th, 2013

Energy Harvesting Workshop

7

Energy Harvesting in Wireless Sensor
Networks
•  Wireless Sensor nodes ...
November 6th, 2013

Energy Harvesting Workshop

8

Wireless Sensor Node
Main subsystems

Power unit
Piezoelectric
generato...
November 6th, 2013

Energy Harvesting Workshop

9

Wireless Sensor Node
Power consumption distribution for a wireless sens...
November 6th, 2013

Energy Harvesting Workshop

10

Energy sources
•  Vibrating piezos generate an A/C output
•  Electrica...
November 6th, 2013

Energy Harvesting Workshop

Energy Storage
Option 1: Traditional Rechargeable Batteries
•  Inefficient...
November 6th, 2013

Energy Harvesting Workshop

Supply management: LTC3588
•  The LTC3588 is a high efficiency

integrated...
November 6th, 2013

Energy Harvesting Workshop

Supply management: LTC3588
A simple circuit simulation

13
November 6th, 2013

Energy Harvesting Workshop

Supply management: LTC3588
A simple circuit simulation with a 47uF output ...
November 6th, 2013

Energy Harvesting Workshop

Supply management: LTC3588
We could increase the output capacitance to 220...
November 6th, 2013

Energy Harvesting Workshop

Supply management: LTC3588
And if we choose an even larger capacity? Ex. 1...
November 6th, 2013

Energy Harvesting Workshop

Anatomy of the WSN node

17
November 6th, 2013

Energy Harvesting Workshop

18

Battery Output vs. EH Module Output
November 6th, 2013

Energy Harvesting Workshop

Energy Available vs. Time

19
November 6th, 2013

Demoboard Project
•  Design of a multisource Energy

Harvesting Wireless Sensor Node
•  Development of...
November 6th, 2013

Energy Harvesting Workshop

Power supply circuit
Piezo
Solar

TEG

Primary Charge
Supercap

21
November 6th, 2013

Energy Harvesting Workshop

Prototyping
On board:
•  40-Pin Flash Microcontroller

with nanoWatt XLP T...
November 6th, 2013

Energy Harvesting Workshop

Signal analysis

Fig. A: Duty cycle

Fig. B: TX pulse length (Zoom View)

...
November 6th, 2013

Energy Harvesting Workshop

Code Diagram

Fig. A: Init

Fig. B: Main Loop

24
November 6th, 2013

Payload structure

Energy Harvesting Workshop

25
November 6th, 2013

Data analysis
•  Web interface
•  Real time graphics
•  History

•  Views
•  Temperature
•  Supercapac...
November 6th, 2013

Energy Harvesting Workshop

Data analysis: examples

Fig. A: Temperature

Fig. B: Input Voltage (VIN)
...
DEMO
November 6th, 2013

Energy Harvesting Workshop

Board specifications
Feature

Description

Sources:

Solar / TEG / Piezoel...
November 6th, 2013

Energy Harvesting Workshop

30

References
Energy Harvesting Technologies
Springer
By Shashank Priya a...
November 6th, 2013

Energy Harvesting Workshop

Thank you

@dcostarella
http://it.linkedin.com/in/danielecostarella

31
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Development of a Wireless Sensors Network powered by Energy Harvesting techniques

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Develer Workshop:
A workshop focused on the principles and benefits of applying the Energy Harvesting techniques on Wireless Sensor Networks. The contents come from my Better Embedded 2013 talk.

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Development of a Wireless Sensors Network powered by Energy Harvesting techniques

  1. 1. DEVELOPMENT OF A WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK POWERED BY ENERGY HARVESTING TECHNIQUES Daniele Costarella Develer – Campi Bisenzio, FI, Italy – November 6th, 2013
  2. 2. November 6th, 2013 Energy Harvesting Workshop Outline •  Energy Harvesting Basics •  What are the benefits? Where is it useful? Important aspects. •  Piezoelectric, Thermoelectric and Solar Sources •  Selecting the Right Transducers, piezogenerator models, capabilities, limitations •  Converting Harvested Energy into a Regulated Output •  Rectification, start-up, efficiency, and over-voltage concerns •  Integrated solution in a WSN •  Challenges Design of a EH-WSN node, prototyping •  Data analysis 2
  3. 3. November 6th, 2013 Common EH Systems Energy Harvesting Workshop 3
  4. 4. November 6th, 2013 Energy Harvesting Workshop 4 Energy Harvesting Basics •  Energy Harvesting is the process by which energy readily available from the environment is captured and converted into usable electrical energy •  This term frequently refers to small autonomous devices, or micro energy harvesting •  Ideal for substituting for batteries that are impractical, costly, or dangerous to replace.
  5. 5. November 6th, 2013 Energy Harvesting Workshop 5 Common EH Sources Energy Source Performance (Power Density) Notes Solar: •  Outdoor, direct sunlight •  Outdoor, cloudy •  Indoor 15 mW / cm2 0.15 mW /cm2 10 uW / cm2 Power per unit with a Conversion efficiency of 15% Mechanical •  Machinery 100-1000 uW /cm3 •  Human body 110 uW / cm3 Ex. 800 uW / cm3 @ 2mm e 2.5 kHz Ex. 4 uW / cm3 @ 5 mm and 1 Hz •  •  Acoustic noise Airflow 1 uW / cm2 @ 100 dB 750 uW / cm2 @ 5 m/s Thermic •  Temperature gradients •  EM radiation 1-1000 uW / cm3 It depends on the specific conditions with respect to the Betz limit Depends on the average temperature. Distance: 5 m from a 1W source @ 2.4 GHz (free space)
  6. 6. November 6th, 2013 Energy Harvesting Workshop 6 Design challenges in conventional WSN •  Sensor node has limited energy supply •  Hard to replace/recharge nodes’ batteries once deployed, due to •  Number of nodes in network is high •  Deployed in large area and difficult locations like hostile environments, forests, inside walls, etc •  Nodes are ad hoc deployed and distributed •  No human intervention to interrupt nodes’ operations •  WSN performances highly dependent on energy supply •  Higher performances demand more energy supply •  Bottleneck of Conventional WSN is ENERGY
  7. 7. November 6th, 2013 Energy Harvesting Workshop 7 Energy Harvesting in Wireless Sensor Networks •  Wireless Sensor nodes are designed to operate in a very low duty cycle •  The sensor node is put to the sleep mode most of the time and it is activated to perform sensing and communication when needed •  Moderate power consumption in active mode, and very low power consumption while in sleep (or idle) mode •  Advantages: •  Recharge batteries or similar in sensor nodes using EH •  Prolong WSN operational lifetime or even infinite life span •  Growing interest from academia, military and industry •  Reduces installation and operating costs •  System reliability enhancement
  8. 8. November 6th, 2013 Energy Harvesting Workshop 8 Wireless Sensor Node Main subsystems Power unit Piezoelectric generator Sensing subsystem Sensors Solar source TEG ADC Computing subsystem Communication subsystem MCU •  Memory •  SPI •  UART Radio
  9. 9. November 6th, 2013 Energy Harvesting Workshop 9 Wireless Sensor Node Power consumption distribution for a wireless sensor node 25% Computing Subsystem Sensing Subsystem 60% 15% Communication Subsystem
  10. 10. November 6th, 2013 Energy Harvesting Workshop 10 Energy sources •  Vibrating piezos generate an A/C output •  Electrical output depends on frequency and acceleration •  Open circuit voltages may be quite high at high g-levels •  Output impedances also quite high •  TEGs are simply thermoelectric modules that convert a temperature differential across across the device, and resulting heat flow through it, into a voltage •  Based on Seebeck effect •  Output voltage range: 10 mV/K to 50 mV/K •  A solar cell converts the energy of light directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect •  The output power of the cell is proportional to the brightness of the light landing on the cell, the total area and the efficiency
  11. 11. November 6th, 2013 Energy Harvesting Workshop Energy Storage Option 1: Traditional Rechargeable Batteries •  Inefficient charging (lots of energy converted to heat) •  Limited numbed of charging cycles Option 2: Capacitors •  Efficient charging •  Limited capacity Option 3: Super Capacitors •  Small size •  High efficiency •  Very high capacity ( from 1 up to 5000F or so) 11
  12. 12. November 6th, 2013 Energy Harvesting Workshop Supply management: LTC3588 •  The LTC3588 is a high efficiency integrated hysteretic buck DC/DC converter •  Collects energy from the piezoelectric transducer and delivers regulated outputs up to 100mA •  Integrated low-loss full-wave bridge rectifier •  Requires 950nA of quiescent current (in regulation) and 450nA in UVLO 12
  13. 13. November 6th, 2013 Energy Harvesting Workshop Supply management: LTC3588 A simple circuit simulation 13
  14. 14. November 6th, 2013 Energy Harvesting Workshop Supply management: LTC3588 A simple circuit simulation with a 47uF output capacitor 14
  15. 15. November 6th, 2013 Energy Harvesting Workshop Supply management: LTC3588 We could increase the output capacitance to 2200uF 15
  16. 16. November 6th, 2013 Energy Harvesting Workshop Supply management: LTC3588 And if we choose an even larger capacity? Ex. 1F 16
  17. 17. November 6th, 2013 Energy Harvesting Workshop Anatomy of the WSN node 17
  18. 18. November 6th, 2013 Energy Harvesting Workshop 18 Battery Output vs. EH Module Output
  19. 19. November 6th, 2013 Energy Harvesting Workshop Energy Available vs. Time 19
  20. 20. November 6th, 2013 Demoboard Project •  Design of a multisource Energy Harvesting Wireless Sensor Node •  Development of a demoboard with Energy Harvesting capabilities, including RF communication and Temperature sensor •  Additional supercap for longer backup operation •  Very customizable to the end users’ needs Energy Harvesting Workshop 20
  21. 21. November 6th, 2013 Energy Harvesting Workshop Power supply circuit Piezo Solar TEG Primary Charge Supercap 21
  22. 22. November 6th, 2013 Energy Harvesting Workshop Prototyping On board: •  40-Pin Flash Microcontroller with nanoWatt XLP Technology •  Low Power 2.4GHz GFSK Transceiver Module •  Low Power Linear Active Thermistor 22
  23. 23. November 6th, 2013 Energy Harvesting Workshop Signal analysis Fig. A: Duty cycle Fig. B: TX pulse length (Zoom View) 23
  24. 24. November 6th, 2013 Energy Harvesting Workshop Code Diagram Fig. A: Init Fig. B: Main Loop 24
  25. 25. November 6th, 2013 Payload structure Energy Harvesting Workshop 25
  26. 26. November 6th, 2013 Data analysis •  Web interface •  Real time graphics •  History •  Views •  Temperature •  Supercapacitor Voltage •  Input Voltage •  Charging •  Backup status Energy Harvesting Workshop 26
  27. 27. November 6th, 2013 Energy Harvesting Workshop Data analysis: examples Fig. A: Temperature Fig. B: Input Voltage (VIN) Fig. C: Supercap charging Fig. D: Supercap discharge 27
  28. 28. DEMO
  29. 29. November 6th, 2013 Energy Harvesting Workshop Board specifications Feature Description Sources: Solar / TEG / Piezoelectric Input voltage ranges: Solar: 5 ÷ 18 VDC TEG: 20 ÷ 500 mVDC Piezoelectric: max 18 VAC Temperature Sensor: 0 ÷ 50 °C Resolution: 0.4 °C Wireless communication: 2400-2483.5 MHz ISM (GFSK) Transmission rate: 1 and 2 Mbps support Current/Power IDLE mode: 9 uA / 30 uW Current/Power TX mode: 18.9 mA / 62 mW Maximum TX distance: 100 m Backup operation: > 24 h 29
  30. 30. November 6th, 2013 Energy Harvesting Workshop 30 References Energy Harvesting Technologies Springer By Shashank Priya and Daniel J. Inman Covers a very wide range of interesting topics My Master Thesis Università degli Studi di Napoli “Federico II” By Daniele Costarella Available online: http://danielecostarella.com
  31. 31. November 6th, 2013 Energy Harvesting Workshop Thank you @dcostarella http://it.linkedin.com/in/danielecostarella 31
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