UI For Alien Cowboys
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UI For Alien Cowboys

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A tutorial session on UXD hacks I gave at O'Reilly Etech in 2004. ...

A tutorial session on UXD hacks I gave at O'Reilly Etech in 2004.

Original context here: http://conferences.oreillynet.com/cs/et2004/view/e_sess/4767
"User-Centered Design and participatory product development are established, proven techniques for making interfaces and information understandable. But how is it possible to use them when your knowledge, the technology, and the possible markets are moving so quickly? Is it possible to create alpha-tech that defines a new market and is a joy to use? UI Design for Alien Cowboys is a three-hour tutorial and workshop that proposes that it is."

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UI For Alien Cowboys UI For Alien Cowboys Presentation Transcript

  • UI for Alien Cowboys Matt Jones The Disappearing Organisation
  • UI for alien cowboys or, easy user-centred practices for designing emerging applications
  • Three things you’ll leave with…
    • What user centred design is
      • And why it is useful
    • Easy ways to incorporate user -centred design
      • Tricks and tips that don’t take long, and deliver results
    • How to marry user-centred design with emerging technologies and methodologies
  • Two (maybe three) parts
    • Overview of user-centred design methods
    • Practical tips and tricks
      • Working on a design exercise
    • If there’s time:
      • Specific challenges of
        • Mobile
        • MMORPG Gaming/Play
      • Some future trends
  • First though… What’s an alien cowboy?
  • One thing to always remember
  • We are Aliens.
  • We are aliens
    • We are not our audience
      • Geoffrey Moore’s Adoption Curve from his book “Crossing the Chasm”
    • We are not our audience
      • Geeks forgive
        • Computers, not people
    • We are not our audience
      • Even if we are building for other builders
    Geoffrey Moore’s Adoption Curve: Don Norman Remix : http://www. jnd .org
  • “Crossing the Chasm” Geoffrey Moore’s Adoption Curve: Don Norman Remix : http://www. jnd .org WE ARE ALL HERE SOMETIMES WE ARE HERE
  • “Crossing the chasm” Geoffrey Moore’s Adoption Curve: Don Norman Remix : http://www. jnd .org [ UNDERSTANDING CONTEXTS OF USE CREATES BRIDGES ACROSS THE CHASM
  • First though… What’s an alien cowboy?
  • I am a cowboy
    • I am lazy
    • I like things which don’t take long but give good results
    • I like approaches, but dislike processes
      • Processes or methodologies used creatively can get you to unexpected and delightful end results
      • But they can also become dogmatic and destructive
      • “ Things are useful as long as they are useful”
    • I think this is pretty common (are you a cowboy too?)
    • This tutorial will focus on approaches and tips that appeal to the cowboy in me
  • okay...
  • Part 1: Overview of User-Centred Design
  • What is User-Centered Design?
    • “ User-Centred Design (UCD) is an approach to design that grounds the process in information about the people who will use the product. UCD processes focus on users through the planning, design and development of a product.”
    • Usability Professionals’ Association
    • http://www.upassoc.org
  • Main Benefits
  • Macro & Micro macro micro What to build What will solve the problem What will sell How to build How to solve the problem How to sell What will people use How will people use What/Why? How?
  • Enlarging markets
    • Inclusive design
      • Design for extremes of market (old, young, less able)
      • Utility and desirability for everyone in between
        • E.g. Good Grips
    • See your product/service in terms of an ‘ecology’
      • Apple’s iLife
        • Arguable…
      • Sony’s “sunrise to sunset” view
  • Sunrise to sunset: evolve ideas in the market Market Creation Market Penetration Market Domination NOON Market Expansion Market Saturation Market Exhaustion SUNRISE Mid morning Mid afternoon SUNSET
  •  
  • Diagram from “Digital Dreams: The work of the Sony design centre” Paul Kunkel
  • Benefits to Cowboys of User-Centred Design process
    • Removes the power politics of development:
      • Externalises issues
      • Allows constructive discussion
    • Shared frame of reference for all team members
      • User research information can introduce
        • Shared language
        • Shared goals
        • More multidisciplinary approach
  • Some notable approaches
  • Some notable approaches
    • Cooper
      • Persona Driven Design
    • ISO standard
      • ISO 13407
      • ISO 18529
    • UPD
      • User Participatory Design
    • Adaptive Design
  • Cooper’s Persona Driven Design
  • Alan Cooper
    • Alan Cooper
      • Persona driven design
      • “ Cooper's personas are simply pretend users of the system you're building. You describe them, in a surprising amount of detail, and then design your system for them.” – Meg Hourihan*
      • Primary personas
        • Dictate focus, scope
        • “ Target audience”
      • Secondary personas
        • On periphery of target market
        • Might even be ‘anti-customers’
          • People you will never satisfy
    * http://www.boxesandarrows.com/archives/002330.php
  • ISO standards on Human-Centered Design
  • ISO standards for UCD ISO 13407 / ISO 18529
    • Very high-level ‘umbrella’ definition of user-centred processes
    • A pretty useful overview:
        • Understand and specify the context of use
        • Specify the user and organisational requirements
        • Produce design solutions
        • Evaluate designs against requirements
    • Useful to quote to the sort of people who like ISO standards
  • User Participatory Design
  • UCD… or UPD
    • Sometimes UCD is referred to, or seen as specialised sub-discipline:
      • User PARTICIPATORY design
    • A set of methods for close cooperation with end-users
      • In product/service creation
      • User interface development
      • Often very good for internal / enterprise-specific projects
    • Very compatible with XtremeProgramming thinking
      • “ The Customer is Always Available”
        • http://www.extremeprogramming.org/rules/customer.html
  • Ask the users? Are you crazy?
  • iiiiiiiiiiiinnnnnpuuuuttttt! users * The users are just one input into a successful design… biz tech
  • Research, analysis and synthesis Users Research Analysis & Synthesis Designer(s)/Builder(s) X
  • Designer-Centred Design…!
  • Ask the users? Are you crazy? “ If you ask the public what they think they will need, you will always be behind in this world. You will never catch up unless you think one to ten years in advance and create a market for the items you think the public will accept at that time.” Akio Morita, Sony
  • NOT user-centred till ‘mid-afternoon’ Market Creation Market Penetration Market Domination NOON Market Expansion Market Saturation Market Exhaustion SUNRISE Mid morning Mid afternoon SUNSET Entry with technology Drive with design Diversify with marketing, and Some UCD…
  • Adaptive Design
  •  
  • Stewart Brand: “How buildings learn” Sketch by Dan Hill http://www.cityofsound.com/
  • Dan Hill: “Designing for adaptation”
  • Adaptive Design + Emerging Tech Great basis / investment for rapid cycles of emerging tech!
  • To sum up UCD.
  • UCD: summing up
    • Drives
      • Acceptance
      • Makes utility obvious
      • Desirability
    • If commercial
      • Enlarges market and return on investment
      • Reduces risks
    • If not, enlarges ‘ecosystem’
      • For emerging tech, this increases in importance
        • If people ‘get it’ then they are more likely to play with it
          • Adaptive design is the best candidate here because…
          • Most human behaviour changes slower than technology – a good anchor in rapidly changing tech environment
    • A number of approaches but with one common aspect
      • Context of use
  • Looking out from the screen at the world…
  • To understand people’s mental models of the world and design technology to solve their problems “ The files are in the computer?”
  • The practical
  • Tricks and tips
    • We’re going to design
      • A recipe aggregator
    • Using some of the most useful tricks and tips I’ve found
      • Itch++
      • Market mapping and persona building
      • The value sieve
      • Use your illusion
      • Flowcrash
  • Not to be taken as a substitute for a full user-centred project… These are tricks and tips that, if you only have time to do a little design work before you build, will get you good results
  • The Brief.
  • The brief for the recipe aggregator
    • Goals
      • Can be used in the kitchen
      • Can be accessed in the supermarket
      • Can find recipes from key ingredients
        • “ What’s left on the shelf?”
      • Can share recipes easily with others
  • Caution...
  • = No speaking alien! Use of excessive jargon, mention of RDF, XML, or anything that the benefit can’t be explained once and easily to a user (or causes geek religious wars) will be punished by a fine Which will be a beer fund…!
  • Break... please be back at 3:30pm...
  • The Brief.
  • The brief for the recipe aggregator
    • Goals
      • Can be used in the kitchen
      • Can be accessed in the supermarket
      • Can find recipes from key ingredients
        • “ What’s left on the shelf?”
      • Can share recipes easily with others
  • = No speaking alien! Use of excessive jargon, mention of RDF, XML, or anything that the benefit can’t be explained once and easily to a user (or causes geek religious wars) will be punished by a fine… Which will be a beer fund…!
  • Even cowboys can pass ISO standards…
    • Understand and specify the context of use
      • Itch++
      • Market mapping and persona building
    • Specify the user and organisational requirements
      • The value sieve
    • Produce design solutions
      • Use your illusion
    • Evaluate designs against requirements
      • Flowcrash
  • Understanding context of use – real way…
    • Before each the cowboy tips, I’ll outline some of the ‘pro’ methods
    • Contextual Inquiry
      • A mile in their shoes
      • Shadowing
    • Ethnography
      • User diaries
      • Pager studies
      • Interviews
      • Build real personas
    Contextual inquiry / interview by Lodestar, ltd. for BBC iCan project.
  • Itch++
  • Framework to ask yourself questions* Familiar Context With Others One paragraph of an experience relating to the brief for each… Alone Unfamiliar Context * This is even more useful if you can get someone else to ask you the questions and record your responses
  • Itch++: 15 minutes
    • 10 minutes writing
    • 5 minutes presentation
    • If you want to pair, and interview: that’s great…
      • but self-organise!
    Familiar Context With Others Alone Unfamiliar Context
  •  
  • Market Mapping & Persona Building
  • Mapping users’ characteristics practical ideas Business decision… An example from my past… working on a design for an online home improvement store
  • Words to describe each user profile
    • A: Practical, functional, does chores, room has to look okay but not confident in design
    • B: More interested in design, less confident in technical abilities
    • C: Always has projects on the go, hobbyist
    • D: Creates a look, less involved in project execution, most interested in creative, trends
    practical ideas A B D C
  • Who are they? It helps!
    • A: Mike, early 40s, depends on wife Louise’s opinion for design. Two kids, his wife is expecting a third
    • B: Jane, early 30s, has partner, busy, relies on friends and other people for advice
    • C: Jack, single, quite confident in abilities and taste. Shops around and reads lots of magazines, focusing on DIY titles: Better Homes, Changing Rooms
    • D: Lucy, single, in her 50s, out-sources doing, shops around, reads lots of magazines, style and end result oriented. Reads lots of magazines, broad lifestyle, Habitat, IKEA, BHS
    practical ideas A B D C
  • Take personas and contexts to arrive at concepts/features for BBC iCan project.
  •  
  • Understanding context
    • Understand and specify the context of use
      • Itch++
      • Market mapping and persona building
    • Specify the user and organisational requirements
      • The value sieve
    • Produce design solutions
      • Use your illusion
    • Evaluate designs against requirements
      • Flowcrash
  • The value sieve
  • A value / complexity sieve “ The feature prioritisation is based on the user research and the business strategy, along with the initial technology estimates. I like doing this prioritisation exercise in person with all the stakeholders so all viewpoints can be factored in. It’s a seminal meeting and the results guide the rest of the project.” - Victor Lombardi http://www.noisebetweenstations.com
  • How to use the sieve
    • High Complexity / High Value:
      • “ It's important to include these features, and because they're hard let's address them first so we have enough time and find any unknown snags.”
    • High Complexity / Low Value:
      • “ They're hard and no one thinks they're important, so try to leave them out.”
    • Low Complexity / High Value:
      • “ Definitely include these, but give them lower priority.”
    • Low Complexity / Low Value:
      • “ These features can be put on a reach list, to do if resources permit. Or left until a future phase. Or you can re-examine them to see if your original values are accurate.”
  •  
  • Understanding context
    • Understand and specify the context of use
      • Itch++
      • Market mapping and persona building
    • Specify the user and organisational requirements
      • The value sieve
    • Produce design solutions
      • Use your illusion
    • Evaluate designs against requirements
      • Flowcrash
  • Use your illusion
  • ‘ User Illusion’ – Alan Kay
  • Medium and message Harry Beck...
  •  
  • Jakob does it… “ Card Sorting to Discover the Users' Model of the Information Space” Jakob Nielsen, May 1995 http://www.useit.com/papers/sun/cardsort.html
  • Use your illusion: 30 minutes
    • 5 minutes writing your imagined features to a fairly granular level, but nothing too detailed
      • remember, you will be fined for using jargon!
    • 5 minutes arranging the cards into the system as you think it will be organised AS A USER EXPERIENCE
      • STOP! We’re going to take a snapshot… this should take 5 minutes or so
    • Swap your cards with someone else
    • 5 minutes – organise the cards you’ve received into a system that makes sense to you, given the brief
      • STOP! We’re going to take another snapshot – another 5 minutes
    • Then, we’ll spend 5 minutes looking at the results
  •  
  • Understanding context
    • Understand and specify the context of use
      • Itch++
      • Market mapping and persona building
    • Specify the user and organisational requirements
      • The value sieve
    • Produce design solutions
      • Use your illusion
    • Evaluate designs against requirements
      • Flowcrash
  • Paper prototyping Courtesy Marc Rettig: http://www.marcrettig.com/
  • Fast, cheap and out of control Courtesy Marc Rettig: http://www.marcrettig.com/
  • “ But I can code quicker than I can draw” Courtesy Marc Rettig: http://www.marcrettig.com/
    • You can’t. Try it.
    • You don’t have to draw well – anyone can draw well enough to get results
    • You will get nitpicking at a coded prototype, not answers
    • But the biggest problem with coded prototypes…
  • You will not want to destroy it…
  • Flowcrash
  • Using paper prototypes for rapid testing
    • Design paper screens for your system
      • Include buttons, drop-downs, widgets…
        • Simulate them all with stickies for ease of repositioning and re-use
    • Make sure there are two of you who know how the design works
      • One of you will facilitate
      • One of you will play the computer
    • Go grab a colleague or family member who hasn’t seen your design
    • Facilitator: ask them to complete tasks based on the goals of your design
    • Computer: serve up the screens as per the ‘flow’ of the design you did. Be neutral! Emotionless!
    • Record what you learn, and redesign there and then
    • Retest!
  • The end?
  • Two (maybe three) parts
    • Overview of user-centred design methods
    • Practical tips and tricks
      • Working on a design exercise
    • If there’s time:
      • Specific challenges of
        • Mobile
        • MMORPG Gaming/Play
      • Some future trends
      • Discussion…?
  • Mobile
  • Marc Rettig sums up the main challenge well
  • Contextual inquiry is key
    • Understanding the real attention deficits that your application will suffer
    • Understanding the in-between times in real life, where your service or product might be a boon
    • Understanding the audio, visual and interaction constraints your design will operate under
    • Walk a mile in mobile shoes…
  • A trick pioneered by Palm / Handspring too…
  • For mobile…
    • The world is more important than the screen
      • Invest in studying the world
      • It’s not that easy to hack
    • Products and services are
      • Used in social situations
        • Study the social patterns of use
        • Social interactions more valuable that screen interactions
          • Prada… a cautionary tale…
  • Further at Etech
    • Christian Lindholm
      • Nokia UI pioneer
      • “ Art-of-Logic: Experience Making, the Nokia Way ”
      • Track: Untethered Date: Wednesday, February 11 Time:  2:45pm - 3:30pm
      • http://conferences.oreillynet.com/ cs/et2004/view/e_sess/4864
  • Gaming/Play MMoRPGs
  • From a conversation with Stewart Butterfield
    • Looking at “Play” as a broad category
      • In addition to the activity (chess, rugby, Quake)
      • A way of trying on another mode of relationship or identity
        • Children play the limits of the relationships. They have violence, sexuality, power dynamics in their games. Exploring the kinds of ways they can have relationships with their peers
        • Even if we are friends - when we play we become competitors.
      • Control over identity is the most important control
      • In most apps like online banking or search the user’s character or personality is kind of irrelevant because task overrides
      • But in worlds of “Play” ways in which people come together (place/channel) and identify each other/self are key
  • UIs that get out of the way of the players and their relationships Drag and drop to establish chats and ad-hoc groups Visualising relationships in ‘heads-up’ displays From http://www.gne.net
  • Future trends
  • Next-gen mobile Bigger screens, more whizzy features Same old messy world.
  • More ‘embodied’ interaction
  • Converts… This holiday, my two sisters - who to my knowledge had never played a console game before - got addicted to EyeToy…
  • Discussion
  • That’s all... Thank You for your time and energy
  • Further study: Web
    • Mark Rettig: http://www.marcrettig.com
      • Interaction design history in a teeny little nut shell http://www.marcrettig.com/writings/ rettig.interactionDesignHistory.2.03.pdf
      • Design for small screens: http://www.marcrettig.com/writings/rettig,SmallScreens.pdf
      • Interface Design in Seven Weeks: Marc Rettig
        • http://loop.aiga.org/content.cfm?ContentID=83
    • AdaptivePath:
      • http://www.adaptivepath.com/
    • AskTog: Bruce Tognazzini
      • http://www.asktog.com/
    • Carolyn Snyder on paper prototyping:
      • http://www.snyderconsulting.net/paperprototyping.htm
      • http://www-106.ibm.com/developerworks/library/us-paper/?dwzone=usability
    • UsabilityNet.org: EU funded resource centre
      • http://www.usabilitynet.org/home.htm
    • User-Centred Design & “Agile” methodologies: Anthony Colfelt
      • http://www.colfelt.com/blog/cat_agile_development.shtml
  • Further study: Books
    • General
      • About Face, The Inmates Are Running the Asylum : Alan Cooper
      • Don't Make Me Think: Steve Krug
      • The Design of Everyday Things: Donald Norman
      • The elements of user experience: Jesse James Garrett (http://www.jjg.net/elements/)
      • Observing the User Experience: Mike Kuniavsky
      • Information Architecture: Christina Wodtke
        • Christina also has a great reading list at http://www.eleganthack.com/reading/
    • Mobile
      • Information Appliances and Beyond: Bergman
      • Mobile Usability: Lindholm, Keinnonen, Kiljander
      • Handheld Usability: Scott Weiss
  • Further study: Organisations/Events
    • ACM SIGCHI, the ACM's Special Interest Group on Computer-Human Interaction
      • http://sigchi.org/
      • CHI2004: April 24-29 th , Austria
        • http://www.chi2004.org/
      • DIS2004: Designing Interactive Systems, August 1-4, Cambridge, Mass
        • http://sigchi.org/dis2004/
    • AIGA-Experience Design
      • http://www.aiga.org/content.cfm?Alias=experiencedesign
    • ASIST
      • Information Architecture summit: March 21-23, 2003 Portland, Oregon
        • http://www.asis.org/Conferences/IA03/
    • AifIA: The Asilomar Institute for Information Architecture
      • http://www.aifia.org/
  • Send me questions... [email_address]