Critical Issues1. How are citizenship education andcitizenship related educationally andpolitically?2. How do nationalism and globalizationframe and reframe (in a counter way)under citizenship education?2
Articulation of citizenshipeducation and citizenship The former refers to how schoolingintroduces, formulates, promotes and theninternalizes the concept and ideas ofcitizenship by designing pedagogy, adoptingmaterials, and organizing teaching and learningactivities inside and outside of the classroom(e.g., student union’s election at high schoollevel) The latter focuses on the people being entitledconstitutionally, legally and politically to enjoythe political/civil, economic, social and culturalrights regardless of social, ethnical and culturaldifferences within a nation.3
One key concern is: how doschooling’s experience and practicesconnect with and shape citizenship?4
Cultural reframing ofcitizenship education Culture: Ideas arising from values, beliefsand/or ideologies are (re-)produced & thenshape people individually and collectively “Politics of signification” (Hall, 1982) Production of mobilizing and counter-mobilizing ideas and meanings (from thepowerful & the powerless) Signifying agents actively engage in theproduction & maintenance of meaning forconstituents, antagonists and bystanders orobservers5
Meaning construction “an active, processual phenomenon thatimplies agency & contention at the level ofreality construction” (p.614) Active: something is being done Processual: dynamic and evolving process Agency: work of (social movement)organizations/movement activists Contentious: generating interpretive framesdiffering from, and even challenging, theexisting ones Resultant products: collective action frames(CAF)6
Results By undertaking citizenship education,schooling’s experience & practices canbe meaningful, useful and impactful forlearners to engage in society and polity. Meaningful: such democratic and liberalvalues can be reflected upon the everydaylife and practices, and have become aninseparable part of students’ life.7
Results Useful: how to resist, defend and protectthe civil rights, especially in face ofofficial/authority’s violence and distortion. Impactful: shape friends, familymembers, colleagues as well as membersof associations, become participatory insocial and political affairs8
Cultural framing reestablishing the meanings based onhumanistic values (respecting/toleratingthe differences, pluralism) responding to, challenging and thenoverthrowing thehegemonic, dominating, and taken-for-granted assertions9
Nationalism (The dominatingframe)1. Bounding the state-defined knowledgeand understanding: geographyChina, cultural China and economicChina2. Adopting the essentialist approach3. Constructing the national imaginationbased on apolitical issues14
Nationalism (Culturalreframing)1. Exploring and then respecting the (personal)experiences in everyday life2. Adopting an individualistic and humanisticperspective: understand and accept thedifferences in understanding China3. Knowing about, and then responding to thepolitical and social controversies in the light ofthe institutional and political setting4. The importance of locality via-s-via nationality5. Students’ orientation > state orientation15
Globalization (The dominatingframe)1. Equivalent to material culture: science& technology, as well as goods &services2. “Respecting” cultural differences3. Framing as international exchange &cooperation4. Disarticulation: science & technology /good & services / different cultures19
Globalization (Culturalreframing)1. Acknowledging cultural relativism:China/HK/US culture is NOT dominating2. Accepting & appreciating the culturaldifferences through everydayexperiences3. Demarginalizing migrants:Understanding, acceptance and inclusion+ reject discrimination & exclusion4. Global democracy, human rights andfreedoms20
Conclusion Cultural reframing aims to challenge &then resist the hegemonic version ofnationalism & globalization endorsed bythe educational bureaucracy Cultural reframing fosters the inclusion ofeveryday experiences in shapingcitizenship education apart fromchallenging the hegemonic discoursearising from the official curriculum, thenactualizing citizenship through reflectingupon experiences and practices.21
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