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  • 1. A Competence-based Approach for Formalizing Learning Goals in Work-integrated Learning Tobias Ley, Barbara Kump, Armin Ulbrich, Peter Scheir und Stefanie N. Lindstaedt Barbara Kump
  • 2. Outline
    • A Workplace Learning Context Model
      • Process Package
      • Domain Knowledge Package
      • Competency Package
    • Modelling Learning Goals for Work-Integrated Learning
    • Implementation of the Workplace Learning Context Approach in the APOSDLE Project
    • Real-World Applications and a Prototype
    • Conclusions and Outlook
    20 October 2009 /
  • 3. A Workplace Learning Context Model 20 October 2009 / [adapted form Lindstaedt & Farmer, 2004] Worker Learner Expert
  • 4. Domain Knowledge Package
    • Usually: documents are stored in structured databases
    • E.g. Ontology
    20 October 2009 / Domain Concepts Relation [e.g. Green, 1999] Domain Concepts as semantic metadata
  • 5. Process Package
    • Twofold role of the work process:
    • Tasks as organizational constraints
    • Task at hand defines personal learning need of a worker
    20 October 2009 / KNOWLEDGE WORKER PROJECT MANAGEMENT TASKS Sara (Engineer) Estimating Project Effort Analysing Project Results Learning Need
  • 6. 20 October 2009 / Process Models
  • 7. Competency Package
    • Contains the competencies that are relevant for performing all tasks in a learning domain, and that can be acquired based on existing resources
    20 October 2009 / Process Package: defines the scope of competencies Domain Knowledge Package: limits the number of competencies (due to resources)
  • 8. Focus of the Competency Package
    • Human User
    20 October 2009 / Task Demand (in terms of Knowledge & Skills) Competencies: Knowledge & Skills, Ability to perform Tasks Learning Goals (in terms of Knowledge & Skills to acquire) Learning Opportunity [compare Schmidt, 2004; Sicilia, 2005] Competency Gap Analysis
  • 9. Modeling Learning Goals for Work-integrated Learning – the APOSDLE Approach 20 October 2009 /
  • 10. Scenario 20 October 2009 / Paul, Requirements Engineer Recently changed his department Build a first cut Context Model Carry out an initial stakeholder analysis User Profile Tasks: Build a first cut Context Model Cary out an initial stakeholder analysis Knowledge & Skills: Knowledge of different types of system stakeholders Understand the Syntax and Semantics of Context Models Ability to create a Context Model Knowledge of diffent types of stakeholder analyses Allocate functions between actors according to boundaries Competency Gap Analysis Learning Opportunity Knowledge & Skills: Knowledge about actors, tasks, goals and resources Knowledge about different types of dependencies between actors
  • 11. Interlinking packages of the Workplace Learning Context Model 20 October 2009 / Task-Competency Assignment Annotation of Resources Task History Knowledge & Skills
  • 12. Implementation of the Workplace Learning Context Approach in the APOSDLE project 20 October 2009 / [APOSDLE meta-model, Extract] Task Demand
  • 13. Formal Specification of the Task Demand in APOSDLE
    • Competence based Knowledge Space Theory
      • Korossy, 1997; Düntsch & Gediga, 1994; based on Doignon & Falmagne, 1985, 1999
    • Knowledge Space Theory has been applied and tested in various fields :
      • ALEKS (ALEKS Corp, 2003), RATH (Hockemeyer & Albert, 1999)
      • Workflow Processes (Stefanutti & Albert, 2002 ), Knowledge Management (Ley, 2006; Ley & Albert, 2003)
      • Implications for teacher education and training (Albert, 2006), Skills of Medical Trainees (Albert et al., 2007)
    20 October 2009 /
  • 14. Real World Applications of the APOSDLE Workplace Learning Context Approach 20 October 2009 /
  • 15. Four Application Partner specific APOSDLEs 20 October 2009 / Network of SMEs eConsulting for Innovation-management Large Corporation SW Simulation Public Org. & SME REACH Consulting & Event-Management RESCUE
  • 16. Integrated modelling methodology 20 October 2009 / Domain Knowledge Package Process Package Competency Package
  • 17. Informal Models – EADS Example 20 October 2009 / Informal Simulation Domain Model Informal Simulation Tasks Model Define Objectives Design Develop Execute
  • 18. 20 October 2009 / EADS Domain Concept (Example)
  • 19. 20 October 2009 / EADS Task (Example) Informal Task Demand (in terms of domain concepts)
  • 20. Modelling the Task Demand: TACT tool 20 October 2009 / [TACT for modelling Requirements Engineering]
  • 21. and a Prototype… 20 October 2009 /
  • 22. 20 October 2009 / 1 2
  • 23. 20 October 2009 / Tasks (Process Package) Learning Goals (Competency Package)
  • 24. 20 October 2009 / Resource Viewer Domain Concepts (Domain Knowledge Package)
  • 25. Conclusions & Outlook 20 October 2009 /
  • 26. Conclusions & Outlook
    • We have presented a Workplace Learning Context Model
      • Concrete implementation in 4 different application domains
      • Allows for competency gap analysis (based on task history)
      • Focus of further research: Additional indicatiors for skills and knowledge
    • Differences in the application domains, due to certain characteristics of the domains
      • Relatedness of process package and domain knowledge package
      • Granularity of the task model and the domain model
    20 October 2009 /
  • 27. Conclusions & Outlook
    • The modelling methodology was useful, but needs further revision at certain stages, e.g.
      • It should allow for moving back and forth from informal to formal
      • Formative evaluation and model revision at different modelling stages is indispensable => tools for evaluation support
    • Combining the APOSDLE implementation of the Workplace Learning Context Model with existing Competency Management approaches
      • Bi-directional (APOSDLE and existing Competency Management Approaches)
      • Suggestions have been made, e.g. in Ley, 2007
    20 October 2009 /
  • 28. Thank you for your attention!
    • Barbara Kump
    • Graz University of Technology
    • Knowledge Management Institute
    • [email_address]
    20 October 2009 /
  • 29. References
    • Albert, D., Hockemeyer, C., Mayer, B., Steiner, C. M (2007). Cognitive Structure Modelling of Skills for Technology-Enhanced Learning. Paper presented at the 7th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT 2007) , July 18-20, 2007, Niigata, Japan.
    • ALEKS Corp. (2003), ALEKS - A Better State of Knowledge, retrieved from http://www.aleks.com .
    • Doignon, J. and Falmagne, J. (1999), Knowledge Spaces, Springer, Heidelberg.
    • Falmagne, J., Doignon, J., Koppen, M., Villano, M. and Johannesen, L. (1990), "Introduction to Knowledge Spaces: How to Build, Test, and Search Them", Psychological Review, Vol. 97 No. 2, pp. 201-224.
    • Green, P.C. (1999), Building Robust Competencies: Linking Human Resource Systems to Organizational Strategies, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco.
    • Hockemeyer, C., Held, T. and Albert, D. (1998), "RATH - A Relational Adaptive Tutoring Hypertext WWW-Environment Based on Knowledge Space Theory", in Alvegard, C. (Ed.), CALISCE`98: Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Computer Aided Learning in Science and Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden, pp. 417-423.
    • Korossy, K. (1997), "Extending the theory of knowledge spaces: A competence-performance approach", Zeitschrift für Psychologie, Vol. 205, pp. 53-82.
    • Ley, T., Albert, D. and Lindstaedt, S.N. (2007), "Competency Management using the Competence Performance Approach: Modeling, Assessment, Validation and Use", in Sicilia, M. A. (Ed.), Competencies in Organizational E-Learning: Concepts and Tools, Information Science Publishing, Hershey, pp. 83-119.
    • Ley, T., Lindstaedt, S.N. and Albert, D. (2005), "Supporting Competency Development in Informal Workplace Learning", in Althoff, K., Dengel, A., Bergmann, R., Nick, M. and Roth-Berghofer, T. (Eds.), Professional Knowledge Management, Springer, Berlin, pp. 189-202.
    • Lindstaedt, S.N. and Farmer, J. (2004), "Kooperatives Lernen in Organisationen", in Haake, J., Schwabe, G. and Wessner, M. (Eds.), CSCL-Kompendium - Lehr- und Handbuch zum computerunterstützten kooperativen Lernen, Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag, Munich, Germany, pp. 191-220.
    • Schmidt, A. (2004), "Context-Steered Learning: The Learning in Process Approach", Proceeding of the IEEE Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT 04) Joensuu, Finnland.
    • Sicilia, M. (2005), "Ontology-Based Competency Management: Infrastructures for the Knowledge-intensive Learning Organization", in Lytras, M. and Naeve, A. (Eds.), Intelligent Learning Infrastructures in Knowledge Intensive Organizations: A Semantic Web perspective, Idea Group, Hershey, pp. 302-324.
    20 October 2009 /
  • 30. Appendix: Competence-based Knowledge Space Theory 20 October 2009 /
  • 31. Task-Learning Goal Structure: Relevant Assumptions for APOSDLE
    • A learning domain can be structured as a set A of tasks t  A.
    • Each Task requires a specific set of worker knowledge and skills (task demand)
    • Tasks can be structured by a subset-relation based on the task demand
    20 October 2009 / A A={t1, t2, t3, t4, t5}
  • 32. Competence based Knowledge Space Theory – Relevant Assumptions for TEWIL
    • A learning domain encompasses a set K of competencies c  K.
    • Competencies are structured according to a prerequisite relation
    • (c1, c2)  R, R  K X K
    • c1 R c2 => c1 is prerequisite for c2
    • Theory: a person who has one competency c, also has all competencies that are prerequisites for c
    • Example: If a person has competency c2, then she also has c1
    • The set of competencies that a person has available is called the „competence state“ of the person
    • A competence state is a subset of K that takes into account the prerequisite relationship
    20 October 2009 / K K={c1, c2, c3, c4}
  • 33. 20 October 2009 / Prerequisite Relation (Competencies) Subset Relation (Tasks) Task Demand: takes into account prerequisite relation on competencies Competence State: takes into account prerequisite relation on competencies
    • Consequently:
    • Each Task Demand is a feasible
    • Competence State
    • The set union of two or more
    • Task Demands is a feasible
    • Competence State
    • The Competence State of a user
    • is inferred by taking set unions
    • of the task demands of all tasks
    • the user is able to perform
    • (Performance Pattern)
  • 34. 20 October 2009 / Prerequisite Relation (Competencies) Subset Relation (Tasks) Competence State Task-Competency Structure Performance State (theoretically assumed)
  • 35. The CbKST and the Learning Need…
    • In terms of Competence-based Knowledge Space Theory in my approach to technology-enhanced work-integrated leraning ,
    • the Learning Need is the Discrepancy of
    • Task Demand (of a Task) and Competence State (of a User)
    20 October 2009 / Learning Need = {c3, c4} Example: