A Competence-based Approach for Formalizing Learning Goals in  Work-integrated Learning Tobias Ley, Barbara Kump, Armin Ul...
Outline <ul><li>A Workplace Learning Context Model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process Package </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Domain...
A Workplace Learning Context Model 20 October 2009   /  [adapted form Lindstaedt & Farmer, 2004] Worker Learner Expert
Domain Knowledge Package <ul><li>Usually: documents are stored in structured databases </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. Ontology </l...
Process Package <ul><li>Twofold role of the work process:  </li></ul><ul><li>Tasks as organizational constraints  </li></u...
20 October 2009   /  Process Models
Competency Package <ul><li>Contains the competencies that are relevant for performing all tasks in a learning domain, and ...
Focus of the Competency Package <ul><li>Human User </li></ul>20 October 2009   /  Task Demand  (in terms of Knowledge & Sk...
Modeling Learning Goals for Work-integrated Learning – the APOSDLE Approach 20 October 2009   /
Scenario 20 October 2009   /  Paul, Requirements Engineer Recently changed his department Build a first cut  Context Model...
Interlinking packages of the Workplace Learning Context Model  20 October 2009   /  Task-Competency Assignment Annotation ...
Implementation  of the Workplace Learning Context Approach in the APOSDLE project  20 October 2009   /  [APOSDLE meta-mode...
Formal Specification of the Task Demand in APOSDLE <ul><li>Competence based Knowledge Space Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>K...
Real World Applications of the APOSDLE Workplace Learning Context Approach 20 October 2009   /
Four Application Partner specific APOSDLEs  20 October 2009   /  Network of SMEs eConsulting for Innovation-management   L...
Integrated modelling methodology 20 October 2009   /  Domain Knowledge Package Process Package Competency Package
Informal Models – EADS Example 20 October 2009   /  Informal Simulation Domain Model Informal Simulation Tasks Model Defin...
20 October 2009   /  EADS Domain Concept  (Example)
20 October 2009   /  EADS Task (Example) Informal Task Demand (in terms of domain concepts)
Modelling the Task Demand: TACT tool 20 October 2009   /  [TACT for modelling Requirements Engineering]
and a Prototype… 20 October 2009   /
20 October 2009   /  1 2
20 October 2009   /  Tasks (Process Package) Learning Goals (Competency Package)
20 October 2009   /  Resource Viewer Domain Concepts (Domain Knowledge Package)
Conclusions & Outlook 20 October 2009   /
Conclusions & Outlook <ul><li>We have presented a Workplace Learning Context Model  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concrete impleme...
Conclusions & Outlook <ul><li>The modelling methodology was useful, but needs further revision at certain stages, e.g. </l...
Thank you for your attention! <ul><li>Barbara Kump </li></ul><ul><li>Graz University of Technology  </li></ul><ul><li>Know...
References <ul><li>Albert, D., Hockemeyer, C., Mayer, B., Steiner, C. M (2007). Cognitive Structure Modelling of Skills fo...
Appendix: Competence-based Knowledge Space Theory 20 October 2009   /
Task-Learning Goal Structure:  Relevant Assumptions for APOSDLE <ul><li>A learning domain can be structured as a set A of ...
Competence based Knowledge Space Theory –  Relevant Assumptions for TEWIL <ul><li>A learning domain encompasses a set K of...
20 October 2009   /  Prerequisite Relation (Competencies) Subset Relation (Tasks) Task Demand: takes into account prerequi...
20 October 2009   /  Prerequisite Relation (Competencies) Subset Relation (Tasks) Competence State Task-Competency Structu...
The CbKST and the Learning Need…  <ul><li>In terms of Competence-based Knowledge Space Theory  in my approach to technolog...
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Bkump Ed Media 20080627

  1. 1. A Competence-based Approach for Formalizing Learning Goals in Work-integrated Learning Tobias Ley, Barbara Kump, Armin Ulbrich, Peter Scheir und Stefanie N. Lindstaedt Barbara Kump
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>A Workplace Learning Context Model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process Package </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Domain Knowledge Package </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competency Package </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Modelling Learning Goals for Work-Integrated Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation of the Workplace Learning Context Approach in the APOSDLE Project </li></ul><ul><li>Real-World Applications and a Prototype </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions and Outlook </li></ul>20 October 2009 /
  3. 3. A Workplace Learning Context Model 20 October 2009 / [adapted form Lindstaedt & Farmer, 2004] Worker Learner Expert
  4. 4. Domain Knowledge Package <ul><li>Usually: documents are stored in structured databases </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. Ontology </li></ul>20 October 2009 / Domain Concepts Relation [e.g. Green, 1999] Domain Concepts as semantic metadata
  5. 5. Process Package <ul><li>Twofold role of the work process: </li></ul><ul><li>Tasks as organizational constraints </li></ul><ul><li>Task at hand defines personal learning need of a worker </li></ul>20 October 2009 / KNOWLEDGE WORKER PROJECT MANAGEMENT TASKS Sara (Engineer) Estimating Project Effort Analysing Project Results Learning Need
  6. 6. 20 October 2009 / Process Models
  7. 7. Competency Package <ul><li>Contains the competencies that are relevant for performing all tasks in a learning domain, and that can be acquired based on existing resources </li></ul>20 October 2009 / Process Package: defines the scope of competencies Domain Knowledge Package: limits the number of competencies (due to resources)
  8. 8. Focus of the Competency Package <ul><li>Human User </li></ul>20 October 2009 / Task Demand (in terms of Knowledge & Skills) Competencies: Knowledge & Skills, Ability to perform Tasks Learning Goals (in terms of Knowledge & Skills to acquire) Learning Opportunity [compare Schmidt, 2004; Sicilia, 2005] Competency Gap Analysis
  9. 9. Modeling Learning Goals for Work-integrated Learning – the APOSDLE Approach 20 October 2009 /
  10. 10. Scenario 20 October 2009 / Paul, Requirements Engineer Recently changed his department Build a first cut Context Model Carry out an initial stakeholder analysis User Profile Tasks: Build a first cut Context Model Cary out an initial stakeholder analysis Knowledge & Skills: Knowledge of different types of system stakeholders Understand the Syntax and Semantics of Context Models Ability to create a Context Model Knowledge of diffent types of stakeholder analyses Allocate functions between actors according to boundaries Competency Gap Analysis Learning Opportunity Knowledge & Skills: Knowledge about actors, tasks, goals and resources Knowledge about different types of dependencies between actors
  11. 11. Interlinking packages of the Workplace Learning Context Model 20 October 2009 / Task-Competency Assignment Annotation of Resources Task History Knowledge & Skills
  12. 12. Implementation of the Workplace Learning Context Approach in the APOSDLE project 20 October 2009 / [APOSDLE meta-model, Extract] Task Demand
  13. 13. Formal Specification of the Task Demand in APOSDLE <ul><li>Competence based Knowledge Space Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Korossy, 1997; Düntsch & Gediga, 1994; based on Doignon & Falmagne, 1985, 1999 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Space Theory has been applied and tested in various fields : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ALEKS (ALEKS Corp, 2003), RATH (Hockemeyer & Albert, 1999) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workflow Processes (Stefanutti & Albert, 2002 ), Knowledge Management (Ley, 2006; Ley & Albert, 2003) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implications for teacher education and training (Albert, 2006), Skills of Medical Trainees (Albert et al., 2007) </li></ul></ul>20 October 2009 /
  14. 14. Real World Applications of the APOSDLE Workplace Learning Context Approach 20 October 2009 /
  15. 15. Four Application Partner specific APOSDLEs 20 October 2009 / Network of SMEs eConsulting for Innovation-management Large Corporation SW Simulation Public Org. & SME REACH Consulting & Event-Management RESCUE
  16. 16. Integrated modelling methodology 20 October 2009 / Domain Knowledge Package Process Package Competency Package
  17. 17. Informal Models – EADS Example 20 October 2009 / Informal Simulation Domain Model Informal Simulation Tasks Model Define Objectives Design Develop Execute
  18. 18. 20 October 2009 / EADS Domain Concept (Example)
  19. 19. 20 October 2009 / EADS Task (Example) Informal Task Demand (in terms of domain concepts)
  20. 20. Modelling the Task Demand: TACT tool 20 October 2009 / [TACT for modelling Requirements Engineering]
  21. 21. and a Prototype… 20 October 2009 /
  22. 22. 20 October 2009 / 1 2
  23. 23. 20 October 2009 / Tasks (Process Package) Learning Goals (Competency Package)
  24. 24. 20 October 2009 / Resource Viewer Domain Concepts (Domain Knowledge Package)
  25. 25. Conclusions & Outlook 20 October 2009 /
  26. 26. Conclusions & Outlook <ul><li>We have presented a Workplace Learning Context Model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concrete implementation in 4 different application domains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows for competency gap analysis (based on task history) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus of further research: Additional indicatiors for skills and knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Differences in the application domains, due to certain characteristics of the domains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relatedness of process package and domain knowledge package </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Granularity of the task model and the domain model </li></ul></ul>20 October 2009 /
  27. 27. Conclusions & Outlook <ul><li>The modelling methodology was useful, but needs further revision at certain stages, e.g. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It should allow for moving back and forth from informal to formal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formative evaluation and model revision at different modelling stages is indispensable => tools for evaluation support </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Combining the APOSDLE implementation of the Workplace Learning Context Model with existing Competency Management approaches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bi-directional (APOSDLE and existing Competency Management Approaches) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suggestions have been made, e.g. in Ley, 2007 </li></ul></ul>20 October 2009 /
  28. 28. Thank you for your attention! <ul><li>Barbara Kump </li></ul><ul><li>Graz University of Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Management Institute </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>20 October 2009 /
  29. 29. References <ul><li>Albert, D., Hockemeyer, C., Mayer, B., Steiner, C. M (2007). Cognitive Structure Modelling of Skills for Technology-Enhanced Learning. Paper presented at the 7th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT 2007) , July 18-20, 2007, Niigata, Japan. </li></ul><ul><li>ALEKS Corp. (2003), ALEKS - A Better State of Knowledge, retrieved from http://www.aleks.com . </li></ul><ul><li>Doignon, J. and Falmagne, J. (1999), Knowledge Spaces, Springer, Heidelberg. </li></ul><ul><li>Falmagne, J., Doignon, J., Koppen, M., Villano, M. and Johannesen, L. (1990), &quot;Introduction to Knowledge Spaces: How to Build, Test, and Search Them&quot;, Psychological Review, Vol. 97 No. 2, pp. 201-224. </li></ul><ul><li>Green, P.C. (1999), Building Robust Competencies: Linking Human Resource Systems to Organizational Strategies, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco. </li></ul><ul><li>Hockemeyer, C., Held, T. and Albert, D. (1998), &quot;RATH - A Relational Adaptive Tutoring Hypertext WWW-Environment Based on Knowledge Space Theory&quot;, in Alvegard, C. (Ed.), CALISCE`98: Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Computer Aided Learning in Science and Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden, pp. 417-423. </li></ul><ul><li>Korossy, K. (1997), &quot;Extending the theory of knowledge spaces: A competence-performance approach&quot;, Zeitschrift für Psychologie, Vol. 205, pp. 53-82. </li></ul><ul><li>Ley, T., Albert, D. and Lindstaedt, S.N. (2007), &quot;Competency Management using the Competence Performance Approach: Modeling, Assessment, Validation and Use&quot;, in Sicilia, M. A. (Ed.), Competencies in Organizational E-Learning: Concepts and Tools, Information Science Publishing, Hershey, pp. 83-119. </li></ul><ul><li>Ley, T., Lindstaedt, S.N. and Albert, D. (2005), &quot;Supporting Competency Development in Informal Workplace Learning&quot;, in Althoff, K., Dengel, A., Bergmann, R., Nick, M. and Roth-Berghofer, T. (Eds.), Professional Knowledge Management, Springer, Berlin, pp. 189-202. </li></ul><ul><li>Lindstaedt, S.N. and Farmer, J. (2004), &quot;Kooperatives Lernen in Organisationen&quot;, in Haake, J., Schwabe, G. and Wessner, M. (Eds.), CSCL-Kompendium - Lehr- und Handbuch zum computerunterstützten kooperativen Lernen, Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag, Munich, Germany, pp. 191-220. </li></ul><ul><li>Schmidt, A. (2004), &quot;Context-Steered Learning: The Learning in Process Approach&quot;, Proceeding of the IEEE Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT 04) Joensuu, Finnland. </li></ul><ul><li>Sicilia, M. (2005), &quot;Ontology-Based Competency Management: Infrastructures for the Knowledge-intensive Learning Organization&quot;, in Lytras, M. and Naeve, A. (Eds.), Intelligent Learning Infrastructures in Knowledge Intensive Organizations: A Semantic Web perspective, Idea Group, Hershey, pp. 302-324. </li></ul>20 October 2009 /
  30. 30. Appendix: Competence-based Knowledge Space Theory 20 October 2009 /
  31. 31. Task-Learning Goal Structure: Relevant Assumptions for APOSDLE <ul><li>A learning domain can be structured as a set A of tasks t  A. </li></ul><ul><li>Each Task requires a specific set of worker knowledge and skills (task demand) </li></ul><ul><li>Tasks can be structured by a subset-relation based on the task demand </li></ul>20 October 2009 / A A={t1, t2, t3, t4, t5}
  32. 32. Competence based Knowledge Space Theory – Relevant Assumptions for TEWIL <ul><li>A learning domain encompasses a set K of competencies c  K. </li></ul><ul><li>Competencies are structured according to a prerequisite relation </li></ul><ul><li>(c1, c2)  R, R  K X K </li></ul><ul><li>c1 R c2 => c1 is prerequisite for c2 </li></ul><ul><li>Theory: a person who has one competency c, also has all competencies that are prerequisites for c </li></ul><ul><li>Example: If a person has competency c2, then she also has c1 </li></ul><ul><li>The set of competencies that a person has available is called the „competence state“ of the person </li></ul><ul><li>A competence state is a subset of K that takes into account the prerequisite relationship </li></ul>20 October 2009 / K K={c1, c2, c3, c4}
  33. 33. 20 October 2009 / Prerequisite Relation (Competencies) Subset Relation (Tasks) Task Demand: takes into account prerequisite relation on competencies Competence State: takes into account prerequisite relation on competencies <ul><li>Consequently: </li></ul><ul><li>Each Task Demand is a feasible </li></ul><ul><li>Competence State </li></ul><ul><li>The set union of two or more </li></ul><ul><li>Task Demands is a feasible </li></ul><ul><li>Competence State </li></ul><ul><li>The Competence State of a user </li></ul><ul><li>is inferred by taking set unions </li></ul><ul><li>of the task demands of all tasks </li></ul><ul><li>the user is able to perform </li></ul><ul><li>(Performance Pattern) </li></ul>
  34. 34. 20 October 2009 / Prerequisite Relation (Competencies) Subset Relation (Tasks) Competence State Task-Competency Structure Performance State (theoretically assumed)
  35. 35. The CbKST and the Learning Need… <ul><li>In terms of Competence-based Knowledge Space Theory in my approach to technology-enhanced work-integrated leraning , </li></ul><ul><li>the Learning Need is the Discrepancy of </li></ul><ul><li>Task Demand (of a Task) and Competence State (of a User) </li></ul>20 October 2009 / Learning Need = {c3, c4} Example:
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