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  • Humanity is facing a great challenge of satisfying Energy Demands and growth for every able personIn 40 years energy consumption will doubleOil cost will increase, raises even more energy security and energy independence issues
  • Konarka’s 250,000 sq. ft. manufacturing facility in New Bedford, MA, b•Low light sensitivity•Thin, lightweight & flexible•Easyinstallation•Organic•Roll to roll printed. Material thickness: 0.5mm+/-0.05mmFlexibilityRoll It. Wrap It. Hang It.AdaptabilityHarness energy even in low light — both indoors and out — at up to 70° off axis.ApplicabilityApplicable to a wide variety of uses. May be combined to provide greater power.VersatilityApply it to accessories, structures, cars, awnings, tents, and more.
  • Include only the best lab cell not the averageIDoes not include cost
  • Include only the best lab cell not the averageIDoes not include cost
  • Photovoltaic technologies is easily scalable to be a Trillions of dollars industry if it can compete with coal in rural electrification. Many PV companies including polymers PV companies like KonarkanadSolarmer claims that to be possible in the next 10 years. Rural electrfication was voted by the aaas to be the most important technoligcal innovation in the past centry , more crucial thean pc , Internet , IC …
  • They promised paradigm shift , they promised lower costs , they promised lower efficiencyAny way now they are focusing on niche marketsIn theory Roll to Roll can manufacture in a day what a typical Si Solar manufacture in one year at mouch cheaper cost.
  • You need thirdgeneration materialsRR Process cheap and fast prod. Of modulus. Cheap as paper and plastic. .1% ($50B exist only because of subsdies ! Can current the fin crisis affect that ?) to 1% in 2020. (extrapolate current trend 33% !!)
  • tirely due to small reflection losses, grid shading losses, and other losses at the 5 to 10% level that any practical system will have to some extent. Shipped PV modules now have efficiencies of 15 to 20% in many cases. At such an efficiency, if the cost of a module is ~$300/m2 (2), and if we take into account the accompanying fixed costs in the so-called “balance of systems” (such as the inverter, grid connection, etc., which add a factor of ~2 to the total installed system cost), then the sale price of grid-connected PV elec- tricity must be $0.25 to $0.30 per kilowatt-hour (kWh) to recover the initial capital investment and cost of money over the lifetime of the PV installation (2, 4). Currently, however, utility- scale electrical power generation costs are much less, with current and new installations costing ~$0.03 to $0.05 per kWh (1). Hence, for solar electricity to be cost-competitive with fossil- based electricity at utility scale, improvements in efficiency are helpful, but manufacturing costs must be substantially reduced.In current manufacturing schemes for Si- based solar cells, the cost of the processed and purified Si is only about 10% of the final cost of the PV module. Some of the Si is lost in cutting up boules into wafers, and other costs are incurred in polishing the wafers, making the diffused junction in the Si into a photovoltaic device, fabricating the conducting transparent glass, masking and making the electrical con- tacts, sealing the cells, connecting the cells together reliably into a module, and sealing the module for shipment. Hence, in such systems, the energy conversion efficiency is at a premium so as to better amortize these other fixed costs involved with making the final PV module
  • Need good bussiness models

Energy   pv splash Energy pv splash Presentation Transcript

  • The Energy Challenge and Introduction to Solar Cells Splash program for High School Students, MIT 2011Burhan Saifaddin
  • Outline• The importance of Energy• The energy Challenge• Introduction to Solar Cells• Organic Photovoltaic Research
  • What is Energy !!• Brain storm the importance of energy and its uses: Examples on the impact of energy : – Transportation – Housing – Industry • Materials • Manufacturing – Information Technology – Food – People and every living being The Sun is the main source of energy at our planet.
  • What is Energy !!• Discovery of Energy.• Matter is Energy. Everything is Energy. – The Big bang started the universe. – Biological Life is based on the consumption of energy. – Fire discovery ended Stone Age More recently : – Steam Engine started the industrial revolution – Electricity started communication, tranportation and information revolution – Nuclear energy started the nuclear age.
  • Do we consume Energy more than we drink water *?!• How are we spending energy ?• World wide : ~0.5 Zetta-Joules (10^21) – What does one Joule means ?! • ~ 2.9 MJ to boil 1 kg of water from zero degrees.• In the US 100 Quadrillions(10^15) BTU – 5% consumes 22% of global energy use. In lay terms – this is 1.5 Gallon /person/day. – Average US is 7.5 Gallon/person/day. – How much water do you drink a day ? But more than 1.6B people have Zero electricity * Ignore other industrial, agricultural etc… uses of water
  • Units 101Adopted from Prof Tonio Buonassisi
  • Units 101Adopted from Prof Tonio Buonassisi
  • Adopted from Prof Tonio Buonassisi
  • 100 MW Solar Cells Power PlanetAdopted from Prof Tonio Buonassisi
  • The Energy Challenge1- Meet Huge Energy Demands Sustainably:• 2010, 6.8 Billion People 12TW – 2kW/person over the year. – 1.5 Gasoline Gallon/day.• Increasing population. By 2050, 10-12 Billion People 20-24TW (conservative estimate).• Raising standards of Living for over than 2 Billions people.• Nations wants energy security and green energy. 10
  • The Energy Challenge2- Risks of Global Warming. Is it real ?3-National Security.
  • Why meet the Energy Challenge• Meet Global Energy Demands in a sustainable way.• Big economic growth: Energy is a Trillions of Dollars Industry. – 30% growth in photovoltaic market in the past 6 years.• Enable cheap and distributed power sources.• Empower people around the world. – 25 % of humanity have no electricity. 12
  • The developing World The World at night.
  • PV and the developing World WorldAdopted from Prof. Tonio Buonassisi http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/
  • PV and the developing World World
  • The Sun is the Primary energy source on Earth
  • SolarInsolation: Incoming Solar Radiation Summer
  • SolarInsolation: Incoming Solar Radiation Winter
  • Review• What are the main energy challenges facing our world ?• Design a Solar System to Generate – 10KWh/day at peak sun conditions.• How much area , roughly, we need to generate1 TW ?
  • Difficulties with the sun’s light spectrum: -Very Wideband -Low power density , Maximum (peak) ~ 1000 W/m2 -Capacity factor ~ 20%.
  • Three generation of Photovoltaic in 50 Years Main Problem for wide adoption is Cost $$
  • Polymer and Silicon PV• TTwo Early Applications in Space Polymer PV Crystalline Silicon in Bell Labs in the 1950sBased on A Heeger et all. Science (1995) 22
  • Basic Photovoltaic Energy ConversionWhat is the maximum limit for a single junction PV ?
  • PV Technology StatusNREL, 2009 24
  • PV Technology StatusNREL, 2009 25
  • Motivation for Cheap Solar Cells• Meet Global Energy Demands in a sustainable way.• Big economic growth. – 30% growth in photovoltaic market in the past 6 years.• Enable cheap and distributed power sources.• Empower people around the world. – 25 % of humanity have no electricity. Why Polymers or Organic Materials ? 26
  • Additionally Huge Economic Advantages.• Big economic growth. – Potentially trillions of dollars market size. – 30% growth in photovoltaic market in the past 10 years. – DOE expect grid parity for PV tech. in 2020.• Empower people around the world. – 25 % of humanity have no electricity. africa-charity-project.org 27
  • Basic Overview of the Organic PV TechnologyBHJ Cells manufacturers Claims: Roll to Roll processing. Cheap abundant Materials. Light weight. Flexible. Larger acceptance angle.• Setbacks – Low life time (2-5 years) – and low efficiency (4-5%).• Key patents : Konarka (2001) and Solarmer (2006). www.osa-opn.org 28
  • PV Researchers and entrepreneurs dream• Covers large area of land with PV cells. – 1 % of US land to satisfy US electricity needs. – Spain size to satisfy 20TW increase in demand. – Small contribution to global warming , comparable to US black highways. – Reasonable fraction Targets by 2030 and by 2050.• However to be competitive in the grid parity market – 5c/KWh at around 1$/W for the whole system. – Improve lifetime in outdoor conditions. 29
  • Components of BHJ PV• Active materials cost is a small fraction of the total cost.• Similar cost structure to Thin Films.. 30Kalowekmao et al., 2007
  • PV Electricity Markets Thin Films are leading the way now Exs. First Solar• Market Size double every 3y. Currently ~$40 Billion.• Competitors will reach Grid parity at some locations (8-10 c/kwh) before by 2015. 31
  • Solar systems cost• Balance of System (>50%) – 1- Light weight plastic substrate. – Glass substrate • Cost is Different in developing nations• Balance of Materials – In crystalline silicon materials cost is 10% , 2-3 C/KWh(1). (1) Nathan S. Lewis. SCIENCE 9 FEB 2007 VOL 315. 32
  • Niche Markets:What would be the consumer reaction?• Opportunities is determined by – $/kWh, life time, efficiency. Premium to 100$• Light Weight and low light suitability. • Portable Electronics: Mobiles , laptops, ipods • Watches.• Flexibility lead to – Clothing. – Fabrics. – Tents• Transparency lead to – Tinted Glass. – Building integrated materials. – Automobiles. 33