Basic Radio 101 Participant Guide

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Basic Radio 101 Participant Guide

  1. 1. P age |1 North Dakota Department of Emergency Services Basic Radio 101 An Emergency Responder’s Guide to Effective Radio Communication Participant Guide Handbook
  2. 2. P age |2 Contents Module 1 Basic Radio 101 ................................................................................... 3 Module 2 Radio Protocol Guidelines ................................................................ 12 Module 3 Basic Radio Troubleshooting ........................................................... 21 Radio Glossary.................................................................................................. 25 Basic Radio 101 Committee Members Northeast Region Southwest Region Al Morkin, Grand Forks 911 (retired September 2009) Mike Dannenfelzer, Burleigh County, Brad Tweed, Sykeston Fire Department Gary Kostelecky, Stark County (retired May 2009) Southeast Region Northwest Region Byron Sieber, Red River Regional Dispatch Center Barry Jager, Burke County Sheriff Jill Breuer, Richland County Dispatch Center Aaron Myers, Minot Community Ambulance State Resources Ken Jarolimek, ND Department of Emergency Services Tim Meyer, ND Dept. of Health, Emergency Medical Services Stuart Hammer, ND Dept. of Health, Emergency Medical Services Becky Ault, ND Department of Emergency Services – Lead Training Program Development Ben Hoffman, North Dakota State University Emergency Management Graduate Student Becky Koch, NDSU Agriculture Communication Director Photos and images in this presentation are used with permission from fema.gov, istockphoto.com and Motorola, Inc.
  3. 3. P age |3 Module 1 Introduction to Basic Radio Getting to Know Your Radio and How to Use it Effectively ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Basic Radio 101 ___________________________________ An Emergency Responder’s Guide to Effective Radio Communication ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Communication is Important • Communicate ___________________________________ effectively • Protect community ___________________________________ • Save lives ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Purpose ___________________________________ Provide a common understanding of basic two-way radio knowledge and ___________________________________ guidelines to enhance overall communication for all North Dakota ___________________________________ emergency responders ___________________________________ ___________________________________
  4. 4. P age |4 ___________________________________ Overview of Training Module 1: Introduction to Radio Basics ___________________________________ Module 2: Radio Protocol Guidelines ___________________________________ Module 3: Troubleshooting ___________________________________ Module 4: Local Perspective ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Introduction to Radio Basics ___________________________________ Getting to Know Your Radio and How to Use It Effectively ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Module 1 ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Introduction to Radio Basics ___________________________________ Radio Communication ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________
  5. 5. P age |5 ___________________________________ Walkie-talkies, Phones and Radios ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ How It Works ___________________________________ • Radio console • Base station • Tower/repeater ___________________________________ • Mobile radio • Portable radio ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ What’s a PSAP? ___________________________________ Public Safety ___________________________________ Answering Point ___________________________________ Emergency 911 ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________
  6. 6. P age |6 ___________________________________ Base Station ___________________________________ • Fixed radio station • Receives and transmits ___________________________________ – NOT simultaneously http://cfpub.epa.gov ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Mobile Radio ___________________________________ • Mounted • Used in motion or stopped ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Portable Radio ___________________________________ • Battery powered • Hand held • Carried by ___________________________________ person ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________
  7. 7. P age |7 ___________________________________ Repeaters • Boost signal ___________________________________ • Receive and transmit different frequencies simultaneously ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Towers • Reduce interference ___________________________________ • Signal travels farther ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Introduction to Radio Basics ___________________________________ Anatomy of a Radio ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________
  8. 8. P age |8 ___________________________________ Power • Power “ON” and “OFF” ___________________________________ • Different styles – Push button – Control knob ___________________________________ • Turn off when changing batteries ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Squelch • Eliminates noise on ___________________________________ analog radios • “Open” for white noise • “Close” to reduce noise ___________________________________ • Separate knob or ring under volume knob ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Push-to-Talk (PTT) • Wait 2 seconds ___________________________________ • Speak in normal voice • Incoming messages lost if PTT is activated ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________
  9. 9. P age |9 ___________________________________ Speaker & Mic • Speaker and mic ___________________________________ together • Mic when PTT is pressed ___________________________________ • Speaker when PTT is not in use ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Antenna • Vertical for best ___________________________________ reception • Not a handle ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Batteries ___________________________________ • When storing: – Turn off radio – Remove or replace with charged ___________________________________ batteries • Have extra battery pack ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________
  10. 10. P a g e | 10 ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Introduction to Radio Basics ___________________________________ Programming the Radio ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Analog vs. Digital Signals ___________________________________ Analog Digital • Signal unaltered • Not continuous • Heard simultaneously • Signal encoded ___________________________________ • Human voice is analog • Converted back to plain audio ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Battle of the Bands ___________________________________ UHF VHF • Ultra-high Frequency • Very High Frequency • 450 MHz to 470 MHz • 150 MHz to 170 MHz ___________________________________ • Respond to and recover from: ___________________________________ • ALL Hazards • ALL Disasters ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________
  11. 11. P a g e | 11 ___________________________________ Channel Scanning Channel/Mode Select Knob ___________________________________ • Push-button • Dial control ___________________________________ • Automatic scanning ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Selecting Frequency Channel/Mode ___________________________________ Name • One frequency at Channel/Mode a time Select Knob POL • Must be on same DISP NW PAGE MUTE CALL ___________________________________ channel • Special-use frequencies ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Introduction to Radio Basics Review ___________________________________ • General radio communication • Anatomy of a radio ___________________________________ • Programming the radio ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________
  12. 12. P a g e | 12 Module 2 Radio Protocol Guidelines Legal, Effective and Appropriate Radio Communication ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Radio Protocol Guidelines ___________________________________ Legal, Effective and Appropriate Radio Communication ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Module 2 ___________________________________ ___________________________________ FCC Overview ___________________________________ • Monitors • Reviews ___________________________________ • Licenses • Fines • Suspends www.fcc.gov • Revokes ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Frequency License • Licensee ___________________________________ responsibilities: – Maintain station control ___________________________________ – Function – Operate properly ___________________________________ Wall of circuit boards connecting dispatch consoles with base ___________________________________ stations throughout North Dakota
  13. 13. P a g e | 13 ___________________________________ Rules Not allowed: ___________________________________ • False calls • Fraudulent distress signals ___________________________________ • Unnecessary or unidentified communications ___________________________________ • Obscene, indecent or profane language • Improper call signals ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Monitoring Transmission ___________________________________ • Monitor for at least 2 seconds before ___________________________________ transmitting • Avoid causing harmful ___________________________________ interference ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Restrictions ___________________________________ • Minimum practical time of transmission • No chatting ___________________________________ • Be concise when transmitting ___________________________________ Courtesy of RRR Dispatch ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________
  14. 14. P a g e | 14 ___________________________________ Priorities ___________________________________ Priority calls: • Life safety ___________________________________ • Property ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Radio Protocol Guidelines ___________________________________ Common Errors and Best Practices ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Voice Quality ___________________________________ • Maintain consistent pitch, volume and delivery speed ___________________________________ • Use normal tone ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________
  15. 15. P a g e | 15 ___________________________________ Rate of Speech ___________________________________ Headquarters,251,furryfelinefoundfearfulforfleesinfirtree… ___________________________________ Whoa, slow down. ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Pronunciation Problem Solution ___________________________________ • Mispronounced • Phonetically spell – Words word or name ___________________________________ – Names • Speech • Maintain consistent – Drawled voice quality in all ___________________________________ – Lazy situations ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Voice Clipping ___________________________________ Remember the 2-Second Rule! ___________________________________ • Depress PTT button 2 Seconds before speaking ___________________________________ • Release PTT button 2 Seconds after speaking ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________
  16. 16. P a g e | 16 ___________________________________ Letting Feelings Talk • Avoid: ___________________________________ – Anger – Frustration ___________________________________ – Boredom • Be thoughtful ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Thinking Out Loud Wow, the I, uh, think • Think before you ___________________________________ sun is he went, um, bright. that way. speak Wow, the sun • Be clear and concise is bright. • Insert pauses or ___________________________________ breaks for longer transmissions • Use “stand by” to ___________________________________ collect thoughts • Keep it simple! ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Personal Pleasantries Really, don’t ___________________________________ Thanks for all mention it. the help! ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________
  17. 17. P a g e | 17 ___________________________________ Crowded or Noisy Areas ___________________________________ • Raise voice • Whisper • Turn away from ___________________________________ noise ___________________________________ • Use conversational tone • Use normal voice • Face noise ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Method of Calling ___________________________________ 4810, Dispatch. 4810. ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Method of Calling 40010 East Carpenter Road ___________________________________ theft report. Meet with Clark Kent regarding wallet theft. 4-0-0-1-0 East Carpenter Road. 4810, copy. ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________
  18. 18. P a g e | 18 ___________________________________ Acknowledging Transmission ___________________________________ 4810, ambulance enroute. 4810, copy. ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Pre-alerting ___________________________________ • Prioritize • Prepare to receive – Information ___________________________________ – Be On the Lookouts (BOLOs) – Telephone numbers ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Pre-alert Categories • Inquiries – Need to ask ___________________________________ a question or run information ___________________________________ • Information – Sharing information to be written down ___________________________________ • Details – Follow up with details to incident call ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________
  19. 19. P a g e | 19 ___________________________________ Emergency! Now What? Responders inform the ___________________________________ PSAP when they: 1. Receive their page 2. Are en route to the scene ___________________________________ 3. Arrive at the scene 4. Leave the scene 5. Are back at base ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Addresses & Locations ___________________________________ • Whole address – First, say normally – Second, break ___________________________________ down numbers • Common names – Universally known ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Addresses & Locations Example ___________________________________ • Whole address – First, “4320 3rd St. E.” ___________________________________ – Second, “4-3-2-0 Third Street East” • Common names ___________________________________ – Discovery Middle School ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________
  20. 20. P a g e | 20 ___________________________________ Code Usage 8120, 10-30 using 10-codes. 10-62. ? ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Code Usage 8120. We’ve got an ___________________________________ illegal use of 10-codes. 8120, copy. Reply to message. ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Dispatch Traffic • Confirm receipt of ___________________________________ correct information • Reinforce information for ___________________________________ dispatcher • Prevent other units from calling before ___________________________________ dispatch is ready ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________
  21. 21. P a g e | 21 Module 3 Basic Radio Troubleshooting Diagnosing and Correcting Problems with Two-way Radios ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Basic Radio Troubleshooting ___________________________________ Diagnosing and Correcting Problems with Two-way Radios ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Module 3 ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Purpose ___________________________________ Provide general troubleshooting tips first responders can use to maintain ___________________________________ functional two-way radios ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Troubleshooting Portable Mobile ___________________________________ • Power • Power • Transmission • Transmission • Audio Quality • Audio Quality ___________________________________ • Limited Talk Range • Limited Talk Range • Message Not Received • Message Not Received • Battery Problems • Blank Display ___________________________________ XTL 2500 ZONE SCAN PHON CALL PAGE ___________________________________ ___________________________________
  22. 22. P a g e | 22 ___________________________________ Power -- Portable • Does the unit beep, ___________________________________ display data or both? • Is the battery properly – charged? ___________________________________ – connected? ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Portable ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Battery Problems • Avoid extreme temperatures ___________________________________ • Clean battery or charger contacts • Check charging pin on transformer ___________________________________ • Recharge or replace ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Portable ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Power -- Mobile Problem Solution ___________________________________ • Blank or dark display • Ensure unit is on • No sound • If possible, check connection ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Mobile ___________________________________ ___________________________________
  23. 23. P a g e | 23 ___________________________________ Transmission • PTT button not ___________________________________ pressed correctly • Verify channel, frequency and code ___________________________________ settings • Verify transmission indicator ___________________________________ Transmission Indicator Light ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Audio Quality • Volume at midrange level ___________________________________ • Proper mic handling – Hold mic 2 inches to side of mouth, like cell phone, not ___________________________________ under nose • Press PTT 2 seconds before and after speaking ___________________________________ • Be aware of obstructions – Buildings, heavy foliage, etc. ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Limited Talk Range Cause Solution ___________________________________ • Steel and/or concrete • Clear line of vision structures/buildings, heavy foliage, ___________________________________ vehicles in the way ? ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________
  24. 24. P a g e | 24 ___________________________________ Limited Talk Range Cause Solution ___________________________________ • Too close to body • Change location on body • Secure antenna; ___________________________________ • Antenna make snug & vertical ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Message Not Received Problem Solution ___________________________________ • Wrong frequency or • Confirm frequency or channel channel is correct ___________________________________ • Batteries • Recharge or replace • Obstructions • Change location • Incorrect mode • Verify scan setting ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Conclusion ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________
  25. 25. P a g e | 25 Radio Glossary Analog Radio – Radio in which voice signals are sent over the air in an unaltered form and are heard the same time they are communicated (Human voice is an analog signal.) Antenna – Any structure or device used to collect or radiate radio waves Bank – Same as zone Base Station – A fixed radio station that receives or transmits on particular frequencies but not simultaneously Car to Car – Same as direct Channel – Radio frequency utilized for transmitting or receiving (or both) radio signals Conventional Radio System – A nontrunked radio system. Everyone with access to a channel hears all audio transmitted over that channel. User determines availability by listening for an open channel before transmitting. (Similar to a telephone party line) Digital Radio – A radio in which audio and signaling information are encoded from natural format to form a digital data stream. Digital radios that receive the digital data stream convert information back to intelligible voice and signaling. Direct – To communicate with another radio without using a repeater. To receive and transmit on the same frequency. Encryption – A radio technology that converts plain, intelligible audio into an unintelligible signal. Radios with encryption technology have the ability to receive the unintelligible signal and convert it to plain audio. FCC – Federal Communications Commission Federal Communications Commission – The federal government agency that regulates use of the radio spectrum Gateway – A device that electronically connects two or more fundamentally different communications networks. This temporary connection allows interoperability between different communications networks. GHZ – Abbreviation for Gigahertz Gigahertz – A unit of frequency denoting 1 billion hertz Group – Same as Zone Hertz – A unit of frequency in cycles per second. A hertz is one cycle per second.
  26. 26. P a g e | 26 HZ – Abbreviation for Hertz Mic- Abbreviation for microphone KHZ – Abbreviation for Kilohertz Kilohertz – A unit of frequency denoting 1000 hertz Megahertz – A unit of frequency denoting 1 million hertz MHZ – Abbreviation for Megahertz Mic – Abbreviation for microphone Microphone – Audio transducer that converts audio into electronic signals for transmission Mobile – A two-way radio unit mounted in a car, boat, plane, etc. and used while in motion or at various stops Monitor – Listen to a radio channel to ensure frequency is free of radio traffic before transmitting Narrowbanding – An FCC order that requires all radio users operating in the VHF and UHF bands to migrate from a wide-channel/frequency to a narrow-channel/frequency. Wide-channel operation will not be allowed after January 1, 2013. P25 – Abbreviation of Project 25 Pager – A receive-only communications device that alerts the user when receiving a voice or text message Point-to-Point – Transmissions made from one fixed location to another fixed location (between PSAPs) Portable – A battery-powered, hand-held two-way radio unit that is carried on the person Project 25 – A joint government/industry standards-setting effort to develop the next generation of public safety radios, both voice and data PSAP – Public Safety Answering Point. The location where dispatchers answer 911 calls (for example, State Radio or any of the 21 N.D. dispatch centers). PTT – Abbreviation for Push to Talk Push-to-Talk Switch – The switch on a microphone (mobile or lapel mic) or a portable that, when pressed, causes radio to transmit Repeater – A radio station that receives on a certain frequency and simultaneously transmits on another frequency
  27. 27. P a g e | 27 Simplex – Same as Direct Squelch – A radio control that eliminates noise from the speaker Subscriber Radio – Mobile or portable radios Talk Around – Same as Direct Tower – A vertical communications structure. Communications antennas are installed at or near the top of the structure to negate the impact of surrounding geography. Transmit Indicator – Typically a light or icon on the radio that indicates radio is in transmit mode Trunking Radio System – An electronically controlled, shared radio system that integrates multiple communications channels into a single radio system. By design, a trunking system with a relatively small number of channels can effectively handle a relatively large number of users. UHF Band – Abbreviation for Ultra-high Frequency Band. For first responder radio purposes, the frequency/radio channels range from 450 MHZ to 470 MHZ (excluding federal agencies). VHF Band – Abbreviation for Very High Frequency Band. For first responder radio purposes, the frequency/radio channels range from 150 MHZ to 170 MHZ. (Almost all first responder radios and radio systems within North Dakota are in the VHF frequency band.) Volume Control – An adjustable control on a subscriber radio that increases or decreases to receive audio level. Typically either a rotary or push-button control. Zone – A grouping of radio channels defined within subscriber radio. Typically utilized when radio is programmed with a large number of radio channels (greater than 16 channels).
  28. 28. P a g e | 28 For more training information please contact: North Dakota Department of Emergency Services Office: 701.328.8100 Toll Free: 800.773.3259 Fax: 701.328.8181 Fraine Barracks Lane – Building 35 P.O. Box 5511 Bismarck, ND 58506-5511 OCTOBER 2009

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