Naval Guns

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Naval Guns

  1. 1. CHAPTER 2 NAVAL GUNS
  2. 2. Most naval ships and aircraft are fitted with various kinds of guns.
  3. 3. Guns may be used against surface, shore, and air targets.
  4. 4. Dual-Purpose Systems Ship guns designed for engaging both air and surface targets
  5. 5. In automatic, gun recoil ejects the fired powder case and reloads the gun.
  6. 6. Gun A weapon consisting of a metal tube or barrel closed at one end, with mechanical attachments from which projectiles are shot by the force of an explosive.
  7. 7. Gun Components
  8. 8. Gun Components
  9. 9. The loading cycle for a large baval breech loader. Notice that there is a Series of interlocking doors that never permit an open path from the Gunhouse, down, which a flash might travel to the magazine.
  10. 10. Gun Barrel Rifling
  11. 11. Rifled Barrel Spiral grooves cut in the inner surface of the gun barrel to give the projectile a rotating motion and thus a more precise trajectory Rifling Lands The system of rifling spiral grooves cut inside the bore
  12. 12. BARREL Rifling causes the projectile to spin in flight, which keeps the projectile from tumbling after it leaves the barrel, thus providing greater accuracy.
  13. 13. Gun Measurement
  14. 14. Caliber The diameter of the bore of a gun taken as a unit of measurement
  15. 15. Caliber = barrel length ÷ bore diameter in inches. Gun Measurement for Barrels over 3" in Diameter
  16. 16. 20–millimeter .32–caliber A 20-millimeter machine gun has a bore diameter of 20 millimeters. A .32-caliber revolver has a bore diameter of .32 inches.
  17. 17. A gun having a bore diameter of 5 inches and a barrel 190 inches long is designated 5-inch, 38-caliber (written 5/38).
  18. 18. What is the designation of a gun having a bore diameter of 5 inches and a barrel 270 inches in length?
  19. 19. What is the designation of a gun having a bore diameter of 5 inches and a barrel 270 inches in length? It is called a 5-inch, 54-caliber gun (5/54).
  20. 20. Gun Elevation
  21. 21. Arc of Elevation The total vertical arc through which a gun barrel can be raised and lowered
  22. 22. Gun Train
  23. 23. Arc of Train The total horizontal arc through which a gun mount may be rotated
  24. 24. Cutout cams prevent guns from being fired into the ship’s or aircraft’s structure.
  25. 25. The entire structure between the gun and ship’s structure Gun Mount
  26. 26. A group of gun mounts of the same size, normally Battery controlled from the same point
  27. 27. Main Battery Consists of the largest size gun on board a ship Secondary Battery Consists of dual-purpose guns, or guns of the next smaller size
  28. 28. Effective range depends on: • Initial velocity • Weight of projectile • Caliber of the gun • Fire control system
  29. 29. 5" Projectile Projectile range on larger caliber gun projectiles can be extended by rocket assistance. 5" Rocket Assisted Projectile
  30. 30. Rocket-Assisted Projectiles (RAP) They are designed to extend the range of the projectiles and are filled with high explosive (HE) material.
  31. 31. Less than 8 inches and larger than 4 inches Less than 4 inches in diameter
  32. 32. 5"/54 Caliber Gun Mount MK 45
  33. 33. 5"/54 Caliber Gun Mount MK 45 Firing rate — 40 rounds per minute Maximum Range — 24,500 yards (23,700 meters)
  34. 34. 5-inch Projectile Weight – 72 pounds
  35. 35. Oto Melara 76mm/62–Caliber MK 75 Gun Mount
  36. 36. Oto Melara 76mm/62–Caliber MK 75 Gun Mount Firing rate — 80 – 85 rounds per minute Maximum Range — 17,800 yards (19,200 meters)
  37. 37. Phalanx Close–in Weapons System (CWIS) 20mm Gun System
  38. 38. Search Radar Tracking Radar A last-ditch 6 – 20mm gun weapon against barrels an antiship Ammunition cruise missile drum – 900+ rounds
  39. 39. The six-barrel Vulcan Gatling gun can fire 3,000 rounds per minute.
  40. 40. The gun is computer controlled.
  41. 41. Gun Ammunition — Principal Components: Projectile Propelling charge
  42. 42. Projectile An object fired from a gun with an explosive propelling charge, such as a bullet, shell, rocket, or grenade
  43. 43. DER Bag Ammunition Case Ammunition
  44. 44. Semifixed Ammunition Fixed Ammunition
  45. 45. Semifixed Ammunition Refers to a round that consists of a projectile and a separate case charge loaded one after the other Fixed Ammunition Refers to a round in which the projectile and powder case are permanently attached (standard in 3‖ and smaller guns)
  46. 46. MAIN CHARGE IGNITER PRIMER Propellant Components
  47. 47. MAIN CHARGE IGNITER PRIMER Propellants are chemical compounds that burn at a rapid rate rather than detonate or explode.
  48. 48. MAIN CHARGE IGNITER PRIMER The first stage in a propellant train is called a primer primer; it produces a hot flame that sets off igniter the next stage, called igniter; the igniter sets off the main charge charge.
  49. 49. The three main parts of a projectile are: • Its metallic body • The fuze that sets off the main charge • The explosive burster charge
  50. 50. ADF Explosive (Auxiliary Body Charge Detonating Nose Fuze Fuze) Gun Projectile Assembly
  51. 51. ROTATING BODY OGIVE BAND BASE BOURRELET NOSE Projectile Characteristics
  52. 52. Ogive The curved nose of a missile or rocket
  53. 53. Bourrelet The widest part of the projectile, located immediately to the rear of the ogive
  54. 54. Three classes of projectiles: • Penetrating • Fragmenting • Special purpose
  55. 55. Penetrating projectiles are designed to penetrate the target before exploding.
  56. 56. Armor-Piercing (AP) Projectile
  57. 57. Fragmenting projectiles are designed to damage by blast effect and fragmentation. These projectiles have relatively thin walls and large burster charges
  58. 58. Fragmentation Bomb A bomb designed to break into many small, high-velocity shrapnel fragments when detonated Shrapnel Shell fragments
  59. 59. Antiaircraft Common (AAC) Projectile AUXILIARY DETONATING FUZE BASE DETONATING FUZE MECHANICAL TIME FUZE Antiaircraft projectiles are normally fuzed to detonate in proximity of aircraft with the fragments penetrating the aircraft skin
  60. 60. High Explosive–Point Detonating (HE–PD) Projectile
  61. 61. High Explosive–Point Detonating (HE–PD) Projectiles These are used against lightly armored surface targets such as torpedo boats, shore installations, or personnel.
  62. 62. Special purpose projectiles have a variety of applications, including illumination, smoke, chaff, and target practice, and are not intended to inflict damage by blast or fragmentation.
  63. 63. PARACHUTE Illuminating (ILLUM) Projectile
  64. 64. Parachute Illuminating Projectiles Often called star shells, they contain a bright flare attached to a parachute. The flare is intended to illuminate an enemy target or terrain as it slowly descends under the parachute.
  65. 65. White Phosphorous (WP) Projectile
  66. 66. Ballistite A smokeless powder consisting of nitroglycerine and cellulose nitrate chiefly in a 40 to 60 percent ratio; used as a solid fuel for rockets
  67. 67. Chaff Projectile
  68. 68. Chaff Strips of metal foil dropped by an aircraft to confuse enemy radar by creating false blips
  69. 69. Nonfragmenting Projectiles Produce bursts of various colored smoke for antiaircraft gunnery practice
  70. 70. Target projectiles contain sand or other inert material to simulate the weight and balance of burster charges; they are used for surface gunnery practice.
  71. 71. Fuze A device that detonates the burster charge
  72. 72. Fuze A mechanical or electronic device to detonate an explosive charge, especially as contained in an artillery shell, a missile, projectile, or the like Fuse (different spelling) A tube, cord, or the like, filled or saturated with combustible matter, for igniting an explosive
  73. 73. Fuzes are classified by their function as: Fuze • Impact • Time • Proximity
  74. 74. Controlled Proximity (VT) Fuze
  75. 75. Proximity Fuze A design for detonating a charge, as in a projectile, within a predesignated radius of a target
  76. 76. Controlled Variable–Time Fuze (CVT) Delays projectile arming for a set time after it is fired
  77. 77. Firing over a Friendly Ship Air Burst Impact Burst Enemy Note: Impact Backup in VT Mode
  78. 78. Mechanical Time Fuze It contains a clock mechanism that explodes the projectile after a preset amount of time elapses.
  79. 79. Antiaircraft guns put up a ―flak‖ screen to protect carrier task forces.
  80. 80. Flak A heavy antiaircraft barrage through which aircraft must fly to attack their target
  81. 81. Iraqi Chemical Artillery Projectiles Artillery projectiles have been produced that can dispense chemical or biological agents, and have been used in some of the conflicts in the Middle East.
  82. 82. Naval Gunfire Support Shore bombardment was common in World War II.
  83. 83. Naval gunfire support for amphibious operations must be: • Carefully planned • Executed with precision
  84. 84. USS Defender (MCM 2) Support roles for naval gunfire include: • Mine warfare activities
  85. 85. • Sea/Air rescue missions
  86. 86. • Reconnaissance and demolition operations
  87. 87. • Feints • Raids • Flak suppression during air strikes
  88. 88. • In interdiction of coastal roads, railroads, airfields, and troop assembly areas
  89. 89. Interdiction THE END Steady bombardment of enemy positions and communications lines for the purpose of delaying and disorganizing progress

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