Naval Aircraft & Missiles Web


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Naval Aircraft & Missiles Web

  2. 2. E-2C Air Wing F/A-18 S-3B C-2A AV-8B EA-6B Naval Aircraft
  3. 3. F-14 Tomcat No Longer in Active Inventory F/A-18 Hornet Airplanes fall into three main groups: 1. Fixed-wing - Wings are the primary lifting devices for the aircraft.
  4. 4. SH/HH-60 Seahawk 2. Rotary-wing - Two or more rotating blades lift the aircraft by pulling or pushing air.
  5. 5. U.S. Navy 3. Lighter-than-air - Casings filled with light gas, such as helium, provide lifting power.
  6. 6. F/A-18 Super Hornet Attack planes are used for: • Low-level F/A-18 Hornet bombing • Ground support • Nuclear strikes
  7. 7. Attack planes carry heavy payloads (fuel, bombs, and missiles) and can remain on station long enough to support ground troops.
  8. 8. F/A-18F Super Hornet Fighter planes are high-performance aircraft used to gain air superiority.
  9. 9. Fighters may be used as: • Interceptors — defensively • Escorts — offensively • Ground support
  10. 10. P-3C Orion Patrol aircraft are land-based, long-range, multi-engine planes used mainly for undersea warfare patrol.
  11. 11. Patrol aircraft can: • Detect, locate, and destroy submarines. • Escort surface convoys. • Conduct photographic missions. • Lay mines.
  12. 12. P-8A Poseidon to Replace P-3C Orion starting in 2013
  13. 13. EA-6B Prowler Electronic warfare (EW) aircraft detect and jam enemy radars.
  14. 14. F/A-18 Growler Replacing Navy and Marine Corps EA-6 B Prowlers
  15. 15. S-3B Viking Undersea warfare (USW) aircraft hunt and destroy submarines.
  16. 16. F-14 TARPS (Tactical Airborne Reconnaissance Pod System) Reconnaissance aircraft gather intelligence information.
  17. 17. F/A-18 ATARS (Advanced Tactical Airborne Reconnaissance System) Attack or fighter aircraft may perform reconnaissance duties.
  18. 18. Reconnaissance photography
  19. 19. E-2C Hawkeye The mission of the early warning aircraft (AEW) is to: • Provide early warning of approaching enemy aircraft. • Direct interceptors into attack position.
  20. 20. Helicopter Roles • Cargo and personnel transportation • Undersea Warfare (USW) • Observation and reconnaissance • Search and rescue • Mine countermeasures
  21. 21. Lighter-than-air craft have not been used much since WWII, but DARPA is working on a concept for a blimp (―WALRUS‖) capable of transporting 500 tons (Small brigade size unit).
  22. 22. Until the end of WWII, naval fighter type aircraft armament consisted of: • Machine guns • Unguided rockets • Bombs
  23. 23. The WWII fighter-bombers or attack aircraft would also carry: • Incendiaries • Torpedoes
  24. 24. A-3 Skywarrior A-5 Vigilante Navy planes developed specifically to deliver nuclear bombs A-4 Skyhawk
  25. 25. F-86 Sabre F-4 Phantom Guided missiles were developed for fighter aircraft and used in: • Korean War • Vietnam War
  26. 26. Most dogfights were still decided with machine guns.
  27. 27. Gatling-type machine guns appeared in the late 1960s.
  28. 28. F-14 Tomcat In the 1980s and 1990s Improved guidance and propulsion made the guided missile (AAM) the main armament for the modern naval fighter aircraft.
  29. 29. F/A-18E/F Super Hornet AIM-9 TALD AIM-9 GBU-24 MK-77 LAU AGM-65 WALLEYE CBU-72 AGM-48 AGM-84D CBU-59 MK-20 MK-65 JDAM WALLEYE-1 GBU-12 MK-62 MK-84 TANK 33D MK-56 JSOW AIM-7 MK-83 MK-82 MK-63 Cruise missile and ―smart‖ bombs now play major roles.
  30. 30. F-14 Tomcat F/A-18 Hornet Designed with fuselage-mounted 20-mm Gatling guns which can fire 100 rounds per second
  31. 31. Missile Any object that can be projected or thrown at a target
  32. 32. Today the term ―missile‖ means ―guided missile.‖
  33. 33. Guided Missile An unmanned, self-propelled vehicle with a guidance system
  34. 34. Smart Bomb A non-self-propelled vehicle with a guidance system
  35. 35. Rocket No internal guidance system
  36. 36. A guided missile can carry either a conventional explosive or a nuclear warhead.
  37. 37. The Navy’s homing torpedoes are self-propelled weapons having elaborate guidance systems that hunt for a target and steer for it on a collision course.
  38. 38. Homing Device A mechanism incorporated into a guided missile, airplane, etc., that aims it toward its objective
  39. 39. A guided missile has four basic parts: • Airframe • Propulsion system • Guidance system • Warhead
  42. 42. ROCKET MOTOR TARGET WARHEAD DETECTING DEVICE GUIDANCE-CONTROL GROUP WINGS FINS IR DOME Missile Airframe Missile airframes contain the other parts of the missile plus the fuel.
  43. 43. MISSILE AIRFRAME Missile airframes are made of aluminum alloys, magnesium, and high tensile steel sheets, which are lightweight and capable of withstanding extreme heat and high-pressure.
  44. 44. Missile Propulsion (Supersonic) • Liquid or solid fuel motors
  45. 45. Missile Propulsion (Subsonic) • Air-breathing ―cruise‖ missiles
  46. 46. Warhead The missile high-explosive payload
  47. 47. Currently the Navy guided missiles have one of five types of guidance systems: • Preset gyro • Inertial • Homing • Command • Beam rider
  48. 48. Preset Gyro Guidance — It uses gyroscopes to keep the missile on a set course, with an onboard computer constantly checking angle of climb and acceleration.
  49. 49. Descent and Midcourse Terminal Pullout Phase Maneuver Phase (Inertial (Homing Guidance) Guidance) Booster Separation Inertial Guidance — It makes use of a predetermined flight profile programmed into the onboard missile computer.
  50. 50. Homing Guidance — It depends on the missile picking up and tracking a target by means of radar, optical, or heat-seeking devices.
  51. 51. Active Homing — The radar transmitter and receiver are both located in the missile.
  52. 52. Semiactive Homing — The radar transmitter is located on the launching ship or aircraft, and the receiver is in the missile.
  53. 53. RF/INFRARED WAVES FROM TARGET MISSILE TARGET Passive Homing — The missile picks up and tracks a target by detecting some form of energy emitted by it.
  54. 54. MISSILE LAUNCHER UPLINK COMMAND TARGET DOWN LINK TRANSMITTER TRACKER RECEIVER COMPUTER Command Guidance — It involves missile control by signals from the launch station.
  55. 55. TARGET TRACKING AND GUIDANCE RADAR MISSILE BOOSTER Beam Rider Guidance — It requires the missile to follow a radar beam to the target (will self destruct if off course)
  56. 56. Missiles have great range, accuracy, and payload.
  57. 57. POLARIS A-3 SLAM POSEIDON C-3 SLAM Polaris and Poseidon — The initial fleet ballistic missile (FBM)
  58. 58. Polaris A – 1 missile — deployed in 1960
  59. 59. The Trident missile has a range of over 4,000 nautical miles.
  60. 60. The Minuteman is the most powerful Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) and has a range of over 5,000 miles.
  61. 61. Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) Any supersonic missile that has a range of at least 3,500 nautical miles (6,500 km) and follows a ballistic trajectory after a powered, guided launching
  62. 62. USS Maine (SSBN 741) The U.S. fleet ballistic submarine (SSBN) force consists of 20 submarines.
  63. 63. Each SSBN carries twenty-four 4,000-nautical mile range MIRV (multiple independently targeted reentry vehicle) ballistic missiles.
  64. 64. Multiple Independently Targeted Reentry Vehicle (MIRV) A reentry vehicle that breaks up into several nuclear warheads, each capable of reaching a different target
  65. 65. Bangor, WA Kings Bay, GA Trident Submarine Bases
  66. 66. Ballistic missile flight and trajectory — It is a two-stage flight path.
  67. 67. Antiballistic Missiles (ABMs) They are designed to detect, intercept, or destroy incoming ballistic missiles.
  68. 68. The United States has never deployed a fixed ABM system.
  69. 69. The Soviet Union deployed thousands of ABM systems in the 1970s and 1980s.
  70. 70. Army’s mobile Patriot missile system used during Operation Desert Storm in 1991
  71. 71. What was the Patriot missile system used for in Operation Desert Storm?
  72. 72. What was the Patriot missile system used for in Operation Desert Storm? To knock down incoming Iraqi Scud missile warheads fired against Israel and Saudi Arabia
  73. 73. Task Force Defense
  74. 74. E-2C Hawkeye Early Warning Systems USS Curtis Wilbur (DDG 54)
  75. 75. F/A-18 Hornets First line of defense — Interceptor aircraft, which would attack enemy planes with air-to-air missiles
  76. 76. Guided missiles have become the main weapon used in aerial combat.
  77. 77. AIM-9 The air-to-air missile can ―lock on‖ the hostile aircraft while it is still miles away, and pursue and hit it in spite of any evasive maneuvers.
  78. 78. Second line of defense — SAMs of moderate range (20 - 65 miles)
  79. 79. Long-range search radar would detect incoming enemy.
  80. 80. Surface-to-Air Missile (SAM) Intercepts attacking aircraft at great height and ranges
  81. 81. Third line of defense: • Shorter range missiles (5 - 30 miles) • Antiaircraft guns
  82. 82. Point defense systems are the last defense.
  83. 83. Protection against underwater attack would include: • Homing torpedoes • Depth bombs
  84. 84. Cruise Missile A winged guided missile designed to deliver a conventional or nuclear warhead by flying at low altitudes to avoid detection by radar
  85. 85. Harpoon — first antiship cruise missile Length – 15 feet Diameter – 13 inches Weight – 1,400 pounds Range (Max.) – 60 NM
  86. 86. Harpoon Missile It is the primary antiship weapon system for U.S. forces carried by cruisers, destroyers, frigates, nuclear attack submarines, carrier-based attack and USW aircraft, and P-3 Orion maritime patrol aircraft.
  87. 87. Harpoon The missile features over-the-horizon (OTH) range, a low-level subsonic cruising trajectory, active guidance, counter-countermeasures, and a large payload.
  88. 88. Tomahawk An all-weather, long-range, subsonic cruise missile
  89. 89. A Tomahawk can be launched from a submarine, as well as surface ship, land, and air platforms.
  90. 90. The land-attack Tomahawk flies at very low altitudes and has terrain-masking and infrared features, making defense against it difficult.
  91. 91. The Standoff Land Attack Missile (SLAM) was developed in the mid-1990s as an adverse weather OTH precision strike missile.
  92. 92. SLAM incorporates: • A highly accurate GPS-aided guidance system • An improved aerodynamic performance (150nm range) • A newly developed automatic target acquisition (ATA) feature
  93. 93. Combat Air Patrol A task force’s front line of defense
  94. 94. The fleet has three operational airborne intercept missiles (AIM): • AIM-9 series Sidewinder missile • AIM-54 Phoenix missile • AIM-120 Advanced Medium-Range Air-to-Air Missile (AMRAAM)
  95. 95. Sidewinder Missile AIM-9
  96. 96. Sidewinder Missile AIM-9 Range – 2 miles Speed – Mach 2.5 Weight – 160 to 210 pounds
  97. 97. Sidewinder Missile AIM-9 The improved fuze, warhead, and the maneuverability of the latest model provides U.S. pilots with the best possible advantage in close combat.
  98. 98. Phoenix Missile AIM-54
  99. 99. AIM-54 Phoenix Missile Range – 125 miles Speed – Mach 5+ Weight – 1,000 pounds
  100. 100. The system’s ability to engage multiple targets almost simultaneously enhances airspace control, a prerequisite for fleet operations today.
  101. 101. Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air (AMRAAM) Missile AIM – 120
  102. 102. AIM-120 AMRAAM is a follow-on to an older missile series called the Sparrow.
  103. 103. AIM-120 AMRAAM Range – 30+ miles Speed – Mach 4 Weight – 335 pounds
  104. 104. Navy Surface-to-Air Missiles (SAM) The second line of fleet defense
  105. 105. Terrier was the Navy’s first operational SAM missile.
  106. 106. Terrier SAM Range – 10+ miles Speed – Mach 2 Weight – 3,000 pounds
  107. 107. Tartar SAM Missile It was similar to the Terrier but weighed half as much.
  108. 108. Talos was the Navy’s largest shipboard SAM missile but was phased out in the late 1970s.
  109. 109. Standard Medium-Range (MR) Missile Standard Extended-Range (ER) Missile The Standard missile series featuring both medium-range (MR) and extended- range (ER) missiles replaced the Terrier and Tartar missiles.
  110. 110. Standard (MR) missile has a range in excess of 15 miles and a ceiling greater than 50,000 feet.
  111. 111. Standard (ER) missile has a range exceeding 30 miles and a ceiling greater than 60,000 feet.
  112. 112. AGM-65 AGM-114 The Navy has several types of air-to-ground missiles (AGM) designed to attack armor, air defenses, ground transportation, AGM-88 and ships.
  113. 113. The AGM-65 Maverick missile is used for close air support of friendly ground forces.
  114. 114. The AGM-88 HARM (high-speed antiradiation missile) is designed to home in on and destroy enemy radars.
  115. 115. Antiradiation Missile Designed to home in on radiation emitted from enemy weapons or tracking sites
  116. 116. The AGM-114 Hellfire missile is a laser guided subsonic missile intended for launching by helicopters against tanks or other types of enemy armored vehicles.
  118. 118. Walleye has: • A powerful warhead • Amazing accuracy
  119. 119. A newly developed guidance kit called the Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM) converts conventional 1,000- and 2,000-pound bombs into precision- guided munitions using the satellite-based GPS system for guidance.
  120. 120. GBU-16 ―Smart Bombs‖ — non-self-propelled air-dropped munitions that can be guided to impact with a target.
  121. 121. JSOW (Joint Stand-Off Weapon) is a large glide bomb designed to attack surface targets while remaining at safe stand-off distances.
  122. 122. The JSOW has a range of from 12 to 40 nautical miles, but a powered version has a range in excess of 120 nautical miles.
  123. 123. The Harpoon Harpoon and Tomahawk cruise missiles come in the AGM version. Tomahawk
  124. 124. ASROC Torpedo The Navy’s primary undersea warfare (USW) weapons are antisubmarine rockets (ASROC) and antisubmarine torpedoes.
  125. 125. ASROC — antisubmarine rocket, fitted with either a homing torpedo or nuclear depth bomb warhead
  126. 126. Motor Separation ASROC Depth Charge Torpedo Water Entry SONAR ASROC Operations
  127. 127. The USW ship can launch ASROC before the submarine is even aware that it is under attack.
  128. 128. Enabling Point Initial Dive Target Detection Enabling Run Preset Search Pattern Target Homing Homing Torpedo — A torpedo that uses a self- contained guidance system usually based on sound detection for terminal guidance.
  129. 129. Reflected Torpedo Acoustic Pulse Target Acoustic Pulses From Torpedo Active acoustic is not dependent upon the sound emitted from the target for its homing information.
  130. 130. Torpedo Acoustic Pulses From Target Passive acoustic homes in on the noise emitted from the target.
  131. 131. Trajectory A missile’s path from launch to impact or destruct
  132. 132. The two basic missile trajectories are: • Ballistic • Aerodynamic
  133. 133. Ballistic Missile Flight
  134. 134. Ballistic Trajectory The missile is acted upon only by gravity and aerodynamic drag after the propulsive force is terminated
  135. 135. Lift Thrust Drag Gravity (Weight) An aerodynamic missile is one in which aerodynamic forces are used to maintain the flight path. It usually has a winged configuration.
  136. 136. Aerodynamic Trajectory Path of an object, as a rocket, when the air is dense enough to modify the course of flight significantly. Aerodynamic control of missiles is greatly reduced in the stratosphere because of low air density.
  137. 137. Descent and Midcourse Terminal Pullout Phase Maneuver Phase (Inertial (Homing Guidance) Guidance) Booster Separation Missile trajectories include many shapes or types of curves.
  138. 138. Mid-Course Terminal Predicted Target Position Hyperbolic Trajectory The missile will first climb to the desired altitude, then follow an arc of a hyperbola before diving on its target.
  139. 139. T1 T2 T3 T4 LOS 3 LOS 4 LOS 2 M4 Target Sharp Curve LOS 1 Flight M3 Causes High Path Accelerations Pursuit Curve Missile M2 Flight A curved path Path followed by a M1 missile that homes in on and eventually overtakes and intercepts a target.
  140. 140. T1 T2 Target Flight T3 Path LOS 1 LOS 2 LOS 3 M3 Missile M2 Flight Path M1 Modified Pursuit Course
  141. 141. An intermediate-range or long-range air-breathing missile climbs quickly to altitude and then flies a flat trajectory to the target area where it dives straight down on it.
  142. 142. ICBMs, such as Trident, are launched vertically so they can get through the densest part of the atmosphere as soon as possible.
  143. 143. ASROC weapons use a combination trajectory — ballistic and pursuit trajectory.
  144. 144. Missile trajectory is affected by ―natural forces.‖ • Wind • Gravity • Magnetic forces • Coriolis effect
  145. 145. THE END