Nautical Rules of the Road

28,465 views

Published on

Published in: Education
2 Comments
40 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total views
28,465
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
45
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
1,694
Comments
2
Likes
40
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Nautical Rules of the Road

  1. 1. CHAPTER 1 NAUTICAL RULES OF THE ROAD
  2. 2. Nautical traffic laws are known as the Nautical Rules of of the Road.
  3. 3. International Inland Nautical Rules of the Road were first established in 1897 by all maritime nations of the world. The latest major revision was in 1972.
  4. 4. International Rules of the Road The official name is The International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, 1972, or ―the 72 COLREGS.‖
  5. 5. Convention on the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, 1972 (COLREGs) The COLREGs include 38 rules divided into five sections: • Part A - General • Part B - Steering and Sailing • Part C - Lights and Shapes • Part D - Sound and Light Signals • Part E - Exemptions
  6. 6. Inland Waters – Unified Rules The inland rules for the U.S. were established by Congress under The Inland Navigational Rules Act of 1980.
  7. 7. Purpose of the Rules Prevent Collisions
  8. 8. The rules govern all waterborne traffic.
  9. 9. Power Vessel Propelled by machinery, even if under sail Sailing Vessel Under sail alone, even if machinery is aboard
  10. 10. A vessel is underway when not: • Anchored • Moored to a dock or buoy • Aground
  11. 11. Underway A vessel that is not anchored, moored, or aground It is not required that you are moving or making way.
  12. 12. Both international and inland rules of the road cover: • Lights and shapes • Sound signals • Steering and sailing rules • Distress signals
  13. 13. Maritime courts of law use both international and inland rules after a collision to decide who will pay for damages.
  14. 14. Display lights from sunset to sunrise and in periods of restricted visibility. Do not display lights that could be mistaken for required lights.
  15. 15. Running Lights (Port, Starboard, and Stern)
  16. 16. Running Lights (Masthead and Range)
  17. 17. Running Lights Any of various lights required to be displayed by vessels operating between sunset and sunrise
  18. 18. Running lights are white, red, and green lights carried by all seagoing power-driven vessels underway.
  19. 19. Masthead Light 225° The white light in the fore part of the ship is required for all ocean-going ships.
  20. 20. Masthead Light (Vessels less than 12 meters, 39 feet) 360° All-around white light.
  21. 21. Range Light (Vessels over 50 meters or 150 feet) Range Light (15 feet higher than Masthead Light) Masthead Light
  22. 22. Stern Light 12 Pts. 135° A ship underway must display a white stern light.
  23. 23. Port 112.5° 112.5° Starboard Running Lights
  24. 24. What side of a vessel is called the port side, and what color is its sidelight? What side of a vessel is called the starboard side, and what color is its sidelight?
  25. 25. What side of a vessel is called the port side, and what color is its sidelight? Left and red What side of a vessel is called the starboard side, and what color is its sidelight? Right and green An easy way to remember is ―Port wine is red.‖
  26. 26. Arc of Visibility The angular dimension (horizontal arc in degrees) within which a light can be seen from a location off the vessel
  27. 27. What is the required arc of visibility, in degrees, of the following ship’s lights? Masthead light: Sidelights: All-around light: Stern light:
  28. 28. What is the required arc of visibility, in degrees, of the following ship’s lights? Masthead light: 225° Sidelights: 112.5° All-around light: 360° Stern light: 135°
  29. 29. The white masthead and range lights, together with sidelights, indicate the course of the sighted ship.
  30. 30. The white stern light warns overtaking ships that another ship is ahead.
  31. 31. ―Reading‖ Navigation Lights (Vessels Underway)
  32. 32. ―Reading‖ Navigation Lights (Vessels Underway) S B T O E W R N STAR- PORT BOARD
  33. 33. The upper white lights must be visible from a distance of at least 5 miles.
  34. 34. The port and starboard sidelights and the stern light must be visible at least 2 miles away.
  35. 35. International Maritime Organization (IMO) The international and inland rules agree in the arcs of visibility required by the lights shown.
  36. 36. Power-driven motorboats • Range light optional • Masthead light visible for at least 3 miles • Stern and sidelights visible for 1 mile
  37. 37. Pilot Boat
  38. 38. Pilot Boat A boat carrying pilots to or from large ships
  39. 39. Pilot Boat ―White over red, pilot ahead‖ is a memory aid used when looking for a pilot boat.
  40. 40. Pilot Boat A vessel engaged in pilotage duties may sound an optional identity signal of four short blasts on its horn.
  41. 41. Vessel at Anchor Ships less than 50 meters in length at anchor show an all-around white light forward. Ships more than 50 meters in length show an all-around white light forward and aft.
  42. 42. Vessel at Anchor Dayshape In daytime, vessels at anchor must display a black ball, known as a dayshape.
  43. 43. Dayshape Vessel at Anchor
  44. 44. Vessel Towing
  45. 45. Vessels towing must: • Display two masthead lights in a vertical line. • If the tow extends beyond 200 meters, a third light must be added below the second light.
  46. 46. Vessel Not under Command A ship or craft that is disabled and cannot operate in accordance with the Rules of the Road
  47. 47. Vessel Not under Command Day Shape Not Making Way
  48. 48. Vessel Not under Command Day Shape Making Way
  49. 49. A ship not under command at night must show two red lights, one over the other. They must be visible all around the horizon at a distance of 2 miles.
  50. 50. Vessels Not under Command during Daylight Merchant ships will hoist two black balls. Naval vessels will hoist the ―5‖ flag and two black balls.
  51. 51. Other lights and day shapes are prescribed for various operations such as: • Commercial fishing • Cable laying • Underwater or diving operations • Dredging Some examples of day shapes follow.
  52. 52. Special Rules for Naval Vessels The horizontal separation of white lights on destroyers and smaller ships is often less than that required by the rules.
  53. 53. The white lights on aircraft carriers are usually on the superstructure and off the centerline. Special lights such as speed lights, carrier-landing lights, and colored recognition lights may be shown on naval vessels during certain operations.
  54. 54. During ship exercises, naval vessels may show no lights at all. In peacetime, however, if a merchant ship approaches, lights are usually turned on.
  55. 55. When lights are required, the three black balls are replaced with three green lights. MINESWEEPER
  56. 56. Amber-colored intermittent flashing beacon – 3 seconds on – 3 seconds off when submarine running surfaced, in addition to other required lights
  57. 57. Whistle Signals Whistle signals are required by both sets of rules for vessels maneuvering within sight of one another.
  58. 58. INLAND RULES Signifies intention only. A response IS required.
  59. 59. INTERNATIONAL RULES Signifies execution of maneuver. A response is NOT required.
  60. 60. Duration Times for Whistle Signals Short Blast: TOOT I 1 second I Prolonged: T - O - O - T I 4 - 6 seconds I Long Blast: T – O – O – T I 8 - 10 seconds I
  61. 61. INTERNATIONAL 1 Short Blast: ―I am altering my course to starboard.‖
  62. 62. INTERNATIONAL 2 Short Blasts: ―I am altering my course to port.‖
  63. 63. INTERNATIONAL 3 Short Blasts: ―My engines are going astern.‖
  64. 64. INTERNATIONAL - INLAND 5 Short Blasts: ―DANGER!’
  65. 65. Confusion over whistle signals probably causes more collisions than any other part of the rules of the road.
  66. 66. Both international and inland rules consider the situation in which two ships are approaching each other with the risk of collision. They are: • Meeting • Overtaking • Crossing
  67. 67. Give-Way Vessel — Must keep clear Stand-On Vessel — Has the right of way
  68. 68. The risk of a collision exists when the bearing of an approaching vessel remains constant.
  69. 69. A collision at sea can ruin your whole day.
  70. 70. General Rules to Avoid Collision 1. Take action in ample time. 2. Make the passing agreement signals. 3. Make obvious changes. 4. Check and recheck your actions until clear of other vessels. 5. If necessary, stop or reverse your engines.
  71. 71. INLAND Meeting One Short Blast Situation Port to Port Give-way Vessel Give-way Vessel
  72. 72. INTERNATIONAL Meeting Two Short Blasts Situation Starboard to Starboard Only done if it is clearly the most convenient, safe maneuver for both vessels. Give-way Vessel Give-way Vessel
  73. 73. INTERNATIONAL Meeting Two Short Blasts Situation Starboard to Starboard It is implied that a starboard-to-starboard passing is only proper when there is no risk of collision. There is an old nautical saying that warns: ―Two short blasts are the first two notes of the collision waltz.‖
  74. 74. In U.S. Inland Waters Starboard-to-starboard passing is authorized only if the ships are not meeting end-on and safe passage is assured without any maneuvering.
  75. 75. INTERNATIONAL Crossing Situation Stand-on Vessel The give-way vessel is Give-way required to maneuver to Vessel avoid crossing ahead of the stand-on vessel.
  76. 76. INTERNATIONAL Crossing Situation Stand-on Vessel This means reducing Give-way speed, stopping, altering Vessel course to starboard, or backing down.
  77. 77. INTERNATIONAL One Short Blast Crossing Two Short Blasts Situation Three Short Blasts Stand-on Vessel Give-way Vessel
  78. 78. Overtaking Situation In inland waters, the overtaking vessel must signal on which side it intends to pass; one blast to starboard and two blasts to port. It cannot pass until it hears the same signal from the overtaken vessel.
  79. 79. INTERNATIONAL Overtaking Situation In international waters, a ship that can pass another without a change of course may do so without a signal.
  80. 80. INTERNATIONAL Overtaking Situation If overtaking vessel must change course to pass, she sounds one short blast if turning to the right, or two short blasts if turning to the left, and does not have to wait for an answer. Vessel being overtaken may respond with 5 or more short blasts if she considers proposed maneuver dangerous.
  81. 81. Overtaking Situation I An overtaking vessel must give a signal N whether or not she must change course L to pass, and she may not pass until she A hears the agreeing signal from the vessel N ahead. D The signals are one short blast if proposing to pass the other vessel on her R starboard side, and two if proposing to U pass on her port side. L E S
  82. 82. Overtaking Situation I N DANGER L A N D Vessel being overtaken responses with 5 short blasts indicating danger R to port. U L Overtaking vessel indicates overtaking This is followed by a signal for E on the port side by what is considered the safer procedure and the overtaking S 2 short blasts. vessel answers signal and passes on the correct side.
  83. 83. Avoid Collision – ―In Extremis‖ A vessel may depart from the requirements of the rules of the road when there is imminent danger of collision. Such a danger of collision is called ―in extremis.‖
  84. 84. A ship’s captain is required to use good judgment to avoid collision even if the action might violate the rules.
  85. 85. Fog Signals Underway Inland Rules Prolonged blast 4 to 6 seconds on the whistle at 1-minute intervals International Rules Prolonged blast 4 to 6 seconds on the whistle every 2 minutes
  86. 86. Inland Rules Fog Signal at Anchor Ring the bell for about 5 seconds at 1-minute intervals.
  87. 87. In restricted visibility, you must: Go at a safe speed. Maintain a proper look-out. Display navigation lights.
  88. 88. If you hear a fog signal forward of your beam: Reduce speed to bare steerageway.
  89. 89. Steerageway The minimum speed at which the rudder is effective or The minimum speed at which your vessel can be kept on course
  90. 90. Distress Signals for Inland & International Rules FOGHORN GUN FIRED AT FLAMES ON CONTINUOUS INTERVALS A VESSEL SOUNDING OF 1 MINUTE (NIGHT ONLY)
  91. 91. NAUTICAL RULES OF THE ROAD THE END
  92. 92. Distress Signals for International Rules Gun Fired at 1-Minute Intervals
  93. 93. Distress Signals for International Rules Continuous Sounding of Foghorn
  94. 94. Distress Signals for International Rules Rockets or Shells
  95. 95. Distress Signals for International Rules SOS
  96. 96. Distress Signals for International Rules Signal ―MAYDAY‖ by Radio
  97. 97. Distress Signals for International Rules Flaghoist with November Charlie
  98. 98. Distress Signals for International Rules Square Flag and Ball
  99. 99. Distress Signals for International Rules Flames from Tar or Oil Barrel
  100. 100. Distress Signals for International Rules Parachute Flare
  101. 101. Distress Signals for International Rules Smoke Signal
  102. 102. Distress Signals for International Rules Wave Arms
  103. 103. Q.1. Name the two sets of rules of the road used by ships in the United States.
  104. 104. Q.1. Name the two sets of rules of the road used by ships in the United States. A.1. The International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, 1972, and The Inland Navigational Rules Act of 1980
  105. 105. Q.2. What is the purpose of the rules of the road?
  106. 106. Q.2. What is the purpose of the rules of the road? A.2. To prevent ship collisions
  107. 107. Q.3. How can you determine if risk of collision exists?
  108. 108. Q.3. How can you determine if risk of collision exists? A.3. If the compass bearing of an approaching vessel does not appreciably change as the range decreases (―constant bearing decreasing range‖)
  109. 109. Q.4. What do the rules of the road cover?
  110. 110. Q.4. What do the rules of the road cover? A.4. Lights and shapes, sound signals, steering and sailing rules, and distress signals
  111. 111. Q.5. Explain the difference between power-driven and sailing vessels.
  112. 112. Q.5. Explain the difference between power-driven and sailing vessels. A.5. A power-driven vessel is one that is being propelled by machinery even if she is equipped with sails. A sailing vessel is any vessel which is being propelled by sail alone.
  113. 113. Q.6. What is the definition of ―underway?‖
  114. 114. Q.6. What is the definition of ―underway?‖ A.6. Any vessel not at anchor; moored to a buoy or dock or not aground
  115. 115. Q.7. What additional white light must be shown for vessels 50 meters or more in length?
  116. 116. Q.7. What additional white light must be shown for vessels 50 meters or more in length? A.7. A range light
  117. 117. Q.8. Name the colors of the lights used aboard ships.
  118. 118. Q.8. Name the colors of the lights used aboard ships. A.8. White, red, and green (and amber for special circumstances)
  119. 119. Q.9. What color is the masthead light?
  120. 120. Q.9. What color is the masthead light? A.9. White
  121. 121. Q.10. State the colors of the port and starboard sidelights.
  122. 122. Q.10. State the colors of the port and starboard sidelights. A.10. Red on the port, green on the starboard
  123. 123. Q.11. Why are special rules made for lights on naval vessels?
  124. 124. Q.11. Why are special rules made for lights on naval vessels? A.11. Construction and mission requirements
  125. 125. Q.12. What is the meaning of one short blast of a ship's whistle in international waters?
  126. 126. Q.12. What is the meaning of one short blast of a ship's whistle in international waters? A.12. I am changing course to starboard.
  127. 127. Q.13. What is the whistle signal for danger?
  128. 128. Q.13. What is the whistle signal for danger? A.13. Five or more short blasts
  129. 129. Q.14. What is the meaning of one short blast of a ship’s whistle in inland waters?
  130. 130. Q.14. What is the meaning of one short blast of a ship’s whistle in inland waters? A.14. It is a signal of intention to pass port to port and only executed if acknowledged by the other vessel.
  131. 131. Q.15. When is a vessel required to fly the national ensign upside down as a signal?
  132. 132. Q.15. When is a vessel required to fly the national ensign upside down as a signal? A.15. Never
  133. 133. Q.16. According to the rules, what is the vessel called that must take action in any given situation?
  134. 134. Q.16. According to the rules, what is the vessel called that must take action in any given situation? A.16. Give-way
  135. 135. Q.17. Briefly explain what the Rule of Good Seamanship states.
  136. 136. Q.17. Briefly explain what the Rule of Good Seamanship states. A.17. A ship's master must exercise professional judgment and may deviate from the rules if a possible dangerous situation arises
  137. 137. Q.18. In a crossing situation, which vessel is the stand-on vessel?
  138. 138. Q.18. In a crossing situation, which vessel is the stand-on vessel? A.18. The vessel to the starboard of the other
  139. 139. Q.19. In a meeting situation, which vessel is the stand-on vessel?
  140. 140. Q.19. In a meeting situation, which vessel is the stand-on vessel? A.19. Neither, they are both designated give-way vessels
  141. 141. Q.20. In an overtaking situation, which vessel is the stand-on vessel?
  142. 142. Q.20. In an overtaking situation, which vessel is the stand-on vessel? A.20. The vessel being overtaken (passed)
  143. 143. Q.21. What signal must a vessel sound if, when rounding a bend, it is unable to see for at least ½ mile?
  144. 144. Q.21. What signal must a vessel sound if, when rounding a bend, it is unable to see for at least ½ mile? A.21. A prolonged blast of its whistle (4 to 6 seconds)
  145. 145. Q.22. What do two short blasts of a ship's whistle signal in international waters?
  146. 146. Q.22. What do two short blasts of a ship's whistle signal in international waters? A.22. Changing course to port
  147. 147. Q.23. What do three short blasts of a ship's whistle signal?
  148. 148. Q.23. What do three short blasts of a ship's whistle signal? A.23. Engine backing (going astern)
  149. 149. Q.24. In conditions of reduced visibility, what signal does a power-driven vessel underway and making way sound?
  150. 150. Q.24. In conditions of reduced visibility, what signal does a power-driven vessel underway and making way sound? A.24. One prolonged blast at least every 2 minutes
  151. 151. Range Light The white light on the aftermast of vessels 50 meters or more
  152. 152. Sidelights Either of two lights carried by a vessel underway at night, a red one on the port side and a green one on the starboard
  153. 153. Day Shape (Black Ball) A metal ribbing roughly oval in shape, over which canvas is stretched
  154. 154. Obstructed View 1 Prolong Blast
  155. 155. Change of Status I (leaving a dock or berth) N 1 prolong blast L A N D R U L E S
  156. 156. Leaving a Dock or Berth in Reverse I N 1 prolonged blast, (change of status) then 3 short blasts, (making sternway) L A N D R U L E S
  157. 157. VESSEL AT ANCHOR
  158. 158. At night, ―Red over red, the captain is dead‖ may help you remember the vessel is not under command. VESSEL NOT UNDER COMMAND
  159. 159. VESSEL AGROUND
  160. 160. VESSEL TOWING ASTERN, TOW LENGTH MORE THAN 200 METERS ASTERN
  161. 161. SAILING VESSEL UNDER POWER
  162. 162. VESSEL ENGAGED IN FISHING
  163. 163. VESSEL ENGAGED IN FISHING, GEAR EXTENDING MORE THAN 150 METERS
  164. 164. VESSEL CONSTRAINED BY DRAFT
  165. 165. VESSEL ENGAGED IN MINESWEEPING
  166. 166. VESSEL RESTRICTED IN ABILITY TO MANEUVER
  167. 167. VESSEL RESTRICTED IN ABILITY TO MANEUVER, OBSTRUCTION EXISTS ON SIDE WITH TWO BALLS
  168. 168. Meeting Two Short Blasts Situation Starboard to Starboard I N Give-way L Vessel A N Give-way Vessel D Meeting One Short Blast Situation Port to Port R U Give-way L Vessel E Give-way S Vessel
  169. 169. Crossing Situation I One Short Blast N Port to Port L A In inland waters, N starboard-to- starboard passing D is authorized only if ships are not R meeting end-on U and safe passage L is assured E without any S maneuvering.

×