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World War I Virtual Museum

World War I Virtual Museum

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Transcript

  • 1. Great War Museum Next Room
  • 2. Causes of WWI Nationalism Imperialism Next Room
  • 3. Trench Warfare Next Room
  • 4. Why the U.S entered WWI Submarine Warfare Next Room
  • 5. General Pershing U.S. in WWI Next Room
  • 6. Nationalism • Nationalism – Pride in your country • Pan-German Movement – The hope to unite all German speaking people • Pan-Slavic Movement – The hope to unite all Slavic speaking people • Example: Bosnia-95% speak Slavic, yet it’s controlled by German speaking Austria.
  • 7. Imperialism • Imperialism – Competing for Colonies • European nations were competing for land • They believed that “Bigger is better” • Example: Africa, Bosnia, Allsace &Lorraine
  • 8. Militarism • Militarism – Building up the military • Military was built up for two reasons 1. Protect their colonies 2. Peer Pressure • They used a mandatory draft to accomplish this • Russia had the largest army, Germany had the best trained, and Britain had the largest navy
  • 9. Alliances • Alliances – Forming partnerships with other nations • Central Powers: Germany, Austria, Ottoman Empire • Allies: Britain, France, Russia, U.S
  • 10. Trench Warfare • To protect their positions and to cut down on losses both sides dug trenches • At night, supplies were brought in and scouts were sent out • At dawn/dusk attacks came: hit them with artillery and then go over the top – Went through barbwire, machinegun fire, craters • Problems in the trenches: mud, rats, smell, body rot, cold, maggots, diseases
  • 11. Sinking of the Lusitania • Lusitania- a passenger ship that was secretly carrying ammunitions • A German submarine sunk the ship • 1,198 passengers died (128 were Americans) • President Wilson demanded that the Germans apologize and pay for the damages
  • 12. Unrestricted Submarine Warfare • Sussex pledge – Germany promised not to sink merchant ships without first warning them & rescuing passengers • By 1917 Germany is defeating Russia on the Eastern front, they want a quick victory on the western front • To do this they use Unrestricted Submarine Warfare – Sinking all ships headed towards Allied Nations
  • 13. Zimmerman Note • Zimmerman was a German official • He sent a letter to Mexico asking them to attack the United States • In exchange he promised that Germany would aid them in retrieving some of the land that we took from them.
  • 14. U.S. in WWI • General Pershing led the U.S. troops • By 1917 Germany controlled: Belgium, Italy, & North France – Now Germany can concentrate on the western front • By July, 1918 the U.S. had 1 million troops in war
  • 15. U.S. in WWI (cont.) • We cut off the German rail lines which supply their troops – We attack through the Argonne forest. It takes us 47 days & 1.2 million soldiers, but we cut off their supply • By October 1918 German lines are crumbling • In November the Allies have captured the high ground & Germany surrenders • The 11th hour, 11th day, 11th month in 1918 the war ends
  • 16. Treaty of Versailles 1. Created new countries • Russia: Poland, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia • Austria-Hungary: Austria, Hungary, Czech, Yugoslavia • Ottoman Empire: Divided up between the Allies
  • 17. Treaty of Versailles (Cont.) 1. Punished Germany • Must take full responsibility for the war • Pay for the war, $33 billion 2. Created the league of nations • Organization of countries designed to maintain peace and stability
  • 18. Exit Treaty of Versailles