• Pan-German; Groups who wanted to unite all
German speaking people.
• Pan-Slavic; Unite all Slavic speaking people.
– Bosnia- 95% speak Slavic language yet controlled
by a German speaking Austria.
• European countries are competing for
• “Bigger is better.”
• Areas of conflict: Africa, Bosnia, Alsace,
• Military was built for two reasons.
– To protect their colonies.
– Peer Pressure.
They used a mandatory draft. Russia had the largest
Army, Germany had the best trained and Britain
had the largest Navy.
• Central Powers:
– Ottoman Empire
– United States
• Alliances- Forming partnership with other
• Problems in trenches: Mud, Rats, Smell, Body
Rot, Cold, Staying dry, Maggots, Lice, Disease.
• To protect their positions & to cut down on
losses. Both sides dug trenches.
• At Night supplies were brought in & scouts were
• At dawn / dusk attacks came : hit them with
artillery & then go over the top.
• Had to go through barbwire, machine gun fire
• Sinking of the Lusitania
– It was a passenger ship that was secretly carrying ammunitions.
– 1,198 passengers died. (128 were Americans)
– President Wilson demanded that Germany apologized pay for damage.
• Unrestricted submarine warfare
– Germany promised not to sink merchant ships without first warning them and
rescuing the passengers.
– By 1917 Germany is defeating Russia on the eastern front, they want a quick
victory on the western front
– They do this they use unrestricted submarine warfare.
– Sinking All ships headed towards allied nations.
• Zimmermann Note
– Zimmerman was a German Official.
– He sent a letter to Mexico asking them to attack the United States.
– In exchange he promised that Germany would Aid them in retrieving some of
the land that we took from them.
-German pershing led the
U.S. troops. -We attack through the
Argonne Forest. It takes
-By 1917 Germany controlled U.S. 47 days and 1.2
Belgium, Italy, and N. million soldiers but we cut
France. of their supply.
-Now Germany can -By October 1918 German
concentrate on the lines are crumbling.
-In November the Allies have
-By July 1918 the U.S. have 1 captured the high ground
million troops in the war. and Germany surrenders.
-We cut off the German rail -The 11th day of the 11th
lines which supply their month in 1918 war ends!
Treaty Of Versailies
• New Nations Created. • Germanys Punishment
– Russia =Finland, Latvia, - Germany must accept full
Lithuanian, Estonia, and responsibility. They took away
Poland. their colonies, coal field and the
– Austria-Hungary= areas of Alsace and Lorraine.
Austria, Hungary, - Greatly reduced Germanys
Yugoslavia. Forced them to pay 33 billion to
– Ottoman Empire- the allies.
Divided up to be -They were only able to pay 4.5
controlled by the allies. billion dollars.
•Create the league of Nations
-An organization of nations established at the end
of WWI to maintain world stability.