Nationalism- pride in your country
Imperialism- competing for colonies
Militarism- building up of the military
Alliances- forming partnerships with other
Why the U.S.
The hope to unite all German speaking people
Pan Slavic movement
The hope to unite all Slavic (Russian) speaking
Ex. Bosnia 95% speak Slavic language yet it is
controlled by German speaking Austria
European nation were competing for land.
They believed that bigger is better in terms of
Ex. Africa, Bosnia, Lorraine.
Military was built up for two reasons.
One, to protect their colonies.
Two, peer pressure.
They used a mandatory draft to accomplish
Russia had the largest army, Germany the best
trained, and Britain had the largest navy but
the smallest army.
Forming partnerships with other nations.
Central powers: Germany, Austria, Ottoman
Allies: Britain, France, Russia, and the United
Trench warfare was used to protect their positions
and to cut down on losses. Both sides of the battle
field dug trenches.
At night supplies were brought in and scouts were
sent out across the battle field.
At dawn attacks came. They hit them with
If an enemy solider got to your trench they would
have to get through barbed wire and heavy
machinegun fire before reaching you.
There were many problems in the trenches such as
mud, rats, smell, body rot, cold, staying dry,
maggots, lice and disease.
Trench foot was a common problem. Trench
foot happened to men who’s feet were in the
water at the bottom of the trenches all day
long. The men’s feet would eventually start to
rot away and become very gruesome.
1. Sinking of the Lusitania which was a passenger ship that
was secretly carrying ammunitions. A German submarine
sunk the ship and 1,198 passengers died and 128 of them
2. Unrestricted submarine warfare. The Sussex pledge,
Germany promised not to sink merchant ships without first
warning them and rescuing passenger. By 1917 Germany is
defeating Russia on the eastern front, they wanted a quick
victory on the western front. To do this they used
unrestricted submarine warfare, sinking all ships headed
towards allied nations.
3. Zimmermann note, Zimmermann was a German official.
He sent a letter to Mexico asking them to attack the U.S. in
exchange he promised that Germany would aid them in
retrieving some of the land that we took from them.
General Pershing led the U.S. troops. By 1917
Germany controlled all of Belgium, Italy, and
Northern France. 1918 Russia has a revolution and
they drop out of the war. Now Germany can
concentrate on the western front. By July 1918 the
U.S. have 1 million troops in the war. We cut off
the German rail lines which supplied their troops.
We attacked through the Argonne forest, it takes
us about 47 days and 1.2 million soldiers but we
cut of their supplies. By October of 1918 German
lines are crumbling, in November the allies have
captured the high ground and German surrenders.
On the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month
in 1918 the treaty is signed and the war ends.
Created new countries: Russia created Poland,
Finland, Latria, Lithuania, and Estonia.
Ottoman Empire: divided up between the allies
Punished Germany: Germany had to take full
responsibility for the war and they also had to
pay the 33 billion dollars that the war coast.
Created the League of Nation. An organization
of countries that was designed to maintain
peace and stability.