History of computers


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History of computers

  1. 1. The History of Computers
  2. 2. The Abacus• 1200 A.D.• The Chinese used theabacus, a hand-heldwooden device withrows of beads, to add,subtract, divide, andmultiply.
  3. 3. 1834• Charles Babbageinvented his AnalyticalEngine in 1834, a largedevice that usedmemory, programming,and stored data by wayof punched cards tocalculate numbers.
  4. 4. 1920’s• Expanding on many ofBabbage’s concepts,Herman Hollerithfounded InternationalBusiness Machines(IBM) in 1924 out of 4companies.• Hollerith was born inBuffalo, New York andattended City College.
  5. 5. Herman Hollerith• His tabulating machinewhich included the keyconcept that data couldbe coded numerically.His machine is the firstto use electricity.
  6. 6. Herman Hollerith• Hollerith card puncherwhich used punchedholes to encode data bythe U.S. Census Bureaustarting in 1890.• Results from the Censusnow were tabulate inhours vs. 7 years totabulate (the 1880 censustook that long!)• Used by the Nazis to trackprisoners in out ofconcentration camps.
  7. 7. 1930’s• A wave of researchproduced an electroniccomputer that couldstore data digitally as 0sand 1s, a vastimprovement overmechanical machinesthat operated on gears.
  8. 8. George Boole• The work of Englishmathematician GeorgeBoole was a key tofurther development. Bymeans of determiningthat all mathematicalcalculations can be statedas either true or false,Boole defined the binarysystem – to be used by allfuture computers.• He is known as the“Father of Thought”.
  9. 9. George Boole• Binary System –• Uses 0 and 10 = 01 = 12 = 103 = 114 = 1005 = 1016 = 1107 = 1118 = 10009 = 100110 = 101011 = 101112 = 110013 = 110114 = 111015 = 111116 = 1000017 = 1000118 = 1001019 = 1001120 = 10100Boolean Logic –Boolean logic consists ofthree logical operators:ORANDNOT
  10. 10. Bit and Bytes• The word bit is a shortening ofthe words "Binary digIT."• Bits are rarely seen alone incomputers. They are almostalways bundled together into 8-bit collections, and thesecollections are called bytes. Whyare there 8 bits in a byte? Asimilar question is, "Why arethere 12 eggs in a dozen?" The 8-bit byte is something that peoplesettled on through trial and errorover the past 50 years.• With 8 bits in a byte, you canrepresent values as shown here:• 0 = 00000000• 1 = 00000001• 2 = 00000010
  11. 11. Watch BrainPop on Binaryhttp://www.brainpop.com/technology/computersandinternet/binary/preview.weml
  12. 12. Bits and Bytes• What is a Byte?• A byte is the unit mostcomputers use to representa character such as a letter,number, or typographicsymbol (for example, "g","5", or "?"). A byte isabbreviated with a "B".• Computer storage is usuallymeasured in byte multiples.• For example, an 820 MBhard drive holds a nominal820 million bytes - ormegabytes - of data.• KB- Kilobyte - 1024 bytesmake one KB• MB- Megabyte - 1024 KBmake one MB• GB- Gigabyte - 1024 MBmake one GB
  13. 13. Bit and Bytes• What is a "kilobyte"?• 1024 Bytes = 1 KB• What is a "megabyte"?• 1024 KB = 1 MB• What is a ”gigabyte”?• 1,000,000,000 bytes: onebillion bytes• What is a "terabyte"?• 1,000,000,000,000bytes: one trillion bytes• 1 TB USB FlashDrive =$94.95• 1 GB USB FlashDrive =$15.00• 1 MB USB FlashDrive =$2.05
  14. 14. What does "USB" stand for?• Acronym for UniversalSerial Bus• It is a type of connectorwhich allows the user toattach peripheral devices tohis computer. It is the mostused connection point fordata transfer in the world.It was created in the mid-1990s. A standard usbconnector is a simple socketwith 4 pins : one for power,one for ground and two fordata transfer.
  15. 15. Vacuum Tube Computers
  16. 16. Colossus - developedto decrypt secretGerman codedmessages duringWorld War II. It usedvacuum tubes andpaper tape and couldperform Boolean logic(yes/no, true/false)
  17. 17. 1940’s• Second-generationcomputers operated viatransistors, which weremuch smaller andenergy efficient thanvacuum tubes.
  18. 18. 1950’s• ASCII was establishedas the first standard• industry computerlanguage based uponthe English alphabet.• ASCII - The AmericanStandard Code forInformationInterchange
  19. 19. 1960’s• The integrated circuit becamethe standard computertechnology, using manytransistors and electroniccircuits on a single semi-conducting chip. This led tosmaller, faster, and morepowerful computers, as wellas the first network and initialInternet concepts. In 1965,Lawrence Roberts of MITconnected a computer inMassachusetts to a computerin California using a dial-uptelephone connection.
  20. 20. 1970’s - Present• The modern era of themicroprocessor – aphenomenalbreakthrough first used inthe Apple II andCommodore personalcomputers. Furtheradvancements on themicroprocessor (CPU) andthe Internet have broughtabout a world poweredand connected bycomputer technology.
  21. 21. The Intel 4004The first commercial microprocessor• Microprocessors operate onnumbers and symbolsrepresented in the binarynumeral system.• The advent of low-costcomputers on integrated circuitshas transformed modern society.General-purpose microprocessorsin personal computers are usedfor computation, text editing,multimedia display, andcommunication over the Internet.Designed by Ted Hoff in 1971,and which led to the• development of themicrocomputer industry.
  22. 22. BrainPop “Computers”http://www.brainpop.com/technology/computersandinternet/computer/preview.weml
  23. 23. Steve Jobs(February 24, 1955 – October 5, 2011)• Was an American entrepreneur andinventor, best known as the co-founder, chairman, and CEO of AppleInc. Through Apple, he was widelyrecognized as a charismatic pioneerof the personal computer revolutionand for his influential career in thecomputer and consumer electronicsfields, transforming "one industryafter another, from computers andsmartphones to music and movies..."• Jobs also co-founded and served aschief executive of Pixar AnimationStudios; he became a member of theboard of directors of The Walt DisneyCompany in 2006, when Disneyacquired Pixar.
  24. 24. Bill Gates• William Henry "Bill" GatesIII (born October 28, 1955)is an American businessmagnate, investor,programmer, inventor andphilanthropist. Gates is theformer chief executive andcurrent chairman ofMicrosoft, the world’slargest personal-computersoftware company, whichhe co-founded with PaulAllen. He remains atMicrosoft as non-executivechairman.
  25. 25. WWW• The World Wide Web(abbreviated as WWW orW3, commonly known asthe web), is a system ofinterlinked hypertextdocuments accessed via theInternet. With a webbrowser, one can view webpages that may containtext, images, videos, andother multimedia, andnavigate between them viahyperlinks.• British engineer, computerscientist and at that timeemployee of the CERN, SirTim Berners-Lee, nowDirector of the World WideWeb Consortium (W3C),wrote a proposal in March1989 for what wouldeventually become theWorld Wide Web
  26. 26. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1mpohDyNOxA
  27. 27. The Future• Three areas of newtechnology are artificialintelligence (machinesthat imitate humanthinking and behavior),nanotechnology (cell-sized computerprocessors), andmembrane technology&data processed withinorganic, living tissuecells).http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8KRZX5KL4fA
  28. 28. Nanotechnologyhttp://science.howstuffworks.com/462-how-nanotechnology-works-video.htm
  29. 29. Membrane TechnologyMembrane separation processes are influencing -1. Heating systems2. Water filtration3. Food processing4. Pharmaceutical5. Medicine (artificial kidneys, artificial lungs)UCSF bioengineering Professor Shuvo Roy holds a prototype model of an implantable artificial kidney that he and his research team aredeveloping at the universitys Mission Bay campus.Read more: http://www.sfchronicle.com/health/article/Kidney-designers-take-cues-from-nature-4458059.php#ixzz2RmiN6XBQA device that achieves carbon dioxide/oxygengas exchange could allow patients morefreedom when awaiting a lung transplant
  30. 30. Forbes Magazine Article - 3/12/135 Trends that will Drive the Power of Technology1. No-Touch InterfaceMicrosoft KinectGoogles Project Glass,Apple Siri,
  31. 31. 2. Native ContentThe new digital battlefield will be fought in theliving room, with Netflix, Amazon, Microsoft, Google,Apple and the cable companies all vying to produce adominant model for delivering consumer entertainment.
  32. 32. 3. Massively OnlineIn the last decade, massively multiplayer online games such as World ofWarcraft became all the rage. Rather than simply play against thecomputer, you could play with thousands of others in real time.Now other facets of life are going massively online. Khan Academyoffers thousands of modules for school age kids, Code Academy can teacha variety of programming languages to just about anybody and the latestiteration is Massively Online Open Courses (MOOC’s) that offeruniversity level instruction. (For a good example, see here).The massively online trend has even invaded politics, with PresidentObama recently reaching out to ordinary voters through Ask Me Anythingon Reddit and Google Hangouts.
  33. 33. http://www.google.com/+/learnmore/hangouts/
  34. 34. 4. The Web of ThingsSmartphonesSmartcars
  35. 35. QR Codes - Quick Response CodeIs the trademark for a type of matrix barcode (or two-dimensional bar code) first designed for theautomotive industry in Japan created in 1994. Bar codes are optical machine-readable labelsattached to items that record information related to the item.A QR code is read by an imaging device, such as a camera, and formatted algorithmically by underlyingsoftware using Reed-Solomon error correction until the image can be appropriately interpreted.
  36. 36. 5. Computer Driven SupercomputingCompanies ranging from IBM to Google to Microsoft areracing to combine natural language processing with hugeBig Data systems in the cloud that we can access fromanywhere.