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  • Among a thousand other challenges!!!!!
  • Hopefully, we know where we are going when we begin a class or unit! (focused teaching!!!) Thus, shouldn ’ t we know the road to take before we start?
  • H-out from wkbk pp. 65,66,72
  • Hand-outs: wkbk p. 83, 88, 92
  • Referred to by others as KUD….
  • Have template (blank and with example available at this point) as well as Standards for self-assessment -ex within book p. 22-28 -we don ’ t want to HOPE for learning!

EDSS 620 Day 2 EDSS 620 Day 2 Presentation Transcript

  • Lesson Design Universal Design for Learning (UDL); Understanding by Design (UbD); Differentiated Instruction (DI); Learning Styles Day Two EDSS_620 Summer 2013
  • Universal Design for Learning
  • Universal Design for Learning… UDL is a learning theory that has been developed by Rose and Meyer, that strives to ensure that the learning environment, including curriculum, assessment and teaching and learning tools promote learning and remove barriers to learning. http://youtu.be/aaSZqgr2eUM
  • UDL
  • CAST & UDL http://www.cast.org/udl/index.html
  • Differentiated Instruction…  DI looks at the how and where we teach our students, focusing on the best practices for each learner. In addition to content expectations is the difficulty of meeting the diverse needs of today’s classroom  Languages, culture, gender, economic disparity, motivation, disability, personal interests and learning styles as well as home environments are just some of the many variables that students bring to school with them.  These variables can render ineffective even the best curriculum if the diverse needs of the class are not met. Suggested Readings- Carole Tomlinson
  • Universal Design for Learning  Tomlinson & McTighe (2007) both use the metaphor of a sailboat  This metaphor could be extended. UbD is the final destination for this sailboat. DI allows each of the sailors to demonstrate their competence. "UDL" ensures that the boat itself is capable of the trip and free of obstacles that might interfere with the achievement of the goal.
  • Traditional design is like setting out on a trip and not knowing where you are going And not knowing how you will know when you get there Textbook Teacher’s favorite topic/book Time-honored activities
  • Backward Design “To begin with the end in mind means to start with a clear understanding of your destination. It means you know where you’re going…so the steps you take are always in the right direction”
  • What is backward design? It’s thinking about assessment before Deciding how you teach BEFORE Planning instruction How will the student prove he/she understands..?
  • It seems backward because rather than creating assessments near the end of a unit of study (or relying on textbook tests) we determine assessment evidence as we begin to plan a unit
  • Determine and prioritize desired results Create the assessment before planning instruction!
  • Curriculum Planning Key Concept: The textbook or novel is not the course of study The textbook or novel is only a resource that supports the desired results They are tools – not the syllabus Coverage is like marching through the textbook
  • Identify desired results Determine acceptable evidence Plan learning experiences & instruction Culminating Project or Performance task
  • Why plan for assessment before planning instruction?
  • Challenges… We teach so that others may understand. Our challenges: Finding time to ‘teach all standards’ and maintain the rigor (teaching for understanding - not just ‘to cover’) Making lessons meaningful Engaging students in the learning process
  • Understanding… The underlying assumption is that understandings are constructed in the minds of the learner. Understanding is the ability to transfer learning to new, different and unique experiences.” -Wiggins
  • Old saying…. “If you don’t know exactly where you are headed, then any road will get you there.”
  • Three Stages of UbD Stage 1: Identify the Desired Results Unpack the learning, prioritize learning goals, determine expectations …. Clarify Learning Outcomes – what must the student know at the end of the unit/lesson? It is here we need to ask ourselves, "What are the enduring understandings that the students must obtain?”
  • “Let the main ideas which are introduced into a child’s education be few and important, and let them be thrown into every combination possible.” -Whitehead, 1929
  • How to Use Backward Design – Stage 1 Use national, state, or provincial content standards as a starting point. “Unpack” the nouns and verbs in the standards to point to the “big ideas” Use the template as a tool for developing a coherent, purposeful, and efficient design for learning.
  • A Big Idea … (bottom line) It’s the central and organizing notion. It’s the core idea in a subject It has lasting value and transfers to other inquiries and requires uncovering because it is not obvious.
  • Big ideas Concepts adaptation, perspective Themes good triumphs over evil, coming of age Paradoxes freedom must have limits, leave home to find oneself Theory manifest destiny, evolution Underlying assumptions markets are rational, text have meaning Understanding/Principle correlation does not ensure cause, form follows function examples
  • To what extent does the idea, topic, or process represent a “big idea” having enduring value beyond the classroom? Enduring understandings go beyond discrete facts or skills to focus on larger concepts, principles, or processes. As such, they are applicable to new situations within or beyond the subject. For example, we study the enactment of the Magna Carta as a specific historical event because of its significance to a larger idea. That idea is the rule of law, whereby written laws specify the limits of a government's power and the rights of individuals—concepts such as due process. This big idea transcends its roots in 13th century England to become a cornerstone of modern democratic societies. Does a student need to know this in adult life?
  • Essential Questions Have no simple ‘right answer; they are meant to be argued and discussed (discovered, uncovered) Designed to provoke and sustain inquiry Often address the foundational or historical issues of a subject Lead to more questions Naturally come back again when learning Encourage ongoing re-thinking of big ideas, assumptions, prior learning (transference…) Could be overarching or topical
  • Understandings  Frame the desired understanding as a full-sentence generalization in response to the phrase, “Students will understand that…”  Beware of stating an understanding as a truism or vague generality. (Triangles have 3 sides – truism or vague generality?- The U.S. is a complex country – truism or vague generality?) – Check to see your stated understandings don’t end with an adjective (i.e. fractions are important)  Avoid the phrase, “Students will understand how to…”  “Understanding is the ability to transfer learning to new, different, and unique experiences” - Wiggins
  • Knowledge… What we want students to know Vocabulary Terminology Definitions Key factual information Formulas Critical details Important events and people Sequence and timeline
  • Skills…What we want students to be able to do Basic skills – decoding, arithmetic computation Communication skills – listening, speaking, writing Thinking skills – compare, infer, analyze, interpret Research, inquiry, investigation skills Study skills – notetaking Interpersonal group skills
  • Standards Use Bloom’s Taxonomy to help understand what each standard is requiring and help ensure that standards, lessons, and assessments are aligned. Big Ideas are found in the nouns and adjectives of the standard. Stated or implied real-word performance is found in the verbs.
  • Standards Rather than stating that students will learn.. the taxonomy helps clarify specifically
  • 2nd Component: Essential Questions “To question means to lay open, to place in the open. Only a person who has questions can have real understanding.” Hans-Georg Gadamer, 1994
  • Essential Questions … Have no simple ‘right answer; they are meant to be argued and discussed (discovered, uncovered) Designed to provoke and sustain inquiry Often address the foundational or historical issues of a subject Lead to more questions Naturally come back again when learning Encourage ongoing re-thinking of big ideas, assumptions, prior learning (transference…) Could be overarching or topical
  • Which is the best EQ in each example? What is foreshadowing? OR How does foreshadowing help you understand a story? What is a linear equation? OR How do you use linear equations to solve real world problems?
  • Essential Questions…
  • 3rd Component - Desired Outcomes Determine the Learning Goal (standard) Clarify specifically what the student will know, understand, and be able to do (unpack the standards)
  •  Stage 1: Identify the Desired Results Stage 2: Determine Acceptable Evidence What evidence could be used to document and validate the learning that has been achieved Evidence is gathered throughout the learning time - includes formative and not only summative assessments  Stage 3: Plan learning experiences and instruction
  • Stage #2 Assessment Evidence Performance Task or Culminating Activity provides evidence that students are able to use their knowledge in context This is the time to create the task.
  • It’s authentic if: Task set in a scenario that replicates or simulates real-world situations
  • The Swimming SchoolThe Swimming School Tune:Tune: ““On Top of Old SmokyOn Top of Old Smoky”” Last year I decidedLast year I decided To be fit and trimTo be fit and trim So I took a class called,So I took a class called, ““LetLet’’s Learn How to Swims Learn How to Swim”” The classroom was tidy,The classroom was tidy, the textbook was coolthe textbook was cool It had colored pictures of folks in a pool.It had colored pictures of folks in a pool. Written by Jean Spanko
  • I read every chapter, I read every lineI read every chapter, I read every line I did all the worksheets- success would be mine.I did all the worksheets- success would be mine. The teacher said,The teacher said, ““First thing,First thing, WeWe’’ll learn not to drown.ll learn not to drown. II’’d suggest you take notes now,d suggest you take notes now, ‘‘Cause this is profound.Cause this is profound. The test will be Friday, itThe test will be Friday, it’’s fill-in-the-blanks fill-in-the-blank I grade on the bell curveI grade on the bell curve To see where you rank.To see where you rank.”” Swimming School, pg. 2Swimming School, pg. 2 Written by Jean Spanko
  • Well, wonder of wonders,Well, wonder of wonders, I got the best scoreI got the best score So now I was ready to swim shore to shore.So now I was ready to swim shore to shore. I rushed to the poolI rushed to the pool Which was right down the blockWhich was right down the block I jumped in the water and sank like a rock.I jumped in the water and sank like a rock. The lifeguard who saved meThe lifeguard who saved me Was not too impressedWas not too impressed When I showed my grade cardWhen I showed my grade card That proved I was best.That proved I was best. Swimming School, pg. 3Swimming School, pg. 3 Written by Jean Spanko
  • He said,He said, ““SwimmingSwimming’’s a pattern of kicking and strokess a pattern of kicking and strokes But you have no program, your class was a hoax.But you have no program, your class was a hoax.”” So now ISo now I’’m enrolled inm enrolled in ““LetLet’’s Learn How to Knit,s Learn How to Knit,”” II’’m making a muu-muu~m making a muu-muu~ Forget being fit!Forget being fit! Swimming School, pg. 4Swimming School, pg. 4 Written by Jean Spanko
  • It’s authentic if: It requires judgment and innovation Has to use skills wisely/effectively to address challenges or solve problems. The realistic challenges require the learner to figure out the nature of the problem Not reciting, restating, regurgitating How would an adult truly use this in real life?
  • Performance Tasks and Projects As complex challenges that mirror the issues and problems faced by adults, they are authentic. Ranging in length from short-term tasks to long-term, multi-staged projects, they require a production or performance. They differ from prompts because they •Feature a setting that is real or simulated: one that involves the kind of constraints, background noise, incentives, and opportunities an adult would find in a similar situation. •Typically require the student to address an identified audience. •Are based on a specific purpose that relates to the audience. •Allow the student greater opportunity to personalize the task. •Are not secure. Task, criteria, and standards are known in advance and guide the student's work.
  • Criteria for evaluation Culminating Activity/Project Rubric
  • Rubrics are given to the student when the task is assigned- Danielson ranks “highly proficient” teachers as those who have the students create the rubrics! Determine the criteria by: Establish the BEST, the EXEMPLARY Define the lowest level of performance Identify what is between the top & bottom Be sure that the collected assessment evidence fits with and confirms the desired results outlined in the first step!
  • Rubistar…. http://rubistar.4teachers.org/
  • Why Assess? Assessments are not just to provide a ‘grade’ Purpose of assessment:  Determine if learner ‘got it’……Gather evidence which demonstrates learning outcomes were achieved  Help teachers determine extent of student understanding  Guide next steps of instructions  Provide appropriate scaffolding/differentiated instruction for students throughout the learning experience  Provide feedback to stakeholders (students/parents)
  • Depth of Knowledge Adapted from the model used by Norman Webb, University of Wisconsin, to align standards with assessments. Focuses on content standard in order to successfully complete an assessment item/task.
  •  Stage 1: Identify the Desired Results  Stage 2: Determine Acceptable Evidence Stage 3: Plan learning experiences and instruction What specific content and skills must be ‘taught’ to achieve desired results? What is the best way to ‘teach’ the content and skills? (order and delivery) What resources will we need? How much time might be required for learning? "Reduce your plan to writing... The moment you complete this, you will have definitely given concrete form to the intangible desire." - Napoleon Hill
  • Stage 3… The general guideline is to determine how to make the learning process engaging and effective given the desired results and the evidence needed.
  • Lasting thought …. “For any subject taught in primary school, we might ask [is it] worth an adult’s knowing, and whether having known it as a child makes a person a better adult. A negative or ambiguous answer means the material is cluttering up the curriculum.” Jerome Bruner (Cognitive Psychologist), 1960