Defining Addiction
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Defining Addiction

Defining Addiction

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  • 1. National Campaign My India, Addiction Free India DEFINING ADDICTION Medical Wing (Rajayoga Education & Research Foundation) PRAJAPITA BRAHMA KU MARIS ISHWARIYA VISHWA VIDYALAYA Ever Healthy Hospital, Shantivan Complex Abu Road, Rajasthan © 2013 Medical Wing of Rajayoga Education & Research Foundation. All rights reserved.
  • 2. Definition of Addiction Addiction is a primary, chronic disease of brain reward, motivation, memory and related circuitry. Dysfunction in these circuits leads to characteristic biological, psychological, social and spiritual manifestations. This is reflected in an individual pathologically pursuing reward and/ or relief by substance use and other behaviors. © 2013 Medical Wing of Rajayoga Education & Research Foundation. All rights reserved.
  • 3. Medical Definition of Addiction Addiction is a persistent, compulsive dependence on a behavior or substance. The term has been partially replaced by the word dependence for substance abuse. Addiction has been extended, however, to include mood-altering behaviors or activities. © 2013 Medical Wing of Rajayoga Education & Research Foundation. All rights reserved.
  • 4. Characteristics of Addiction > Inability to consistently Abstain > Impairment in Behavioral control > Craving > Diminished recognition of problems > A dysfunctional Emotional response. © 2013 Medical Wing of Rajayoga Education & Research Foundation. All rights reserved.
  • 5. Diagnosis of Addiction > loss of willpower > harmful consequences > unmanageable lifestyle > tolerance or escalation of use > withdrawal symptoms upon quitting © 2013 Medical Wing of Rajayoga Education & Research Foundation. All rights reserved.
  • 6. Dependency Physical dependency on a substance is defined by the appearance of characteristic withdrawal symptoms when the substance is suddenly discontinued. Psychological dependency is a dependency of the mind, and leads to psychological withdrawal symptoms such as cravings, irritability, insomnia, depression, anorexia etc) © 2013 Medical Wing of Rajayoga Education & Research Foundation. All rights reserved.
  • 7. DSM - IV Substance Dependence Criteria DSM - IV criteria for substance dependence include several specifiers, one of which outlines whether substance dependence is with physiologic dependence (evidence of tolerance or withdrawal) or without physiologic dependence (no evidence of tolerance or withdrawal). © 2013 Medical Wing of Rajayoga Education & Research Foundation. All rights reserved.
  • 8. DSM - IV Substance Dependence Criteria 1. Tolerance, as defined by either of the following: (a) A need for markedly increased amounts of the substance to achieve intoxication or the desired effect or (b) Markedly diminished effect with continued use of the same amount of the substance. © 2013 Medical Wing of Rajayoga Education & Research Foundation. All rights reserved.
  • 9. DSM - IV Substance Dependence Criteria 2. Withdrawal, as manifested by either of the following: (a) The characteristic withdrawal syndrome for the substance or (b) The same (or closely related) substance is taken to relieve or avoid withdrawal symptoms. © 2013 Medical Wing of Rajayoga Education & Research Foundation. All rights reserved.
  • 10. DSM - IV Substance Dependence Criteria 3. The substance is often taken in larger amounts or over a longer period than intended. 4. There is a persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control substance use. 5. A great deal of time is spent in activities necessary to obtain the substance (such as visiting multiple doctors or driving long distances), use the substance (for example, Chain - smoking), or recover from its effects. © 2013 Medical Wing of Rajayoga Education & Research Foundation. All rights reserved.
  • 11. DEIV - lI Substance Dependence Criteria 6. Important social, occupational, or recrea-tional activities are given up or reduced because of substance use. 7. The substance use is continued despite knowledge of having a persistent physical or psychological problem that is likely to have been caused or exacerbated by the substance (for example, current cocaine use despite recognition of cocaine-Induced depression or continued drinking despite recognition that an ulcer was made worse by alcohol consumption). © 2013 Medical Wing of Rajayoga Education & Research Foundation. All rights reserved.
  • 12. Stages of Drug Addiction First Stage: Preoccupation/ Anticipation An overwhelming urge to use the drug of choice preoccupies the user despite other events, responsibilities or relationships in his or her life. irritability, agitation, fatigue, depression and difficulty concentrating are the warning signs that something is out of balance. © 2013 Medical Wing of Rajayoga Education & Research Foundation. All rights reserved.
  • 13. Stages of Drug Addiction Second Stage: Binge/ Intoxication As the drug is introduced into the body more frequently, larger amounts are necessary to continue experiencing the same high. To increase that feeling, excessive indulgence of the drug (binging) pushes the effects of intoxication to dangerous levels. © 2013 Medical Wing of Rajayoga Education & Research Foundation. All rights reserved.
  • 14. Stages of Drug Addiction Third Stage: Withdrawal] Negative Effect The withdrawal symptoms experienced anytime the drug is not present cause tremendous suffering if not managed by a caring medical professional. © 2013 Medical Wing of Rajayoga Education & Research Foundation. All rights reserved.
  • 15. Withd rawal/ Negative Affect >Agitation, anxiety, panic >lnsomnia, depression, paranoid thinking >Fatigue, muscle pain, feeling shaky >Headaches, dizziness, seizures >Nausea, vomiting, chills, cramps >Shakes, sweats, tremors >Psychotic reactions © 2013 Medical Wing of Rajayoga Education & Research Foundation. All rights reserved.
  • 16. Personality Traits of Addiction >Suffer from anxiety and depression >Appear anxious >Seem awkward, impatient, arrogant or angry >Ask for narcotic medications without a valid reason >Making impulsive choices >Constant| y seeking excitement and new sensations >Fee| ing alienated from mainstream society >Va| uing deviant or nonconformist behavior >Lacking patience © 2013 Medical Wing of Rajayoga Education & Research Foundation. All rights reserved.
  • 17. Antisocial Personality Disorder >Constant| y breaking the law >Acting cunning/ dishonest >Fai| ing to plan ahead >Acting irritable or aggressive, and getting into fights >Behaving recklessly/ putting other people in danger >Fai| ing to hold a job or keep up responsibilities >Lacking remorse for wrong-doing © 2013 Medical Wing of Rajayoga Education & Research Foundation. All rights reserved.
  • 18. Borderline Personality Disorder People with this disorder have trouble maintaining healthy relationships. Typical traits include: >Fear of abandonment >A pattern of unstable relationships >A tendency to see people as either wonderful or awful >Poor self-image >lmpulsivity >Suicida| or self-harming behavior, such as cutting >lntense moods which change fairly rapidly >lnappropriate or uncontrollable anger >Paranoia © 2013 Medical Wing of Rajayoga Education & Research Foundation. All rights reserved.
  • 19. Personality Traits of Addiction in Teens Researchers hoping to prevent addiction have studied teenagers to see if certain personality traits predict addiction. Studies suggest a higher risk of drug addiction or teen drinking among teens who: >Are popular socially, but do poorly in school >Have low self-esteem >Seem to lack inhibitions >Refuse to accept authority >Lie, cheat, steal or destroy others‘ property >Act aggressively or violently toward people or animals © 2013 Medical Wing of Rajayoga Education & Research Foundation. All rights reserved.
  • 20. General Behaviors in Addiction >The substance becomes more important than almost anything else. >Lie about their whereabouts or who they're with >Spend their savings or money that belongs to a friend, spouse or child to get more alcohol or drugs. >Become defensive or angry if the addiction is addressed. >Fee| guilty and go through periods of remorse during which they decide to get help, only to relapse later. © 2013 Medical Wing of Rajayoga Education & Research Foundation. All rights reserved.
  • 21. A Word of Caution Regarding Addictive Personality Traits >Every addict is different >Whi| e some people with addictions behave recklessly, seem depressed or make poor decisions, others are able to carry on their lives amazingly well. >Looking for personality traits of addiction can help you decide if friends or loved ones have a problem, but it won't tell you for sure whether they're an addict. >A| so, just because a person has some of the personality traits of addiction doesn't mean they are, or will become, an addict. >Doctors do consider certain traits to be warning signs, but that's all they are. >No personality trait guarantees addiction. © 2013 Medical Wing of Rajayoga Education & Research Foundation. All rights reserved.
  • 22. Characteristics of Addiction Compulsive use Loss of control Using more of the substance than intended © 2013 Medical Wing of Rajayoga Education & Research Foundation. All rights reserved.
  • 23. THANK Y/ our © 2013 Medical Wing of Rajayoga Education & Research Foundation. All rights reserved.