Ob12 karp&anastos 1

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Ob12 karp&anastos 1

  1. 1. POWER : ITS USES AND ABUSES IN ORGANIZATIONS Ben Karp & Alexandra Anastos 10/26/2011
  2. 2. POWER: Its Uses and Abuses in Organizations <ul><li>Influence : A Basic Organizational Process </li></ul><ul><li>Individual Power : Sources and Uses </li></ul><ul><li>Empowerment : Sharing Power with Employees </li></ul><ul><li>The Power of Organizational Groups </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual Harassment : A Serious Abuse of Power </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational Politics : Selfish Uses of Power </li></ul>Power : The capacity to exert influence over others.
  3. 3. POWER: Its Uses and Abuses in Organizations <ul><li>Define the nature of influence in organizations and its major forms. </li></ul><ul><li>Distinguish between various forms of individual power in organizations. </li></ul><ul><li>Define empowerment and indicate how it operates among individuals and in teams. </li></ul>ANASTOS
  4. 4. Influence: A Basic Organizational Process <ul><li>Social Influence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involves doing something that affects someone else in one way or another </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influence whether the attempt was successful or not </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the workforce, managers must seek to change others’ behavior in a manner consistent with organizational objectives. </li></ul></ul>ANASTOS
  5. 5. Influence: A Basic Organizational Process <ul><li>Tactics for Exerting Influence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rational persuasion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inspirational appeals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaboration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consultation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integration: getting the target to do what you want by putting him/her in a good mood or getting him/her to like you </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exchange </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal Appeal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coalition-building </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legitimating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressuring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>*Outside of the organization, corporations use these tactics, but they will use other tactics. </li></ul></ul>ANASTOS
  6. 6. Influence: A Basic Organizational Process <ul><li>Effective Manager Influence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Managers need to be effective influencers to: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Persuade subordinates to put forth effort </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Persuade higher-ups to consider your views </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Persuade subordinates and peers to assist you </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beneficial for the corporation as a whole </li></ul></ul>ANASTOS
  7. 7. Individual Power: Sources and Uses <ul><li>Power: The capacity to exert influence over others. </li></ul><ul><li>Two Sources of Individual Power: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Position Power: Power deriving from job or title within the organization. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal Power: Power deriving from a person’s unique qualities or characteristics. </li></ul></ul>ANASTOS
  8. 8. Individual Power: Sources and Uses <ul><li>Position Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Legitimate Power : Power based on the fact that others recognize and accept your authority. Applies only to a range of power. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reward Power : Power to control the rewards others want to receive. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coercive Power : Power resulting from the capacity to control punishment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information Power : Power based on the data and knowledge at their disposal. </li></ul></ul>ANASTOS
  9. 9. Individual Power: Sources and Uses <ul><li>Personal Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rational Persuasion : People who are effective at influencing others through the strength of their logical arguments. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expert Power : People who have advanced or expert knowledge. Those able to use it are extremely powerful. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Referent Power : Power based on the fact that one is admired or respected by others. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Charisma : Power based on a powerful, magnetic and contagious personality. </li></ul></ul>ANASTOS
  10. 10. Individual Power: Sources and Uses <ul><li>How Is Individual Power Used? </li></ul>ANASTOS
  11. 11. Empowerment: Sharing Power with Employees <ul><li>Empowerment : Process of delegating authority to individuals at the lowest level in an organization at which competent decisions can be made. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Passing power from managers to employees. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires managers to share expert information. </li></ul></ul>ANASTOS
  12. 12. Empowerment: Sharing Power with Employees <ul><li>Central Steps to Empowerment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information sharing : Providing potentially sensitive information on costs, productivity, quality, and financial performance to employees throughout the organization. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Autonomy through boundaries : Using organizational practices that encourage self-ruling action by employees, including work procedures, areas of responsibility, and goals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Team accountability : Ensuring that both decision-making authority and performance accountability reside in teams. </li></ul></ul>ANASTOS
  13. 13. Empowerment: Sharing Power with Employees <ul><li>Empowerment in Teams </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Empowerment climate : A relatively enduring atmosphere in the workplace that is supportive of empowerment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More strongly organizations encourage holding teams accountable, information sharing, etc. = higher empowerment climate. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High empowerment climate = increased importance of team performance. </li></ul></ul></ul>ANASTOS
  14. 14. Empowerment: Sharing Power with Employees <ul><li>Empowerment Climate in Action: </li></ul>ANASTOS
  15. 15. Article: Empowering Employees <ul><li>Sources of Employee Empowerment at Whole Foods: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employees vote every 3 years on their benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employees vote on new team members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regional managers design new stores instead of borrowing ideas from corporate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual stores determine what items are stocked based on local tastes and goods </li></ul></ul>ANASTOS Mackey, John, Whole Foods. &quot;Empowering Employees.&quot; http:// www.successmagazine.com/. N.p., 12 Feb. 2009. Web. 24 Oct. 2011. <http://www.successmagazine.com/Empowering- Employees/PARAMS/article/591/channel/19>. “ Happy team members create happy customers, and happy customers create happy investors.... Make sure the people you work with are able to self-actualize themselves to the greatest degree possible so they can advance, make more money, learn and grow on the job.” – John Mackey
  16. 16. POWER: Its Uses and Abuses in Organizations <ul><li>Describe the models that explain the nature of power between organizational units. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe how sexual harassment constitutes an abuse of organizational power and ways of reducing its occurrence. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe when and where organizational politics occur and the forms such behavior takes. </li></ul>KARP
  17. 17. The Power of Organizational Groups <ul><li>Tendency for power within organizations to be distributed unequally across different departments or subunits. What are the sources of such power ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resource-Dependency Model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic Contingencies Model </li></ul></ul>KARP
  18. 18. The Power of Organizational Groups <ul><ul><li>Resource-Dependency Model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Greater control of resources the department has = the greater power the department will yield. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Power is extracted by the departments that contribute and control the most resources. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>KARP
  19. 19. The Power of Organizational Groups <ul><ul><li>Strategic Contingencies Model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic Contingency : The extent that a department is able to control the relative power of various subunits by its actions . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uncertainty: The degree to which the subunit is able to reduce uncertainty. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Centrality: The degree to which the unit has a key impact on others because it has to be consulted and because its activities have immediate effects on the organization. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Non-substitutable: The degree to which it is the only unit that can perform its particular duties. </li></ul></ul></ul>KARP
  20. 20. Sexual Harassment: A Serious Abuse of Power <ul><li>Sexual Harassment : Unwelcome sexual advances, requests for favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of sexual nature when it affects employment or interferes with work performance, or creates a hostile or offensive work environment. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Harasser’s conduct must always be unwelcome. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Almost always about power . Usually a more powerful person giving unwanted sexual attention to a less powerful person. </li></ul></ul>KARP
  21. 21. Sexual Harassment: A Serious Abuse of Power <ul><li>Major Forms of Sexual Harassment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quid pro quo : Harasser requires sexual favors in exchange for some tangible conditions, privileges, or terms of employment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hostile environment : Harasser creates negative or unwanted conditions which affects a person’s ability to work affectively and comfortably. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Also includes when management fails to prevent such actions among employees. </li></ul></ul></ul>KARP
  22. 22. Sexual Harassment: A Serious Abuse of Power <ul><li>Occurrence : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Estimated 42% of women and 15% of men are victims of sexual harassment at some point. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>95% of all sexual harassment goes unreported. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing awareness of sexual harassment in the workplace has lead it to not being a growing problem, but it still remains quite serious. </li></ul></ul></ul>KARP
  23. 23. Sexual Harassment: A Serious Abuse of Power <ul><li>Costs : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Financial : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To the company– Higher absenteeism, higher employee turnover, lower productivity, increased health care costs (relatively minor), decline in moral, decline in reputation. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To the victim– Humiliation, loss of dignity, psychological (and sometimes physical) injury, damage to professional reputation and career. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To the victim– Headaches, sleeplessness, various stress-related disorders. </li></ul></ul></ul>KARP
  24. 24. Sexual Harassment: A Serious Abuse of Power <ul><li>How to Manage : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As a manager, it’s beneficial to take steps to prevent sexual harassment. Ways to prevent: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Have a clear policy on sexual harassment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Train employees about what constitutes inappropriate behavior towards others </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make sure there’s an effective complaint procedure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Take immediate steps to stop harassment if/when it does occur to ensure it doesn’t reoccur </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contribute personally to a positive and supportive environment </li></ul></ul></ul>KARP
  25. 25. Organizational Politics: Selfish Uses of Power <ul><li>Organizational Politics : Use of power to foster one’s own interest without regard for the well-being of others in the organization. </li></ul>KARP
  26. 26. Organizational Politics: Selfish Uses of Power <ul><li>Political Behavior Forms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gaining control over selective use of information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultivating a favorable impression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Building powerful coalitions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>*Blaming and attacking others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Associating with powerful others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating obligations </li></ul></ul>KARP
  27. 27. Organizational Politics: Selfish Uses of Power <ul><li>Factors Influencing Politics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal Determinants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational Determinants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human Resource Management Activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large Multinational Corporations </li></ul></ul>KARP
  28. 28. Organizational Politics: Selfish Uses of Power <ul><li>Personal Determinants of Organizational Politics: Some people are more likely to exchange in organizational politics than others. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Social Chameleons ”: People who figure out what behaviors are acceptable in their organization and thusact in that manner. </li></ul></ul>KARP
  29. 29. Organizational Politics: Selfish Uses of Power <ul><li>Organizational Determinants of Organizational Politics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ambiguous/ conflicting goals and roles of people in the organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>History of political activity in organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scarce resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly centralized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low on empowerment </li></ul></ul>KARP
  30. 30. Organizational Politics: Selfish Uses of Power <ul><li>Politics in Human Resource Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance appraisal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personnel selection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compensation decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pay raise decisions </li></ul></ul>KARP
  31. 31. Organizational Politics: Selfish Uses of Power <ul><li>Impact of Organizational Politics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Benefits the individual but negatively affects other people and the organization itself. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Job satisfaction down </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Job commitment down </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Voluntary turnover rate up </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Employees feel less supported </li></ul></ul></ul>KARP
  32. 32. Article: KARP

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