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  • 1. POWER : ITS USES AND ABUSES IN ORGANIZATIONS Ben Karp & Alexandra Anastos 10/26/2011
  • 2. POWER: Its Uses and Abuses in Organizations
    • Influence : A Basic Organizational Process
    • Individual Power : Sources and Uses
    • Empowerment : Sharing Power with Employees
    • The Power of Organizational Groups
    • Sexual Harassment : A Serious Abuse of Power
    • Organizational Politics : Selfish Uses of Power
    Power : The capacity to exert influence over others.
  • 3. POWER: Its Uses and Abuses in Organizations
    • Define the nature of influence in organizations and its major forms.
    • Distinguish between various forms of individual power in organizations.
    • Define empowerment and indicate how it operates among individuals and in teams.
    ANASTOS
  • 4. Influence: A Basic Organizational Process
    • Social Influence
      • Involves doing something that affects someone else in one way or another
      • Influence whether the attempt was successful or not
      • In the workforce, managers must seek to change others’ behavior in a manner consistent with organizational objectives.
    ANASTOS
  • 5. Influence: A Basic Organizational Process
    • Tactics for Exerting Influence
      • Rational persuasion
      • Inspirational appeals
      • Collaboration
      • Consultation
      • Integration: getting the target to do what you want by putting him/her in a good mood or getting him/her to like you
      • Exchange
      • Personal Appeal
      • Coalition-building
      • Legitimating
      • Pressuring
      • *Outside of the organization, corporations use these tactics, but they will use other tactics.
    ANASTOS
  • 6. Influence: A Basic Organizational Process
    • Effective Manager Influence
      • Managers need to be effective influencers to:
        • Persuade subordinates to put forth effort
        • Persuade higher-ups to consider your views
        • Persuade subordinates and peers to assist you
      • Beneficial for the corporation as a whole
    ANASTOS
  • 7. Individual Power: Sources and Uses
    • Power: The capacity to exert influence over others.
    • Two Sources of Individual Power:
      • Position Power: Power deriving from job or title within the organization.
      • Personal Power: Power deriving from a person’s unique qualities or characteristics.
    ANASTOS
  • 8. Individual Power: Sources and Uses
    • Position Power
      • Legitimate Power : Power based on the fact that others recognize and accept your authority. Applies only to a range of power.
      • Reward Power : Power to control the rewards others want to receive.
      • Coercive Power : Power resulting from the capacity to control punishment.
      • Information Power : Power based on the data and knowledge at their disposal.
    ANASTOS
  • 9. Individual Power: Sources and Uses
    • Personal Power
      • Rational Persuasion : People who are effective at influencing others through the strength of their logical arguments.
      • Expert Power : People who have advanced or expert knowledge. Those able to use it are extremely powerful.
      • Referent Power : Power based on the fact that one is admired or respected by others.
      • Charisma : Power based on a powerful, magnetic and contagious personality.
    ANASTOS
  • 10. Individual Power: Sources and Uses
    • How Is Individual Power Used?
    ANASTOS
  • 11. Empowerment: Sharing Power with Employees
    • Empowerment : Process of delegating authority to individuals at the lowest level in an organization at which competent decisions can be made.
      • Passing power from managers to employees.
      • Requires managers to share expert information.
    ANASTOS
  • 12. Empowerment: Sharing Power with Employees
    • Central Steps to Empowerment:
      • Information sharing : Providing potentially sensitive information on costs, productivity, quality, and financial performance to employees throughout the organization.
      • Autonomy through boundaries : Using organizational practices that encourage self-ruling action by employees, including work procedures, areas of responsibility, and goals.
      • Team accountability : Ensuring that both decision-making authority and performance accountability reside in teams.
    ANASTOS
  • 13. Empowerment: Sharing Power with Employees
    • Empowerment in Teams
      • Empowerment climate : A relatively enduring atmosphere in the workplace that is supportive of empowerment.
        • More strongly organizations encourage holding teams accountable, information sharing, etc. = higher empowerment climate.
        • High empowerment climate = increased importance of team performance.
    ANASTOS
  • 14. Empowerment: Sharing Power with Employees
    • Empowerment Climate in Action:
    ANASTOS
  • 15. Article: Empowering Employees
    • Sources of Employee Empowerment at Whole Foods:
      • Employees vote every 3 years on their benefits
      • Employees vote on new team members
      • Regional managers design new stores instead of borrowing ideas from corporate
      • Individual stores determine what items are stocked based on local tastes and goods
    ANASTOS Mackey, John, Whole Foods. &quot;Empowering Employees.&quot; http:// www.successmagazine.com/. N.p., 12 Feb. 2009. Web. 24 Oct. 2011. <http://www.successmagazine.com/Empowering- Employees/PARAMS/article/591/channel/19>. “ Happy team members create happy customers, and happy customers create happy investors.... Make sure the people you work with are able to self-actualize themselves to the greatest degree possible so they can advance, make more money, learn and grow on the job.” – John Mackey
  • 16. POWER: Its Uses and Abuses in Organizations
    • Describe the models that explain the nature of power between organizational units.
    • Describe how sexual harassment constitutes an abuse of organizational power and ways of reducing its occurrence.
    • Describe when and where organizational politics occur and the forms such behavior takes.
    KARP
  • 17. The Power of Organizational Groups
    • Tendency for power within organizations to be distributed unequally across different departments or subunits. What are the sources of such power ?
      • Resource-Dependency Model
      • Strategic Contingencies Model
    KARP
  • 18. The Power of Organizational Groups
      • Resource-Dependency Model
        • Greater control of resources the department has = the greater power the department will yield.
          • Power is extracted by the departments that contribute and control the most resources.
    KARP
  • 19. The Power of Organizational Groups
      • Strategic Contingencies Model
      • Strategic Contingency : The extent that a department is able to control the relative power of various subunits by its actions .
        • Uncertainty: The degree to which the subunit is able to reduce uncertainty.
        • Centrality: The degree to which the unit has a key impact on others because it has to be consulted and because its activities have immediate effects on the organization.
        • Non-substitutable: The degree to which it is the only unit that can perform its particular duties.
    KARP
  • 20. Sexual Harassment: A Serious Abuse of Power
    • Sexual Harassment : Unwelcome sexual advances, requests for favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of sexual nature when it affects employment or interferes with work performance, or creates a hostile or offensive work environment.
      • Harasser’s conduct must always be unwelcome.
      • Almost always about power . Usually a more powerful person giving unwanted sexual attention to a less powerful person.
    KARP
  • 21. Sexual Harassment: A Serious Abuse of Power
    • Major Forms of Sexual Harassment:
      • Quid pro quo : Harasser requires sexual favors in exchange for some tangible conditions, privileges, or terms of employment.
      • Hostile environment : Harasser creates negative or unwanted conditions which affects a person’s ability to work affectively and comfortably.
        • Also includes when management fails to prevent such actions among employees.
    KARP
  • 22. Sexual Harassment: A Serious Abuse of Power
    • Occurrence :
        • Estimated 42% of women and 15% of men are victims of sexual harassment at some point.
        • 95% of all sexual harassment goes unreported.
        • Increasing awareness of sexual harassment in the workplace has lead it to not being a growing problem, but it still remains quite serious.
    KARP
  • 23. Sexual Harassment: A Serious Abuse of Power
    • Costs :
      • Financial :
        • To the company– Higher absenteeism, higher employee turnover, lower productivity, increased health care costs (relatively minor), decline in moral, decline in reputation.
      • Psychological :
        • To the victim– Humiliation, loss of dignity, psychological (and sometimes physical) injury, damage to professional reputation and career.
      • Health :
        • To the victim– Headaches, sleeplessness, various stress-related disorders.
    KARP
  • 24. Sexual Harassment: A Serious Abuse of Power
    • How to Manage :
      • As a manager, it’s beneficial to take steps to prevent sexual harassment. Ways to prevent:
        • Have a clear policy on sexual harassment
        • Train employees about what constitutes inappropriate behavior towards others
        • Make sure there’s an effective complaint procedure
        • Take immediate steps to stop harassment if/when it does occur to ensure it doesn’t reoccur
        • Contribute personally to a positive and supportive environment
    KARP
  • 25. Organizational Politics: Selfish Uses of Power
    • Organizational Politics : Use of power to foster one’s own interest without regard for the well-being of others in the organization.
    KARP
  • 26. Organizational Politics: Selfish Uses of Power
    • Political Behavior Forms
      • Gaining control over selective use of information
      • Cultivating a favorable impression
      • Building powerful coalitions
      • *Blaming and attacking others
      • Associating with powerful others
      • Creating obligations
    KARP
  • 27. Organizational Politics: Selfish Uses of Power
    • Factors Influencing Politics
      • Personal Determinants
      • Organizational Determinants
      • Human Resource Management Activities
      • Large Multinational Corporations
    KARP
  • 28. Organizational Politics: Selfish Uses of Power
    • Personal Determinants of Organizational Politics: Some people are more likely to exchange in organizational politics than others.
      • “ Social Chameleons ”: People who figure out what behaviors are acceptable in their organization and thusact in that manner.
    KARP
  • 29. Organizational Politics: Selfish Uses of Power
    • Organizational Determinants of Organizational Politics
      • Ambiguous/ conflicting goals and roles of people in the organization
      • History of political activity in organization
      • Scarce resources
      • Highly centralized
      • Low on empowerment
    KARP
  • 30. Organizational Politics: Selfish Uses of Power
    • Politics in Human Resource Management
      • Performance appraisal
      • Personnel selection
      • Compensation decisions
      • Pay raise decisions
    KARP
  • 31. Organizational Politics: Selfish Uses of Power
    • Impact of Organizational Politics
      • Benefits the individual but negatively affects other people and the organization itself.
        • Job satisfaction down
        • Job commitment down
        • Voluntary turnover rate up
        • Employees feel less supported
    KARP
  • 32. Article: KARP