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  • 1. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint® Lecture Slide Presentation prepared by Christine L. Case Microbiology AN INTRODUCTION EIGHTH EDITION TORTORA • FUNKE • CASE Chapter 21, part B Microbial Diseases of the Skin and Eyes
  • 2. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Smallpox (Variola) • Smallpox virus (Orthopox virus) • Variola major has 20% mortality • Variola minor has <1% mortality • Monkeypox • Prevention by smallpox vaccination Poxviruses Figure 21.9
  • 3. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Varicella-zoster virus (Human herpes virus 3) • Transmitted by the respiratory route • Causes pus-filled vesicles • Virus may remain latent in dorsal root ganglia Herpesviruses Figure 21.10a
  • 4. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Reactivation of latent HHV-3 releases viruses that move along peripheral nerves to skin. Shingles Figure 21.10b
  • 5. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Human herpes virus 1 and HHV-2 • Cold sores or fever blisters (vesicles on lips) • Herpes gladiatorum (vesicles on skin) • Herpes whitlow (vesicles on fingers) • Herpes encephalitis (HHV-2 has up to a 70% fatality rate) • HHV-1 can remain latent in trigeminal nerve ganglia • HHV-2 can remain latent in sacral nerve ganglia • Acyclovir may lessen symptoms Herpes simplex 1 and Herpes simplex 2
  • 6. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Measles virus • Transmitted by respiratory route • Macular rash and Koplik's spots • Prevented by vaccination • Encephalitis in 1 in 1000 cases • Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in 1 in 1,000,000 cases Measles (Rubeola) Figure 21.14
  • 7. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Measles (Rubeola) Figure 21.13
  • 8. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Rubella virus • Macular rash and fever • Congenital rubella syndrome causes severe fetal damage • Prevented by vaccination Rubella (German Measles) Figure 21.15
  • 9. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings • A 1905 list of skin rashes included #1- measles, #2-scarlet fever, #3-rubella, #4- Filatow-Dukes (mild scarlet fever), and #5- • Fifth Disease • Human parvovirus B19 produces milk flu-like symptoms and facial rash • Roseola • Human herpesvirus 6 causes a high fever and rash, lasting for 1-2 days
  • 10. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Dermatomycoses: tineas or ringworm • Metabolize keratin • Trichophyton infects hair, skin, nails • Epidermophyton infects skin and nails • Microsporum infects hair and skin • Treatment • Oral griseofulvin • Topical miconazole Cutaneous Mycoses
  • 11. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cutaneous Mycoses Figure 21.16
  • 12. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Sporotrichosis • Sporothrix schenckii enters puncture wound • Treated with KI Subcutaneous Mycoses
  • 13. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Candida albicans (yeast) • Candidiasis may result from suppression of competing bacteria by antibiotics • Occurs in skin; mucous membranes of genitourinary tract and mouth • Thrush is an infection of mucous membranes of mouth • Topical treatment with miconazole or nystatin Candidiasis
  • 14. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Candidiasis Figure 21.17
  • 15. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Sarcoptes scabiei burrows in the skin to lay eggs • Treatment with topical insecticides Scabies Figure 21.18
  • 16. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Pediculus humanus capitis (head louse) • P. h. corporis (body louse) • Feed on blood • Lay eggs (nits) on hair • Treatment with topical insecticides Pediculosis Figure 21.19
  • 17. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Conjunctivitis (pinkeye) • Haemophilus influenzae • Various microbes • Associated with unsanitary contact lenses • Neonatal gonorrheal ophthalmia • Neisseria gonorrhoeae • Transmitted to newborn's eyes during passage through the birth canal • Prevented by treatment newborn's eyes with antibiotics Microbial Diseases of the Eye
  • 18. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Chlamydia trachomatis • Inclusion conjunctivitis • Transmitted to newborn's eyes during passage through the birth canal • Spread through swimming pool water • Treated with tetracycline • Trachoma • Greatest cause of blindness worldwide • Infection causes permanent scarring; scars abrade the cornea leading to blindness Microbial Diseases of the Eye
  • 19. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Microbial Diseases of the Eye Figure 21.20
  • 20. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Herpetic Keratitis • Herpes simplex virus 1 (HHV-1) • Infects cornea, may cause blindness • Treated with trifluridine • Acanthamoeba keratitis • Transmitted from water • Associated with unsanitary contact lenses Microbial Diseases of the Eye
  • 21. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Microbial Diseases of the Eye Figure 21.21